Herzberg proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as theÂ Two factor theoryÂ (1959) of job satisfaction. According to his theory, people are influenced by two factors: Satisfaction, Which is first and foremost the result of theÂ motivator factors; these factors help magnify satisfaction but have slight effect on dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is principally the result of hygiene factors. These factors, if inadequate or absent, cause dissatisfaction but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
Herzberg's wrote in his theory that hygiene factor and motivational factor are the two major element associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction of an individuals. (J. Beckford, 2002).
The F V Herzberg's Motivation Theory describe in first phase that there are various elements "intrinsic" at job which guides to satisfaction, the element which causes as motivator as well as the confidence, progression, recognition and responsibility, all these factors impel positive impression on employees about their work.
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Herzberg's declare satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees as two detach dimensions, the researchers argued that there is effortlessness in its practical and broad implementation, (Ford, 1969; Maher, 1971, Smith, 1997, Balmer and Baum, 1993).
Herzberg`s work has influenced thinking in organisational behaviour and management. Its most enduring benefit is its focus on the effects of company systems and job design on employee's motivation and job satisfaction. Job design refers to how work is structured and how much employees control their work decisions. Before Herzberg`s theory employee motivation was thought to be simple function of pay (extrinsic reward). His theory expanded the set of available incentives to include intrinsic rewards. He also clarified the motivation satisfaction puzzle by framing the difference between hygiene's and motivators as well as their differing effects on satisfaction and motivation. We now know that concentration on hygiene factors will not ensure that organisations have creative, involved, productive and motivated employees.
Benefits of Herzberg`s work as influenced thinking in organisational behaviour and management. Its most enduring benefit is its focus on the effect of company systems and job design on employee's motivation and job satisfaction. Job design refers to how work is structured.
Hygiene (maintenance) factors
Motivators (growth) factors
Company polices and administration
Relationships with employs
Good working conditions
Control &Interesting work
Herzberg's motivation theory argued by Huber (2006), it is observed that Motivation is perched on the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of job.
Tow factor theory of motivation has been criticized by Campbell and Pritchard (1976) that Herzberg's theory was presenting more significance to employee satisfaction, as compare to motivation resulting from job satisfaction and job performance of the employees.
Herzberg's (1966), declared that it is possible for the managers in the multicultural workforce to revolutionize hygiene factors at any time for employees satisfaction according to circumstance and situation.
It is argued by House and Lawrence (1967) that hygiene factors (extrinsic motivation) would be effectively sustained by administration to avoid the dissatisfaction among employees otherwise they would have to face contrary affects.
The Vroom (1964) theory of motivation has developed into a frequently accepted theory for explaining how multicultural workforce individuals make decision regarding diverse behavioural alternatives.
Professor Vroom described the following propositions of the expectancy theory:
When deciding among behavioural option, individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF)
The motivational forces for positive course of behaviour, action or task is fundamentally function of three perception, such as Expectancy, instrumentality, and valence, the motivational force is principally the product of three perception.
Outcomes in Expectancy Theory:
Expectancy theory has two kind of outcome. First level outcomes are the consequence of expending effort in some directed way. Imperative first level outcomes at work would be job performance, coming late to work, leaving or accepting a position and working at home. These outcomes are important to organisations and they have profound effects on employees. Second level outcomes occur after first level outcomes and are the direct result of achieving or not achieving first level outcomes. Examples of second level outcomes include getting a promotion being transferred receiving recognitions, obtaining a pay rise and attending a tainting programme. Employees assign valences to each type of outcome.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
FIRST LEVEL OUTCOME
SECOND LEVEL OUTCOMES
New high status title
Purchase a new town house
Become a member of
delivered on time
and it saves the
Porter And Lawler Frame Work Model Of Motivation:
1) Volume of
4) Abilities and Traits
5) Role perception
7) Intrinsic Reward
8) Perceived equitability reward
7b) extrinsic Reward
Porter and Lawler's develop the Vroom expectancy-valence theory (see fig 1.3) by means of using the same fundamental model of expectancy theory, commence from the efforts 3) immediately to performance attainment 6) the outcomes will be intrinsic rewards 7A) or extrinsic reward 7B) that in order escort to satisfaction 9).Porter and Lawler classify that value of reward 1) and apparent effort reward persuade the attempt of an individual's, furthermore the relationship among effort 3) and Performance accomplishment is subjective by role perception 6) in addition to abilities and traits 4) within the organisations. Porter et al. frame work model be on familiar terms with that the both type of intrinsic or extrinsic rewards significant from performance might possibly not identical to the reward which individuals perceived they should have received by professed equitable rewards 8), high performance escort to high predicted reward, the instantly and logline in fig1.3 exemplify the connection among self rated performance and perceive equitable rewards 8). An individual can gain satisfaction in multicultural workforce when he received rewards exceed the expectation. The conclusion of porter et al. model is that an individual can get both types of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards because of their outstanding performances in multicultural workforce of DHCC.
