Fw Taylor Scientific Management Theory Business Essay
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
This leadership style is about take it or leaves it, which means that the boss has the right to make decisions not the workers. In such leadership style there is always one way communication. Workers sometime feel demotivated because the managers do not benefits from the experience of their employees working in organization from a very long.
There is a two way communication which means that in democratic leadership style workers are also involve in decision making because managers think that they can get new ideas from workers for the success of the business. While making quick decisions consulting staff can be a time consuming as well.
This is leadership style where managers consult staff to make decisions but at the end managers decide what they think is the best for them. In such case workers sometime gets demotivated because they give their ideas but managers just ignore them due to which workers think that they are just a time wasters.
A type of leadership where managers let worker go and delegate all the authority of decision making. Workers have full rights of decision making as the managers are not even able to come up with any goal or direction and completely involve workers in decision making. Some employees sometime get lost because of a lack of direction and framework and no feedback from managers.
F.W Taylor Scientific Management Theory
Taylor made his first attempt on workers motivation. His thoughts about workers motivation were that management should give workers proper instructions about their job to increase workers productivity. Taylor’s scientific approach was that select worker to perform a task, record the time taken by each worker to do each part of the task and then identify the quickest method recorded, train workers by the recorded quickest method and do not allow workers to make any changes to it, give workers a specific time period to complete their task and supervise them so that they do not exceed the given time limit and pay workers based on their performance. The result of Taylor’s research was that many industries adopt Taylor’s approach for greater profit as the approach was about increase productivity and performance related pay.
Adam’s Equity Theory
A theory which focuses on people’s feelings of how fairly they have been treated Depends on the comparisons we make with others and on how we perceive the relationship between inputs i-e time, effort, skills, experience, ideas and outputs i-e remuneration and recognition. If we think we have done better than we should have done, we may feel some tension but can bear that more easily than feeling “hard done by”
Elton Mayo – Human Relations Theory
Mayo is best known for his Hawthorne effect. These were based on series of experiments conducted over five year period. Initially his work was based on the assumptions that working conditions, lighting, rest periods etc has a significant impact on worker’s productivity. But later on experiments were conducted which forced mayo to accept that working conditions are not important in determining productivity level as there are other motivational factors needed to improve worker’s productivity level. Mayo did the conclusion from his work that changes in working conditions and financial reward have little or no impact on productivity while when there is a team or group working system in industries, management consult workers, take interest in their work, give workers role in decision making can be improve productivity level.
Maslow Hierarchy Theory
Maslows hierarchy of needs
These are the basic needs thus managers should give employees a proper salaries so that employees purchase the basic necessities of their life. They should give break and eating opportunities for their employees.
These needs includes environmental, emotional and safety protection. Managers should give workers flexible contracts, health and safety at work, financial security etc to retain them.
This is about the social event for the employees and making team work system by the managers to encourage employees towards their jobs.
Esteem needs of employees can be fulfill by managers to reward employees and exceed their targets. Manager can give employees higher job positions in organization which helps in bringing the status of employees higher.
Self actualization needs are the need where managers give challenges to their employees during their jobs to fully utilize employee’s skills and growth opportunities are also given to employees by the managers so that they reach to its highest.
Hygiene needs are the needs which does not meet and cause employees to dissatisfaction. Meeting these needs does make employees satisfy but it hardly prevents them from dissatisfaction. Hygiene is a medical word which means to do something that is necessary. If the Hygiene motivation theory is present then management should not only provide hygiene factors to avoid dissatisfaction of employees but should also provide factors to the work itself for their employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Below is the table that contains factors that lead employees to satisfaction and dissatisfaction;
Factors leads employees to satisfaction
Factors leads employees to dissatisfaction
Relationship with Boss
Vroom Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Vroom suggested that individuals choose to behave in ways that they believe will lead to outcomes that value. His expectancy theory states that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that there is a positive link between effort and performance and favorable performance will result on a desirable reward. The reward will satisfy important needs. His expectancy theory is based on the following beliefs;
Valence: The depth of the want of an employee for a reward such as money or a reward such as satisfaction.
