The study of Organization and Behaviour is very interesting and testing as well. It is interrelated to individuals, group of people functioning collectively in teams. The study becomes more demanding when situational issues interrelate. The study of organizational behaviour belongs to the predictable behaviour of a person in the organization. No two folks are likely to act in the same way in a specific work situation. It is the inevitability of a manager about the predictable behaviour of a person. There is no completeness in human behaviour. It is the human aspect that is contributory to the competence hence the study of human behaviour is vital. Great significance therefore must be given to the study. Researchers, administration practitioners, psychologists, and communal scientists must discriminate the very credentials of a person, his background, public framework, educational update, impact of communal groups and other situational features on behaviour. Managers under whom an individual is operational should be able to make clear, forecast, assess and modify human behaviour that will mainly depend upon knowledge, ability and experience of the manager in handling big group of people in diverse situations. 
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1.1: Organizational Structures
Tall and Narrow Structures:
In tall structure the manager controls six or few employees. There is close regulation of the employees, tight control and swift communication. However, the supervision can be too close; the narrow structure means that there are many levels of management, resulting in a possibly extreme distance between the top and the bottom of an organization. 
Wide and Flat Structures:
A wide span of control forces managers to build up clear objectives and policies, select and train employees carefully. Since employees get less supervision, they are more responsible and have higher confidence with a wide span of control. Flat and wide span of control is successful if employees have the awareness about their responsibilities and job tasks because managers are not able to ensure employees every day. 
Centralization and Decentralization:
Centralization and decentralization refer to the extent to which decision making power is devolved in an organization, or the degree of allocation of duties, power and authority to inferior levels of an organization. Organizations’ which have a high degree of allocation of power are thought to be decentralized. Organizations which have a lower degree of allocation of power tend to be centralized. A decentralized structure often means power over both operational issues and strategic direction is devolved to inferior levels in the hierarchy.
In power culture, control is the key element. Power cultures are habitually found within a small or medium size organization. Centralized Decisions making are found in the power culture organization. That person likes control and the power behind it. As group work is not apparent in a power culture, the organization can react rapidly to dangers around it as no consultation is involved.
Ordinary in most organizations today is a role culture. In a role culture, organizations are split into various functions and each individual within the function is assigned a particular role. The role culture has the advantage of specialization. Employees focus on their particular role as assigned to them by their job description and this should increase productivity for the company.
Person cultures are generally found in charities or nonprofit organizations. The focus of the organization is the individual or a particular aspire. 
1.2: How Organization’s structure and culture influence the performance of TESCOS’ activities
Tesco has a hierarchical structure because it has a bunch of layers and a lot of people reporting into more than one person before that information get to the boss. A hierarchical structure has many levels. Each level is monitored by one person. A hierarchical company tends to be a very large company just like Tesco is. In a hierarchy commands are generally passed down from one person to another until it gets to the bottom of the hierarchical structure. If there was a trouble in a hierarchical structure it would move up through the structure again from one person to another until it gets to where it is supported to be. Due to this complex structure it takes too long time for the completion of activities. Strengths of a Hierarchical structure are that there is a close control of workers. Workers in Tesco will know exactly what they have to do so they don’t stay around until they are told.
TESCOS’ is using role culture because it is a large organisation. Role culture is more usefull in large organisations than small and medium organisations. Particular roles are assinged to employees and they focuses only on their goals due to this overall effeciency of the TESCOS’ increase. 
1.3: Factors which influence individual behaviour in TESCO
This technique is like Grandma’s Law: You have to eat your vegetables before you can have your dessert. The employee is encouraged to perform a less preferred behavior before the preferred one. Preferred activities can include a job that employee likes, free party passes, benefits, listening to music, art activities, etc. This technique works with all employees.
A contract is a written agreement between an employee and employer. The content is mutually created and specifies the behavioral expectations of the employee and employer as well as time lines, rewards, and consequences for failure to meet the commitments. Contracts take time to create but are very helpful because all parties are clear about expectations and conditions. Begin with short time periods and realistic goals. Reward progress with praise.
