Maslow and Hertzberg's Theories of Motivation
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There are two types of motivational theories, process and content theory. Maslow was extremely clear to emphasize that organisations should, within reasons carry out all they can to satisfy needs of all levels in an organisation; whether, considering teams, departments or individuals. (Fincham et. al.(2005)). He also recognised the problem involving this idea, Fincham (2005) states "it is hard for us to go backward psychologically"
"A theory which offered a number of predictions about what motivates people in societies offering relatively full employment, when jobs are scarce; employees are motivated solely by deficiency needs." (Fincham and Rhodes, page 197)
Motivation has increased in popularity over the past era, determining organisational behaviour; theories of motivation are necessary in ensuring comprehensive and promising organisational activities. This essay explores the importance, similarities and differences of motivational theories concentrating specifically on Maslow's and Hertzberg's theory; also the essay investigates how team leaders might exercise the two theories to motivate their teams in an organisational setting. Hallway (1991) reveals that by the 1960's motivation became the central concept through which to understand job satisfaction. Motivational theories are divided into two different categories; termed content and process theories. Both Maslow's and Hertzberg's theories are in the content category; content theories assume that all individuals possess the same sets of needs (Fincham et al. 2005). Although, Maslow's and Hertzberg's theories are both in the content category, both have similarities and differences; it is extremely important to investigate both theory's uniqueness and variations. Fincham et al (2005) agues that Maslow was extremely clear to emphasize that organisations and management should, within reasons carry out all they can to satisfy needs of all levels in an organisation; whether, considering teams, departments or individuals. It is extremely important to understand how team leaders can use Maslow's and Hertzberg's theories of motivation, in creating; high-quality structured organised and incentivised individuals.
Equally, both theories have some relationships between them for instance, the two psychologist categorised ideas into divisions. For example, Hertzberg divided his idea into two factors termed hygiene factor and motivator factor. On the other hand, Abraham Maslow in addition divided the theory into a progression pyramid expressed as deficiency needs and the higher-order needs. Consequently, deficiency needs must be met in order to motivate employees, deficiency needs are similar to hygiene factor, and however the motivators of Hertzberg are likewise similar to Maslow's higher-order needs. Furthermore, team leaders must be extremely conscious of the long term objectives and aims of constructing such theories. One purpose of motivation theories is to encourage organisations to respect the feeling and needs of the workforce; there are many ways and methods to satisfy individuals. For instance, according to Hertzberg, providing employees' with good working environment; organisations will gradually observe the impact of the motivator factor (after fulfilling the hygiene factor) through the quality of work and productivity. Ultimately, this suggests when employees' are enjoying quality working environment, subsequently productivity will increase enormously. Fincham et al (2005) quotes 'the presence of motivators in a workplace caused enduring states of motivation in employees'. Consequently, Hygiene factors normally produce acceptable work environment but not increased in satisfaction.
Similarly, Maslow firmly believes that deficiency needs must be met before expecting fully motivated team; deficiency needs consists of three concepts of human necessitate which are Physiological needs (such as environment), safety needs (job security) and social needs such as belonging and love. Fincham et al (2005) clearly demonstrate that the theory is sending strong messages that when jobs are readily available, pay is adequate, and there is a sense of job security, deficiency needs are easily satisfied. As deficiency needs are fulfilled by an employer, the progression in the hierarchy is essential this is because when physiological and security needs are met, this will construct social needs an exceptionally important motivator; team leaders should invest in social aspects of needs this is because an individuals tends to feel odd in a new team; social enhancement is very important to organisations since acknowledgment of the workforce is classed as an incentive; therefore Hertzberg's motivator factor (recognition) is satisfied.
Moreover, recognition is the acknowledgement of someone for doing creditable job nevertheless, motivation theory encourages team leaders to always appreciate team member's contribution and therefore close relationship between the two(team member and leader) must be familiarised. Hayes (1997) stresses the necessitate of relationship combination between the team leader and the team, for example, by recognising an individual's needs for support and provision, a team leader is able to engage the provision of training in new skills, giving an individual time off after a demanding period at the workplace and or simply providing emotional support to them. Achieving the above will lead to a team's triumph (achievement) similarly providing team members with feedback on their progress will enhance an individual's confidence to acknowledge their full potential and to attain more.
- Hertzberg et al.1959. Hertzberg- psychologist categorised their theories into to category of their own, Hertzberg has split his theory into two factors, he called it hygiene and motivator factor. Whereas, Maslow called his hierarchy of needs, the deficiency needs and the higher-order needs.