Expectancy: The degree to which people believe that putting effort into work will lead a given level of performance.
Instrumentality: The confidence of an employee that he/she will actually get what they desire even if it promised by the manager.
It is also called financial reward system where organizations motivate employees through money. Below are some monetary reward systems;
Hourly or wage rate system
This is the most common way of paying and multiplies it by the wage rate so that employees collect their wages by the end of the day. A problem with this system is that workers deliberately slow down their work during the day so that they finish their work late and work as an over time. in such cases employees have no job security and incase of sickness a worker does not get paid.
Piece Rate System
This is given by FW Taylor which is about output related pay. Workers get paid according to their work they have done in a time period. Incase of sickness there is no money and also workers do work quickly in order to make more money due to which quality can be comprise.
Salary is only given to an employee who has legal job contract. Diference in salaries of two different employees is due to the difference in their skills. Employees sometime get an increase in their salaries by the end of the year. Employees with legal contracts get paid even when an employee is sick or on vocation.
Usually given to sales men and is calculated as percentage of sales that an employee make. Normally an employee gets a basic salary plus commission to motivate worker to work hard. This means that an employee’s income is dependent upon their work however workers do not like to work just on commission.
Performance Related Pay
Usually given to above average performance workers and is given to management staff. It involves the following procedures;
Give workers a target to achieve in a specific time period
Check worker’s performance at the end of the time period
Pay workers according to the degree to which they meet the target.
A problem with performance related pay is that can do favoritism and pay their family and friends instead someone who really deserves it.
This is a way of paying senior management staff i-e CEO or MD. The idea behind it is to break the line and make employees apart of the owners. Usually companies share profits by giving shares, dividends, share in sales revenue, share in retained profits etc. By profit sharing companies get 100% loyalty and motivation from their employees.
Non Monetary Rewards
This is called non financial rewards where organizations motivate their employees not through money. They motivate employees through training, interaction and delegation and authority. Below are some non monetary reward systems;
it is originated from Japan where organizations change the departments of their employees time after time. Job rotation does not bore make an employee get bore with his job because his jobs rotates to different departments with different jobs. Sooner the employee becomes a multi specialize person.
An employee stays on his post but his job scope and responsibility increases. This means an organization load an employee with more than one task.
Given by Herzberg involves not only allowing an employee reach to his full ability but also giving less supervision. This involves the following 3 steps;
Let the worker perform a complete unit of tasks so that a worker does not get bored by doing the same job again and again. In other words do not do division of labor.
Place a system where you can measure the performance of workers. Let the workers know that this hard work is being judged.
Give workers task or challenges other than their routine work.
Division of labor moves away team building therefore do not do division of labor and let employees join teams of their own choice. A team can choose a leader, can be given targets, and team member develop team spirits and hence workers are more productive. A common example a team building is a cell production. Experience shows that firms that encourage team building come up with more quality work.
A quality circle is a group of friends meeting in informal manner once a week to discuss about work. Usually if new ideas comes out of a circle the is communicated to the CEO. A disadvantage of quality circle is that workers gossip and talks against each other.
When an organization sets targets then the following is obtained;
They can have a starting point
They can have an end point
They can choose a direction
They can put a time frame
They can have a control mechanism
They can check the performance of workers.
Delegation and Empowerment
When the authority is delegated to someone then it means that a person is trust worthy and a trust worthy person always maintain his trust and work hard for the success of the organization.
It is a systematic grouping of workers in organization to achieve organizational goal in a best possible way. The importance of formal group working is discussed below;
Importance of formal group working
It helps to carry out specific tasks into different departments to deal with human resources, marketing or accounts.
Groups set up from time to time to deal with particular problems i-e to discuss how the introduction of new technology might be handled.
Group comes together to work on particular project of organization.
A group formed by the employees themselves having similar interest or may have something else in common. The importance of informal group working is discussed below;
Importance of Informal Group Working
Informal groups can improve communication and exchange of ideas for employees in organization and can make work more enjoyable.
It helps to support their group members and protect them from the external authority and outside pressure.