A reprimand is a scolding for an inappropriate behavior that is potentially injurious to self, others, or property. Establish eye contact. Deliver your expressions firmly immediately, privately, clearly, specifically, calmly, and swiftly. Be sure to include the expected behavior and consequences of continuing the unsuitable behavior.
This technique is used when an employer notices that an employee stops work on a task due to boredom or loss of interest. An employer may offer help, praise work accomplished so far, and/or encourage the employee to complete the task.
Pay itself is a major factor which influences the behaviour of an employee. If the pay is good then the behaviour of the employeer will also be good.
2.1: Three different leadership styles for three different business organisations.
This is an imposed style of leadership. It is effective when the organisation is small, newly formed and during the period of economic hardship.This style is used when leaders inform their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without receiving the advice of their followers. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. 
The participative style of leadership is effective when organisation is large, well estabilished and during the periods of economic affluence. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process. However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of flaws, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. 
The delegative style of leadership is effective when the organisation is stable and the environment is less complex. In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still accountable for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to examine the situation and decide what needs to be done and how to do it. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and assurance in the people below you. 
2.2: Organizational theory underpins the practises of management in TESCO
Organizational theory and management theory is used in many aspects of a working business. Many people struggle to adhere to the theory to help them become better at their jobs or more successful in life, although this may direct to them having to sacrifice some of their personal principles in order to succeed.
One example of following organizational theory in the tescos would be an employee or manager who wants to know how to achieve goals by having a set structure to chase. In addition, someone in a Human Resources sector will have to make decisions throughout their working day that will undoubtedly change the formation and practice of a working day for all other employees in the company.
If an individual gets so wrap up in trying to fit the mould of what they interpret their role should be in terms of organizational theory, they may start to ignore other areas of business.
2.3: Four different approaches to management used by different organizations
Human behaviour approach:
This approach is effective when the organisation behaviour is friendly. It has a major characteristic that management is the process of getting things done by people, managers should understand human behaviour. Emphasis is put on rising productivity through motivation and good human relations. Motivation, leadership, communication, participative management and group dynamics are the central part of this approach.
Social system approach:
Organization is basically a cultural system composed of people who work in cooperation. For achieving organization goals, a cooperative system of management can be developed only by understanding the behaviour of people in groups.Organization is a social system, a system of cultural relationships.
Decision theory approach:
It is effective in the organisations where decisions are very critical. Management is basically decision-making. Members of the organization are decision-makers and problems solvers.Organization can be treated as a mixture of various decision centres. The level and importance of organization members are determined on the basis of importance of decisions, which they make.
The use of this approach is effectual where the environment of business is complex. System is defined as “An organized or complex whole; an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex unitary whole. A system is essentially a mixture of parts, subsystems. Each part may have various sub-parts. An organization is a system of jointly dependent parts, each of which may include several subsystems.
3.1: Different leadership styles may impact employee motivation in organization
The implementation of Leadership skills and the impact of effective motivational strategies in a business environment ready to inflate its operations, but is faced with a challenge of being equipped with very busy managers unable to give time to their team members. 
Autocratic leadership is one form of transactional leadership. The leader has complete control and power on his team. There is no room for giving any suggestions. The workforce usually does not feel relaxed under such leaders. When subject to autocratic leadership, there non-attendance is high. 
Bureaucratic leaders follow power tactics by the book. They expect their staff to do exactly the same. This style will click in an environment where a lot of procedures and crucial security issues exist. 
A charismatic leader infuses a lot of energy and interest in the team. But such a leader has more confidence in him rather than the team. This is also a very serious situation for the whole organisation if such a leader quits the organisation. Organisations need long term commitments for such people as they bear great responsibilities. This change would help in the way that the motivation of staff will increase and if their motivation will increase then the effeciency of staff will also be increase. 
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3.2: Three different motivational theories within the workplace
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Abraham Maslow is a humanistic psychologist developed a theory of personality, which is valuable in the field of employee motivation. Fundamentally they believe humans struggle for upper-level capabilities such as creativity and highest level of consciousness. In his view, humans have five needs and if one need is fulfilled they go to the next and motivated by unmet needs in stages. The five desires are physiological desires such as food, water shelter, clothing etc. 
