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With the other functions, there is the most important thing in an organization which is Human Resource Management. In Human Resource Management, there are lots of functions concluded like performance management, safety, communication, organizational development, wellness, training and administration, employee motivation and recruitment and selection (Billsbery, 2007).
The process of recruitment and selection is the process which helps the organization to find the appropriate person for the job vacancy. In other words it is the process which identifies the job requirement, defines the job responsibilities and job position, making the advertisement of the job vacancy and select the most eligible candidate for the post advertise, is called recruitment and selection (Sharma, 1998).
Arthur (2001) defines recruitment is a process of attracting and identifying the prospective group of candidates for the job from internal sources or external sources on the other hand the selection is the process of selecting the best candidate from the recruited candidates for the position advertised.
In other author's words, the recruitment and selection is the process of collecting, determining and assessing the information as well as qualification of the candidates for the specified post of job. These practices are followed by some organizations to get the right persons with right abilities and skills at the right jobs so that the person can increase the likelihood of their organization (Folger and Cropanzano, 1998).
Denzin (1994) have an argument for the process of search for the right candidate to have the employment and encouragement to apply for the available job position in any organization is called recruitment and the selection is the process of the deciding the best applicant from the received applications for the advertised job position.
This process seems like a chain or a sequence of actions involved in the recruitment and selection of the candidates who are seeking for the job and employable applicant of the organization. All the organizations, industrialist firms, enterprises have their own well defined policies and their own ways to recruit and select and hire employees for their organization (Breakwell et al., 1995).
The quality of employees made the organization successful. If the person with right skills and right abilities have selected by the organization for the job position, then it is more likely to add the value to the organization and also if the staff is recruited at the price only which can an organization afford, it will reduce or save costs. The organization should recruit and select carefully, the employees should be retained managed carefully as they do care for the other resources as employees are the best resources for the organization (De Mers, 2002).
Sharma (1998) said that the building and sourcing of human resources to any business to achieve the objective of the organization is called recruitment and selection. The policies for the recruitment and selection system should support and in the accordance with the organizational equal opportunities policies by
There should be proper systematic and effective process for the recruitment and selection at all the stages, with the pre agreed terms and conditions, so that there should not be any bias positional to affect the decision for the recruitment.
All the documents must be put in monitoring and controlling so that they can help in making decisions.
Use the open recruitment and selection process, so that everything will be transparent to the candidates.
Today, the entire organization need to experience and start using various kinds of methodologies for job recruitment and selection in order to fulfill existing situation of the current labor market. It is found that all organizations have a distinctive methodology for recruitment and selection processes, in which the individuals or personals as applicants have to meet both the basic requirement of an employee and job vacancy specific criteria (Butcher and Clarke, 2003).
Tesco is one of the biggest Retailer employers in the United Kingdom. The company is working with more than 360000 staff's worlds. Tesco is in the need of wide verity of people working some are store based working and some are at non store job. The aim of Tesco is to figure roles of all employees must work toward achievement of its objectives. Therefore Tesco has implemented structured way process for the recruitment and selection to bring the applicant for both operational roles and managerial (Thetimes100, 2009)
ASDA is a big supermarket company in UK with retail for clothing, food, toys and merchandise. ASDA undergo through four stages for recruitment of new staff for vacant position (ASDA, 2009).
Both ASDA and TESCO are competitive supermarkets and both are moving with their own recruitment and selection program. Both are raising company with different recruitment and selection processes (Carpenter, 2009).
Richardson (2001) explained in one of his study that, Since poor recruitment and selection decision can cause negative effects in long term like more cost expenditure in minimization of incidence of poor performance, high employee turnover resulting in lowering staff moral, degradation in product and service quality and al worst, failing to achieve organizational objectives thereby becoming poorer in its competitive edge and losing its market share. He also articulated that Job market being more competitive and also due to more diversity of the available skills, recruiters are becoming more selective.
The success of any organization has secret of good recruitment and selection policy as explained in the work of (Brinkerhoff, 2009).
Better Recruitment &selection strategies always improve organizational outcomes. If an organization recruits and selects employees effectively then it is more likely to for that organization to employ and retain satisfied staffs (Rioux and Bernthal, 1999).
It is always necessary for any organization to understand each and every situation and aspects of organizational business in order to compete effectively with its
closest competitors (De Wit & Meyer, 2005).