It increases the employee’s security and sometime it also enable work to be done more effectively.
Group working also assist managers to solve problems as when they notice that any individual is involve in taking advantage of a situation which can cause problem for the group members, they just take a step to come over such situation before the manager is aware of it.
Factors which Affect Individual Behavior at Work
The major factors affect individual behaviors at work are Demographic factors, abilities and skill, attitude and personality. All these factors are discussed below;
Demographic factor is about the background of an individual according to his, education, skill, age, nationality etc. Organization always prefer such an individual that belongs to a have high qualification, having good skills for communication, young age etc because organizations believe that such individuals are performing well for organization. Individuals belong to a good background having good and effective communication skills are always in demand by organizations. Study of demographic factors really helps managers to select a candidate for a particular job.
Ability and Skills
The physical power of individual to do something is call ability while skills are defined as the ability to perform in a way that allow individual to perform well. The performance of individual is highly influence by the ability and skills because with full ability and well skill can perform well for the organizations and managers always try to hire an individual that meet the required ability and skill for a specific job.
It can be defined as the ability to respond favorably or unfavorably to some sort of objects or situations. Culture, organization, society has an influence in formation of attitude because employees perform in organization in the way they have their environment. Managers are bound to study variables of a specific job to create an environment for their employees so that they have a positive attitude towards their jobs.
it can be defined as the study of characteristics of an individual and the way in which an individual respond. There are many factors that influence in individual’s personality i-e culture, society and situations etc. Every individual has difference in their manner while responding to organizational environment. Organizations need to discover about the personality of individual through learning, observation and training etc for a particular job in organization.
The Major Factors That Lead to Effective Teamwork
Effective teamwork facilitates through clear communication. Team members must follow the same line with respect to their targets and responsibilities. Effective communication is supported by the a particular methods and mediums of communication in certain circumstances and such mediums of communication can be one to one meetings, emails, group talks etc. all the team member should feel free to know about further clarification and responsibilities of job and should feel free to make any suggestion for the advancement of the team. If any conflict arises and teams engage to overcome, they only way to overcome such conflict is to have effective communication instead of solving the issue in gossip.
Leadership plays an important role in leading an effective teamwork. Managers should support all the team members by making them feel as they all work to their highest potential. They should encourage the team members to speak during team meetings to coordinate the efforts of the team members. By doing so motivation arises from managers for the team members and the team members feel as they are also part of the organization and perform with their full potential for the success of the organization.
Team Building Exercises
Shared experiences and practices also play an important role in developing an effective teamwork. By the introduction of new technology some team member will not see each other without making appoint. Team building exercises target to improve specific aspects of team such as communication and creativity. Games are the effective way to make the entire team member together to improve their relationship and promote their understanding of interest, strength and weaknesses etc.
Factors that Threaten Team’s Success
Motivation is about to encourage workers to increase productivity and to improve their performance. If there is no concept of motivation in organization and teams do not have any rights to give any suggestion for the success of the business then teams will get demotivated and will promote their teams towards success.
Leadership can be a threat for the team’s success in such a manner that if there is an autocratic leadership style in organization and all the rights are with the managers not with the team workers, in any organization where the team workers do not have the right find any solution for the minor issue arise while they are working and are bound to ask for the upper level manager for any conflict then the team will not last for longer and their team development will come to stop at that point.
Advancement in the new technology
With the introduction of new technology team members of some organizations do not have the ability to operate with it and the team members need to have a proper on the job and off the job training. If organization fails to provide training program for their team to get use of the new technology this will be the serious threat for the success of the teams.
Impact of Technology on Communication and Information Technology
Technology has increased the speed of communication between office workers, communication with suppliers, banks, and even with customers. Technology came up with computers, internet and intranet which made communication easy and faster. Team workers communicate with each other for achieving their team task through emails. Every team has a team leader and the leader passes the information to the rest of the team members. Email made it very easy for the team workers to communicate each other as whenever the team leader has any task for the rest of the member the leader put all the information in email and send a loop email to all the members. The advantage of the loop email is that all the members will receive the same email with the same information not everyone will get separate email. Inside the organization employees communicate each other through intranet which a good source of communication to communicate from one department to another. Intranet is normally use in every organization having lots of different departments where it is very difficult to walk each department to pass any authority but technology made it very easy due to which every department is now link with each other and whatever information is needed to pass can be done quickly from any department without walking to other department.
