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Management is a a universal phenomenon which mean a concept understood by everyone. Management enables to use the available resources efficiently it is purposive activity which have a purpose or a reason behind each and every function .
In an effective management goals are pre-determined ,which means the goals which should be achieved by the organization is finalized earlier by the top level management
Management is important for a business for the following reasons:
To maintain the internal environment of the company.
To get the work done effectively and efficiently
Basic administration - things which are equal to each employee. Eg :check in/check out time, application for leave.
Equity - equal treatment in the management . should be treated equally regardless of gender, religion etc.
Espirit de corps - enjoy the working environment.
Nature of management is a serial process which means interaction with the staffs or colleagues
Every day we have to interact or speak with the people we work with.natureof management enables to provide information from one person another, vertically or horizontally . Vertical communication takes place when information is transferred from top level management to the lover level staffs or from the lower level staffs to the top level management
Horizontal communication takes places when an information is transferred with in the same level employees. For an example if a supervisor transfers an information to another supervisor, then it is known as horizontal communication.
This also known as decisional activity .it involves continuous decision making to handle the issue and the problem arised in the company. In order to implement action decision needs to be taken first. This also known as interpersonal activity.
Management contain of for function they are:
Leading and directing
The flowing is the process of the planning.
Classifying the problem identifying the main task to be done.
Establishment of objective.
Establishment of planning premises, these are the assumptions made to solve the problem.
Choice of alternative, if a plan fails can switch to the alternative plan.
Formulation of derivative plans, no need of changing the whole only some parts could be adjusted.
Arranging timing and sequence of the operations.
Secures Co-Operation: Secures Relationship between the works and top level managements.
Follow -Up/appraisal of plan_ This means Others are allowed give feedback regarding the plan. Planning enable stable running of the company and future development and success of the company (prosperity). This also enables innovation & Creativity of new Ideas and can achieve better co-ordination from the employees.
Organizing means putting the right things in the right place and right person in the right place to get the work done properly.
Organizing is the first step of implementation.
It's because we are physically grouping and dividing the work force.
Function of organizing:
Act as a frame work within which people can work together effectively.
There are actually three areas if objectives or aims.
First is the Organizational objective - Planning emphasized in the whole thing.
Departmental objective- Different departments will have different objectives.
Individual objectives - each and every employee will have his/her own objective of completing the task given.
Finally all the objectives facilitated by the different departments enable to gain the organizational objectives.
Organization is important for a company for the following rescores.
Allows optimum we of rescores- Using the maximum rescores which is actually needed, Without wasting the resource or using it less
Clarifies authority to perform managerial functions.
Managerial function means decision making and giving orders and instruction to the sub ordinates and scalar chain refer to the way people are arranged in an organization.
Facilitates growth and diversification of business easily. It enables to know how much of the resources would be needed.
Leading and directing
This refers to giving instructions and guidelines to achieve a pre determined goal.
Leading and directing is an important managerial function.
Leading and directing helps the organization in the following ways.
Building an effective working climate.
Creating opportunity for motivation.
Supervising to make sure employees are behaving well.
Scheduling, tasks given to each employee are finished on a given time.
Disciplining, code of conduct/formal relationship
Directing is said to be the heart of management process. directing is important to make sure that planes are working. Some characteristics of directing are as follows
Required of all level of organization
Every manager provides guidelines and inspiration to his sub ordinates however, there should be someone to direct even the supervisors just like the subordinates
Direction is a continuous activity as it continues through out the life of the organization
Directing is needed till you achieve the goal.
Directing helps to convert plane in to performance planes(written words ) are implemented (Physically) this means words are converted into physical action during the process of directing . without this function people become inactive and resources are meaningless
Checking current performance and standard performance -goals are met and performance are satisfactory. Controlling is a continuous process which enables to find out how the employees perform. This is also used to make sure the top level management is also doing their job properly .
Establishment of standards
Measurement of performance
The working environment of the work place should be good
Communicating with the higher level management
Extend of deviation
Taking corrective actions
Features of Controlling Function
Following are the characteristics of controlling function of management-
Controlling is an end function-Â
A function which comes once the performances are made in conformities with plans.
Controlling is a pervasive function-Â
which means it is performed by managers at all levels and in all type of concerns.
Controlling is forward looking
because effective control is not possible without past being controlled. Controlling always look to future so that follow-up can be made whenever required.
Controlling is a dynamic process
Â since controlling requires taking reviewal methods, changes have to be made wherever possible.
Controlling is related with planning
Â Planning and Controlling are two inseperable functions of management. Without planning, controlling is a controlling succeeds planning.
Q4) Planning process
Contains of the following points:
Classifying the problem- identifying and defining the problem
Establishment of objectives- what do you want to achieve/creating aims
Establishment of planning premises- assumptions/plans could be changed.
Choice of alternative course of action- change into an alternative plan.
Formulation of derivation plan- no need of changing the whole plan, only some parts of the plan could be changed.
Arranging timing and sequence of operations
Securing cooperations- securing the relationships between the workers and top level management.
Follow up / Appraisal of plan- allow others to give feedback.
Stability-stable running of the company. (controlled by the management).
Prosperity-future development and success.
Innovation and creativity- new ideas
Better co ordination
Ensures commitment-giving your 100%
Acts as an aid to business system.
Q5) management is getting things done by organizing things.
Warren Bannis said 'Managers do things right, leader do the right things.
Peter Ducker said , 'Management is doing thing right, leadership is doing the right things.
Management- making the most efficient use of human, physical and financial resources to achieve given objectives, involving and planning, monitoring, coordinating and reviewing activities.
Ian Smith, MD, Oracle 'Management is a science which can be taught while leadership cannot and leadership is more vital in modern business.
Role of management
Setting objectives and planning
Organizing resources to achieve objectives
Communicating to and motivating staff
Measuring and controlling performance
Leadership - influencing others to achieving desired aims and objectives; leaders set the agenda that managers follow. Leadership depends on three things viz. individual, follower,condition.
Leadership decides on the direction of the company as per objectives and inspiring the staff to achieve them. Leadership is an important quality of a successful manager. Employees want good leaders and will respond positively to their direction. Some people believe that leaders are born while others believe that leadership can be developed through training.
Good leaders shall have the following characteristics
Natural confidence and desire to succeed
Ability to think creatively and encourage others to do so.
Talented in multiple disciplines and handle such discussions
Skill to identify the key issue and isolate other issues
Q6) According to Herzberg, in order o increase employee satisfaction level, there are two important factors which needs to be present.
They are motivation factors and hygiene factors
Factors that needs to be present as an initial motivator for employees to achieve objectives.
Factors that can be implemented or used to increase employee motivation level. these are the factors that can be practiced by the organization.
Motivation - individuals
Facilitates goal achievement
Gets job satisfaction
Self-development; always want to prove yourself
Creates a dynamic team
Motivation - business
creates empowered teams to; whatever the work is, employees are willing to complete the task.
Input given by each employee is increased
With high motivation high challenges better performance level.