- Maslow Similarity: the theory explains "when jobs are readily available, pay is adequate, and there is degree of job security, deficiency needs are easily satisfied" (Fincham et al. page 197). As deficiency needs are fulfilled by an employer, the progression in the hierarchy is essential this is because when physiological and security needs are met, this will make social needs an extremely important motivator. Firstly deficiency needs must be met in order to motivate employees, the deficiency needs are similar to hygiene factor, and however the motivators of Hertzberg are likewise similar to Maslow's higher-order needs. (Own writing)
- Both theory did not include monetary reward is a motivator; Maslow defines salary as a norm, whereas Hertzberg referred salary as a hygiene factor which only stops dissatisfaction of employees but do not motivates them. For example, Hertzberg (1972) located salary in the hygiene factor. (Fincham et al. page 195:200, (2005)) it is important to consider the role of non-financial rewards and recognition play in motivating staff.
Main difference- psychologist Hertzberg's first account of his theory was that it made the proposals easily testable (major difference between the two psychologists' accounts). (Page 199 Fincham, (2005))
Possible difference from Maslow theory: although Maslow has described how the constructs could be measured but the process he has set out were unclear because the complexity of the description (cannot be easily measured which made it difficult for anyone to follow). Fincham et al. (p 198, (2005)) states the operational definitions of the need constructs or other variables such as prepotency were not always clear. And so measurement of them was invariably problematic (Maslow did describe how the constructs might be measured but the process he set out was extremely complex and never followed by anyone)
Although, Hertzberg theory illustrate how employers can motivate their employees, Hertzberg goes further than that, he also described how jobs can be changed to gain well-motivated workforce for the long run. (Fincham et al. P200, (2005))
How can a team leader motivate his team?
Herzberg motivators- "the presence of motivators in a workplace caused enduring states of motivation in employees" (Fincham et al. Page 199, (2005))
Subsequently, Hygiene factors normally produce acceptable work environment but not increased in satisfaction.
By the 1960's motivation had become the central concept through which to understand job satisfaction. (Page 97,work psychology and organisational behaviour, Wendy Hallway,1991)
Team leader can motivate workers by offering them intrinsic reward.
Herzterg believes the only way to motivate employees is to give them challenging work in which employees' can assume responsibility.
According to Hertzberg's two factor theory, giving employees' good working environment, team leaders will eventually notice the impact of this factor through the quality of work and productivity(own writing)
According to Hertzberg and Maslow individuals are motivated in certain ways, for example Hertzberg has indicated how job redesigned can incorporate more motivation.
Ways of motivating employees according to Hertzberg motivator factor:
Responsibility - by increasing employees' autonomy (independence) while retaining accountability, employees will feel that they possess responsibly which allows them to achieve more.
Accountability- increasing accountability of employees for their own work will motivate them by recognising them.
Recognition -giving employees feedback on their work enhances an individual confidence. Hayes (1997) <page 218> stresses the necessitate of relationship combination between the team leader and the team, for example, by recognising an individual's desires for support and provision, a team leader is able to engage the provision of training in new skills, giving an individual time off after a demanding period at the workplace and or simply providing emotional support to them. Achieving the above motivator (Hertzberg's motivator factor) will lead to team's triumph (achievement).
Achievement- assigning individuals specific and specialised tasks enhances the expertise of an employee.
Above are motivators of Hertzberg theory of motivation, Hertzberg (1972) believes these motivators contributes to development and promotes psychological growth.
Consequently, in Maslow's higher-order needs, he includes self esteem and self actualisation, Maslow firmly believes that these needs will promote an individual full potential.
Stress is the cause of many illnesses whether psychological or physical illness, for example, Parkinson et al (1995) <page 85> have stressed out that research on stress had revealed the cause of psychological illnesses. Motivating employees, team leaders are able reduce the occurrence of stress, stress is mainly caused when a job or the role of an employee is repetitive or is lacking variety. Employees' prefer to use variety of skills but when a job is repetitive, limited skills are been consumed which causes stress amongst employees. Fincham et al. (2005) < page 72>, demonstrates the level of stimulation a job provides is likewise associated with the amount of stress it can cause employees to experience. Even though it is possible to contradict and criticize this finding, some believe routine work is common in some workplaces.
Individuals have a tendency to be uninspired by repetitive and lack of variety in work, consequently team leader can motivate their team using Maslow and Hertzberg's theory of motivation. There are many ways and methods of motivating employees, one example rotating roles between individuals will result in a significantly high motivation. According to Hollway (1991) there were various attempts that have been applied since the first world war to solve the problems caused by repetitive jobs, Walker (1950) quoted in Hollway (1991) mentions 'within industry a variety of devices have been tried for a relief of monotony in highly simplified, repetitive operation...introduction of rest pauses, music in the workshop and the grouping of workers into competitive teams.' Although using music in the workshop can be quite interesting for some employees, others will argue that not everybody can be motivated by music, instead music can also bee moderately stressful.
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