Fig. 1.3: The Porter and Lawler Motivation Model
This model emphasizes that the foremost purpose of the multicultural workforce is to work for getting both categories of intrinsic (recognition) and extrinsic rewards (money). It is also essential assumption that employee in the DHCC will expect fairness and equality in rewards and furthermore perceive as companionable as evaluate to the effort they were made. The fundamental confidence of this model that an employee of DHCC who put his effort to accomplish expected outcome from his assignment must have the prospective and aptitude to perform that task, and it is also very essential that the DHCC employee who putting effort for the assignment must be perfect and unambiguous for the assignment.
Porter and Lawler frame work model of motivation was criticised by Rollinson (2008), that it is absolutely concentrate on rewards (tangible rewards) to multicultural workforce and link it to employee motivation, although ignoring the statement that what would be the consequences if workforce would have the identical impact in case of promotion and relegation.
Abraham Harold MaslowÂ (1908-1970) Theory:
Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970), described the theory of hierarchy of needs in his book "MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY" he perceived that some needs take precedence over others. For example If an individual thirsty and hungry at the same time, both the needs are equally important to survive but person priority will be take care of thirst first, because without food an individual be able to survive for couple of weeks nevertheless cannot survive without water for a couple of days. Accordingly it is concluded that thirst have "stronger" need than "hunger".
Fig. 3: Hierarchy of needs Model diagram
Abraham Maslow shaped his famous theory of hierarchy of needs, beyond the details ofÂ fundamental needs such as food, water and air; he introduced a layer of five broader needs for multicultural workforce, these are self-actualization, esteem needs, belonging needs, safety and security needs, and physiological needs. These are explained as follows;
A: Physiological need: clothes, food, thirst, shelter, the need for oxygen, sleep, sensory and sensual pleasure.
B: Safety needs, multicultural workforce will become progressively more interested in finding safe and sound circumstances, protection, and stability.Â DHCC workforce might expand a need for structure, for order, some limits.
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C: Belonging needs: sense of belonging, friendship, social activities, affection.
D: Esteem need: Maslow illustrious two editions of esteem needs for multicultural workforce, an inferior one and a superior one.Â An inferior one is the need for the admiration of others, fame, the need for status, glory, appreciation, recognition, reputation, dignity, attention even dominance.Â The superior form engages the need for self-confidence and respect, including such feelings as competence, independence, mastery, achievement, and freedom.
E: Self actualisation: Maslow illustrious the last level is different.Â Maslow has employed a variety of terms to consign to this level:Â He has described itÂ growth motivationÂ being needs andÂ self-actualization for multicultural workforce of DHCC.
The Impact Of Organisational Age On Work Motivation:
Organisational age indicates the years of tenure in business, expertise, career period and age standards in industry. Tenure the principal incentive method in organisation is that of tournament promotion. In this economic model employees participate to secure promotions into progressively higher compensated jobs by means of superior authority and autonomy (Carmichael 1983, et al.). Nevertheless these tournament promotions have vanished for older workforce in multicultural organisation, who has accomplish a point of compact prospects for advance promotion. However, precipitous age earning profile, which recompense younger workforce less than they are value and older workforce more than they are value, aim to present affirmative incentives for these tenured and area of stability workforce (Lazear, 1998). However, intrinsic motivation reconciled the relationship among challenging assignment content and motivation to work longer and extrinsic motivation was not associated to enthusiasm to work longer. The outcomes' suggest that DHCC should develop the content of the job for older workforce, by escalating self-sufficiency, skill diversity and challenge. Furthermore, organizations should increase prospects for promotion to encourage intrinsic motivation and enthusiasm or willingness to work longer.