Hertszberg’s Motivation and Hygiene Theory:
In this theory, there are two sets of needs. They are essential needs and motivational needs. The basic needs can be working conditions, supervision, company policy and administration, salary and interpersonal relationship. That is, if the manager wants to stop the employees doing something, then they must think about hygiene needs.
According to expectancy theory, people behaviour at work and their goals are not easy. The employee performance at work is based on individual factors such as personality, skill, knowledge, experience, and abilities. The theory suggests even if the individuals have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe their effort leads to performance and performance results in enviable rewards. As well, employees have different expectations and confidence about what they are able of doing. 
3.3: Usefulness of motivational theories for managers in TESCOS
TESCOS managers provide basic needs to its employees. This will include a place of work, regularmonthly pay and essential facilities such as restuarant or locker for personal needs. Managers provide the security of formal contracts of employment. It ensures health and safety in the workplace. Tescos promotes team and group working at various levels. The company steering wheels assesses individual and group work and enable store staff to work as a team. Tescos offer Personal Development Plans, recognition of skill and talents, opportunity for promotions and career progressions programme. Tesco aims to motivate its employees both by paying attention to hygiene factors and by enabling satisfiers. It holds forums every year in which staff can be part of the discussions on pay rises. This shows recognition of the work Tesco people do and rewards them. Tesco staff can even influence what food goes onto its restaurant menus. Employees thus become motivated to make choices that will increase their use of the restaurants. 
4.1: Nature of group and group behaviour within organizations
Definition of Group:
A collection of individuals, the members who accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment. (Kelley & Thibaut)
The Nature of groups:
Normative views, describes how a group is to be ordered and how its activities are to be carried out. Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques regarding internal nature of groups.
The size of a group is one factor that can establish its likely behavior.
Require a high degree of formalization than smaller
Require clear lines of communication.
Tend to pay less concentration to the needs of individuals than smaller groups.
Focus more on task necessities than personal issues.
Purpose of group:
Groups are assigned definite purpose within the organizational structure. These groups are often asked to focus their efforts on explicit problems, usually of a short-term nature.
Nature of task:
The nature of the task is generally decided in terms of the group’s function and objectives.
4.2: Factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organization
Factors promoting development of effective teamwork
Effective teams embrace and are constituted by a diversity of cultures, talents and personalities. Diversity can support creativity and innovation, and lift awareness of and respect for differences, which will support effective teamwork. 
Effective teamwork is facilitated by clear and open communication. All team members should be on the same page with respect to targets, responsibilities and timelines. This consistency is facilitated by effective communication. 
Teamwork is supported by efficient leadership. All teams advantages from one or several sources of inspiration and direction; leaders can support collaboration by coordinating the efforts of team members and cheering team members to converse their minds during team meetings. 
Factors inhibit the development of effective teamwork
Absence of trust:
It develops from the teams’ unwillingness to be exposed within the group and team members are often not genuinely open with one another about mistakes and weaknesses and making it not possible to build a basis for trust. 
Fear of Conflict:
The teams that lack trust are unable of engaging in unfiltered adoring debate of ideas and instead the only solution is resort to veiled discussions and guarded comments. The causes of teamwork failure is group size cause large groups less productivity and coordination losses is mostly to take place within that organization, meaning ineffectiveness that result from the group member’s failure to combine their resource in a maximally creative way. 
4.3: Impact of technology on team functioning
Companies have begin to distinguish that in order to compete, high performing work teams have been qualified with quality development, faster cycle time, enhanced consumer satisfaction and higher levels of overall productivity. The common of this team’s effort is accomplished via e-mail, voice-mail and in their Tearoom workplace. Members use email to communicate with others outside their team in the business, copying and storing significant and related e-mail messages in their shared workplace. The invention of efficient and regular innovative technologies has seriously affected teams and teamwork. Improvements in technology have sophisticated so swiftly that related human methods have not been capable to keep speed. Even though we now have electronic tools with enormous potential to facilitate better-quality team performance. 
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