Bill Gates was born on 28th October 1955 in Seattle, Washington. He belongs to a family of entrepreneurship. He had an interest in software. Bill Gates was co founder, chairmen and chief executive officer of Microsoft. Bill gates became a student at Harvard University in1973. He is also known as the richest person of the world. In 1975 he left Harvard to form Microsoft with his friend Paul Allen to develop software for the new personal computer market.
Characteristics of Bill Gates
Bill Gates was very smart and intelligent person because he skip math that is because he scored 1590 out of 1600 on SAT.
He was a brave one because when he was to lose lots of profit from Microsoft he went to court to fight against IBM and finally won against IBM.
Bill Gates is very serious of what he does. Whatever he used to start he did not do anything else until he is done with the first one even if it takes him a longer time.
He is able to a successful entrepreneurship for many years till now due to which he is known as the world’s successful entrepreneur.
He is a hard worker and self confident person that helped him to achieve everything and is one of the ideal personalities of the world.
He believes that if you are intelligent and confident from your childhood you can achieve anything, all such qualities took him to a top position in his chosen professional.
Microsoft was his vision that a computer on every disk and every computer with Microsoft software. His basic vision was also that even every house hold must have computer with Microsoft software.
When Bill Gates was a student every student wanted to graduate as successful. Bill Gates stop studying and started writing software for computer, his passion about coding, technology and software made his the richest person.
Leadership Style of Bill Gates
Bill Gates has directive and participative leadership style he specifies that what needs to be done to achieve productivity. He Believe that a task should be planed and organized so that he or she receive a proper guidance about their job. If a task is not clear then still a directive leader is there to clarify the task. He is very participative and involves his potential employees in decision making to get useful ideas from them for the success of the business.
Steve Jobs was born on 24th February 1955 in San Francisco. He was co founder and CEO of Apple. Jobs used to be in garages of his neighborhood working on electronic on weekends and this shaped his interest in the field where he grew. When jobs reach college age he requested his parents to get enroll in Reed college one of expensive college in Oregon where he just spent a time of one semester and then dropped out. During 1980 Jobs developed Mac operating system for Next Computer Company but it was actually owned by Apple due to which Mac was realized by Apple in 1990.
Characteristics of Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs was also a very confident and intelligent as Bill Gates. As he was interested in the field of electronic and grew in that field as well, he brought all his efforts and experience into practice and came up with new developments for the new generation i-e he came up with Mac operating system and other electronic devices.
He was a leader as he knows the best, he was not in favor of involving other in his decisions. His had an autocratic leadership style due to which employees were demotivated because they had no rights over the business.
Steve Jobs was a hard worker and he would not let go of a problem until it was solved and once the first problem was solver he used to move to the next one. He had enough knowledge of what is going on with the product because he wanted Apple to be the great one.
Whatever he was building was the most beautiful product. His aim was to come up with beautiful products to market and make lots of money from it.
Leadership Style of Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs had an autocratic leadership style, he kept all the rights to himself and did not use others ideas. His policy was that employees were not involves in decision making.
Analyze Bill Gates and Steve Jobs
Both the leaders were successful leaders. Bill Gates wanted to make computers and Microsoft software more popular among people and wanted to see computer along with Microsoft software everywhere. Bill Gates is an intelligent leader and has directive or participative leadership style while Steve Jobs had an autocratic leadership style which was not as good as compare to Bill Gates leadership style because the leadership style use by Bill Gates is also the way of motivating employees giving them rights in decision making while people criticized on the leadership of Steve Jobs where employees felt that they are not part of the company because Steve Jobs wanted employees to be far from the decision making. By the comparison of Bill Gates and Steve Jobs the policy applied by Bill Gates is the best one according to the motivation of employees.
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