Perceived (DHCC) organizational support is the point to which multicultural workforce believe that organization admires their contributions and concerns about their interests (Eisenberger, Huntington, Huntington, & Sowa, 1986). It is usually consideration to be the organization's involvement to a positive reciprocity self-motivated with workforce, as employees have a propensity to perform better to give back the support (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). In the direction of understand the relationship among organizational support and motivation for diverse workforce, the social exchange theory presents productive insights. Social exchange theory, primary propagated by Emerson (1976), has been useful by Saks (2006) to describe the resources of motivation. As per the social exchange theory, while employees interact over time, the experience they require to return the assistance and support of the other individual, known as the norm of reciprocity (Blau, 1983).
Challenges of Age Diversity in the Workplace:
Due to demographic authenticities, managers have to develop both new programmes to attract younger workforce and attract older productive workforce to delay retirement. Various organizations are finding that flexible work engagements are valuable in meeting both these challenges.
Retention for Generation X and Y:
This very distinctive and diverse group of individuals and personalities make it extremely important for human resources managers to understand their employees and to ascertain various ways to entice people to work for their company and remain devoted. Now, more than ever, human resource departments must help current public sector leaders take the lead in identifying the issues within their organization that affect the employees. Additionally, they must develop strategies to ensure the future leadership capacity of the agency.
The characteristics listed above which describe a range of generations, further highlights the significance of why public administrators must take the initiative in executing better retention methods for Generation X and Y to sustain the government's workforce future. The values most important for Generation X are a sense of belonging / team work, ability to learn new things, autonomy and entrepreneurship, security, flexibility, feedback, and short-term rewards. They tend to be sceptical of the status quo and hierarchical relationships, and believe a manager must earn respect rather than deserve it by virtue of their title. So one may ask, how should the public sector adjust to this new wave of thinking? According to Anne Gabriel, one must learn to put the proclivities of Generation X to work. Gabriel provides guidelines that seek to accomplish this, they are listed below:
1. Replace "micromanagement" with mentoring,
2. Give feedback that is regular and appropriate,
3. Acknowledge the attainment of every goal
4. Provide growth opportunities, and
5. Honour the balance between work and life
Snyderman and Mausner, (1959) described that "a demonstration of the relationship between measures of attitudes and resulting behaviours is of the first importance." Their research focused on "job attitudes factors" describing to workforce with no regard to age. Modest research has been determined on age diversities in the features contributing to preservation and motivation of workforce. Considering the reality and urgency of the need for motivation and retention of the older employees in the workforce, the magnitude of research, studies, and publications is inadequate (Hansvick and Forte, 1999).
Retention of Baby Boomers:
There must be a comprehensive approach for addressing the problems of making work for Baby Boomers more attractive. Diversity in a workforce, including age diversity, can provide competitive advantages to the public sector. Diversity of skills and experiences can increase confidence in the ability of an organization to respond to and manage well, the risks they face in increasingly complex working environments.
Age diversity in the workforce can give the public sector access to workers who better understand the preferences of those in the wider community. With an obvious case as to why to retain baby boomers in the workforce, the obvious question is how? Of course the retention process for the Baby Boomer Generation is extremely different from Generation X and Y. Ultimately; however, we must achieve significant and widespread cultural change regarding the benefits of older individuals staying in the workforce. One might assume that the retention strategies for the Baby Boomer Generation are more traditional and to a certain degree that assumption might be true. According to the Federation of Employees, some retention approaches that should be considered included:
1. Retraining for employees already working (Most often for technology jobs).
2. Retention bonus-Offering money for employees to stay.
3. Voluntary reduction in days-Employees take a cut in pay and benefits to work fewer hours.
4. Spot bonuses-These are bonuses that are offered to employees for good work or any other possibility.
On the other hand, in addition to these traditional incentives for retaining the Baby Boomers and Generation X & Y, human resource managers must provide transitional retirement options to encourage employees to continue working past the "normal" retirement age of 65. Some of the transitional retirement options suggested by the Federation of Public Employees include:
1. Part-Time Work with Full Health Care Benefits.
2. Mentoring Newer Staff before Retiring.
3. Reduced Workload until Retired.
4. Deferred retirement Option Program.
Receiving full health care benefits for part time work encourages employees to continue working past "normal retirement age, the employer offers to reduce hours for full health care benefits.
However, some employees may view this as an unfair advantage for older staff. Allowing the Baby Boomer generation to mentor newer staff before retiring also gives them a since of value and worth to the organization. In some cases, the potential retiree will remain longer when they feel that their experience is valued and supported through this type of activity.
Reduction of workload until retirement is beneficial to the employee as well as the employer. Employees' benefit from cutting back their hours while still providing the public employer with the knowledge gained over their careers. Lastly the deferred retirement option program allows the employees to "bank" or "freeze" their defined-benefit pension plan and continue working for a specific amount of time while the employer contributes to a defined contribution pension program. When the period is over, the employee has a regular pension and a pot of money through the defined-contribution program.
Following recommendations have been yield from this research study;
1. Organizations must become "incubators of knowledge", providing training opportunities to enhance, broaden; develop the skills and talents of the current as well as the future employees. These opportunities should provide avenue for Mentoring, Coaching and Specializations.
2. Organizations must respect the "focus on lifestyle" and incorporate innovative, creative and flexible work schedules, benefits and workplaces.
3. Organizations must "build teams of experts" that capitalize and utilize the skills, experience and expertise of "all" the employees in the workplace.
4. Organizations must seek flexible ways to replace primitive rules which are no longer applicable in today's workplace.
5. Succession Planning and Talent Management must become important tools in organisational life while planning for job vacancies and preparing individuals internally to assume those jobs.
6. Abandon traditional approaches to career management/development systems.
People are generally concerned withÂ motivationÂ -- how to move themselves or others to act accordingly. In every aspect of life parents, teachers, coaches, and managers struggle a lot as how to motivate those that they mentor and individuals struggle to find energy, mobilize effort and persist at the tasks of life and work. People are often moved by external factors such as reward systems, grades, evaluations, or the opinions they fear others might have of them. Â Yet just as frequently, people are motivated from within, by interests, curiosity, care or abiding values.Â These intrinsic motivations are not necessarily externally rewarded or supported, but nonetheless they can sustain passions, creativity, and sustained efforts. The interplay between the extrinsic forces acting on persons and the intrinsic motives and needs inherent in human nature is the territory of Self-Determination Theory.
(SDT) represents a broad framework for the study of human motivation and personality. SDT articulates a meta-theory for framing motivational studies, a formal theory that defines intrinsic and varied extrinsic sources of motivation, and a description of the respective roles of intrinsic and types of extrinsic motivation in cognitive and social development and in individual differences. Perhaps more importantly SDT propositions also focus on how social and cultural factors facilitate or undermine people's sense of volition and initiative, in addition to their well-being and the quality of their performance. Â Conditions supporting the individual's experience ofÂ autonomy, competence,Â andÂ relatednessÂ are argued to foster the most volitional and high quality forms of motivation and engagement for activities, including enhanced performance, persistence, and creativity. In addition SDT proposes that the degree to which any of these three psychological needs is unsupported or thwarted within a social context will have a robust detrimental impact on wellness in that setting.
The dynamics of psychological need support and need thwarting have been studied within families, classrooms, teams, organizations, clinics, and cultures using specific propositions detailed within SDT. The SDT framework thus has both broad and behaviour-specific implications for understanding practices and structures that enhance versus diminish need satisfaction and the full functioning that follows from it. These many implications are best revealed by the varied papers listed on this website, which range from basic research on motivational micro-processes to applied clinical trials aiming at population outcomes.