The greatest motivational inspiration for selecting this particular topic is to collect meaning and understanding of recruitment and selection procedure in different organizations and its vital role in workable environment. ASDA and TESCO are two successful organizations and they are the rival of each other (Carpenter, 2009).
For successful accomplishment of any research project, research topic must be from the area of interest of researcher and should be available with enough data and information or evidences to support the study activities. Therefore, another rationale for approaching this study topic is that because of a good opportunity of accessing all required data for this research being an active member of HR department for two big retailers TESCO and ASDA (Malla, 2008).
1.3. Research Question:
A good research question defines the focus of your research project. It helps readers to know the specific subject matter you will be addressing. It can set boundaries to help you figure out where to go next and defines which data you need to collect and which methods you will use to access and analyze your documents (Hung & Popp, 2009).
The aim of this research is to study the role of recruitment and selection process in different organizations. Following research questions are being set to achieve this objective:
What is the current scenario of recruitment and selection in different organization?
Do the organizational development are mostly due to its recruitment and selection criteria or due to some other reason?
What are the methods involved from organization in the selection procedure for best human resource appointment?
What are the different barriers for an effective and efficient recruitment and selection in any organization?
1.4. Aim and Objectives
Hence the main aim of this research is to figure out to what extent the Recruitment and selection process plays important role in the organizational success and also to recommend very effective strategic Recruitment and selection process for growing retailers in UK (Cieri, De. et al., 2005).
This research is based on the following objectives:
To identify the need of good recruitment and selection procedure.
To point out barriers for effective and efficient recruitment and selection.
To determine how recruitment and selection practices affects outcomes of organization.
1.5. Previous Research
Staff recruitment and selection is core function among all the essential activities of human resource management (HRM). As human resources of any organization are its true strategic planner, promising opportunity for organizational performance growth is also clear (Mohrman, 2007). It is argued by Taylor (2006) that a prior central activity of HRM (Human Resources of Management) is recruitment and selection, especially in some emerging organizations". The ability for success and attainment or accomplishment of established goals of any organization is directly related to quality and strategy for potential employee's recruitment and selection. Taylor (2006) also argued that this process of recruitment and selection should be strategically and systematically undergone considering only the positive outcomes in the setting of organization. HRM deals with various activities of the organization like attracting, motivating, developing and maintaining quality in the employees who works for organization either individually or collectively toward the collective goals for the success and efficiently (Sims, 2002).
The HR practice like recruiting, selecting, evaluating, hiring, training to employees and also some activities like management performance, remuneration package, and conflict management all are supported by the most of the present literatures like Burke and Cooper (2004), Price (2004), Sims, (2002) and Schermerhorn (2001) etc. Maintaining, enriching and developing organizational capacity towards competitiveness and development all are supported by the HR process named recruitment and selection. Most critical function of HR is recruitment and selection which is in fact a part of management function of hiring and plays an important role in the process of implementation of established organizational strategies through personals (David, 2003).
A researcher Kerlinger (1994: 40) explained that there is nothing like qualitative data and everything belong to one of binary data i.e. 0 or 1. Campbell (1994) also argued that all research finally has qualitative grounding. In most of constructive works, qualitative research method is far better than quantitative research method because
It is very much suitable in dealing with several realities
It is applicable in wide range of value pattern and the various influences in the field of research (Tacconi, 1998).
Factors, like researcher's preference and own experiences, the population on which research to be done, money, time, and availability of other resources, have direct impact and they also play important role in making decision about what methodology to be chosen (Hathaway, 1995).
Research should be undertaken, including the philosophical and theoretical assumptions upon which the research is based and the method or methods adopted and the implementation of these (Saunders et al., 2007).
Qualitative research method is also called inductive which does not need any hypothesis to initiate research study whereas quantitative method is called deductive which requires beginning hypothesis (Colorado State University, 2009).
In this particular research no hypothesis is made and also conclusion will not be drawn from any predefined laws. In fact, all the analysis is made on collected data and then drawing conclusion from the analysis done. Therefore methodology adopted in this research is Inductive rather than Deductive (University of Sunderland Handbook, 2007).
Thamos (2003) argued Inductive approach is used for following purpose
To condense briefly varied and extensive raw data.
To make relationship between summary of raw data with research objectives.
To construct a theory of model for the processes or experiences based on raw data.
Research Technique used will be cross-sectional not longitudinal, it is because that this research will be carried out once and conclusion will be made. This research will not need to carry out again after some interval of time to update finding and results (Breakwell et. al, 1985).
1.7. Research Strategy
In management and business, empirical strategy of research is generally advocated because it helps researcher to demonstrate his/her collecting and analyzing skills and ability (University of Sunderland Handbook, 2007).
As the researcher, in the current study, has opportunity to participate directly in the observation, evidence collection and data collection. Researcher, in this study, has adopted Empirical strategy for this research. Also to collect some important data which will be out of researcher's reach, he/she has to adopt the theoretical strategy as it does not need the direct participation of researcher. Therefore for this research both empirical and theoretical approach has been adopted (Hibbert, 2007).
1.8. Methodological Approach
Executive exhibitions and interviews gives an interaction opportunity with respondents at office, meeting places and they also helps to find clarification on important points on the topic of interest. For researcher, there is the scope of probing further and mirroring for some more clear understanding about the subject matter (Aaker et al., 2000).
Patton (1990) explained that qualitative approaches are suitable to discover "what people know, do, feel and think".
For investigation purpose, public records are considered as "potential goldmine" because they reveal all the information like how agencies legitimate activities and what they account for (Silverman, 1993).
Qualitative approach using various existing past research work to identify the research emerging theme categories will be employed for the purpose. Other researchers have used this method when exploring in new uncharted waters (Krippendorff, 1980).
Here in this study, data will be collected by conducting by conducting survey using a questionnaire. Also by attending exhibition and providing questionnaires to the percipients and attendees.
Collection of required data for research may range from huge survey of global activities at different part of worlds to simple observation at one source or location. The way of data collection is directly related to method adopted for research (Cooper & Schindler, 2006).
It is argued by Strauss & Corbin (1998) that the factors like personal knowledge, skills and experiences of researcher determine which research method to choose and follow. Specific tests, questionnaires, notes of laboratory, observational forms,
and calibration logs of instrument can be the useful devices to collect raw data (Cooper & Schindler, 2006).
Data can be collected by employing well known three methods observation, questionnaire, and interview. Out of these questionnaire is considered as an effective, cheapest and most commonly and widely used primary data gathering technique. Questionnaire design plays crucial role in the achievement of primary data collection objectives. It is an efficient and powerful evaluation tool and need to consider seriously (Fournies, 1999).
As this research has used primary data also as major source of data, here is some characteristic of my questionnaire those are used while conducting research.
According to the University of Sunderland (2007) hand book, Open-ended questions will be selected for Questionnaire so that it and its answers could be read and understand by respondent quickly. In the effective analytical research, some questions should be in Dichotomous format i.e. questions with two options for answer, ordinal-polytomous types of questions should also be included (questionnaire with more than two ordered options for answer by user), some may be of type that use scaling system i.e. bonded (continuous) format.
In this research the questions are organized in the Questionnaire such that least sensitive question comes in beginning and increased its sensitivity as moving down to the more sensitive questions. In other word we can say that the question started with more general types of question and gone down becoming more specific.
1.9.2 Data Collection:
The data collection source used in this research method will be both:
The primary data collected gives realistic result and more trustable because researcher himself will be involved in data collection process. But it has some problem also like over generalizing the result, biased methodology, not considering other factors which are still related etc (Shukla, 2006).
As this research is big and it has large- scale trend. For large scale trends, the secondary data are considered more suitable. Secondary data collection is Cheap and more accessible than primary data - college library, university library and public library (Dunsmuir and Williams1992).
1.11. Scope & Limitations
This research scope is to understand and study about recruitment and selection procedure and identify how good recruitment and selection process helps in organizational success. This research is also going to give recommendation to other organizations to improve their Recruitment & Selection process and become successful. Being pure academic research, limited finance and time is main limitation. Due to limitation in these factors, sample size considered is small and
therefore the result obtained cannot be 100% reliable (Fournies, 1999).
As the research is based on primary data most, due to the probability of lie from the employees to give pleasing and socially acceptable answer and also their reluctance to give (disclose) the company's information can also be important limiting factor for this research (Vithal & Jansen, 1997).