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In the business world today, it has become critical to measure the employee's performance in terms of task completion initiatives and so onâ€¦ Human resources managers, officers and even outsources human resources consultants have been working really hard to enhance employee's effectiveness and efficiency.
In addition to that many questions arose when conducting psychology test on employees while trying to find explanations to the issue of underperformance of employees: is it the lack of motivation that leads to that? Or is it because they did not know what their position's requirements are?
The industrial psychologist have narrowed these two questions into one answer which was found the most probable one: the reason behind the underperformance of employees is the fact that most of them don't know what they are supposed to do in other words, the specifications of the job they are fulfilling.
To have efficient employees, one must conduct a well structured job analysis, in order to establish an effective job description that helps creating a direct link between a job analysis and employees' performance appraisal.
The job analysis is often presented as the milestone that helps the successful employee selection efforts and performance management initiatives. A job analysis involves a processed systematic collection of information about a specific job or position. The job-analytic methods are often approached as through the use of two approaches. One approach is the task-oriented job analysis which involves an examination of duties, tasks, and/or competencies required to fulfill a certain job.
A job description is usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis considers the areas of knowledgeÂ andÂ skillsÂ needed for the job. A job usually includes several roles. The job description might be broadened to form aÂ person specificationÂ or may be known as Terms of Reference.
AÂ performance appraisalÂ (PA) orÂ performance evaluationÂ is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual employee's job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and organizational objectives.Â Other aspects of individual employees are considered as well, such asÂ organizational citizenship behavior,Â accomplishments, potential for future improvement, strengths and weaknesses, etc.Â To collect PA data, there are three main methods: objective production, personnel, and judgmental evaluation. Judgmental evaluations are the most commonly used with a large variety of evaluation methods.
This leads us to our thesis that will take into consideration the relation between a set job analysis in accordance to the employee's efficiency. This study will be subject of theoretical review about job analysis's that will combine the process of development of job descriptions and job specification, and a qualitative study responding to the answer to our main research question: Is the job analysis always necessary to control the employee performance?
Researchers have developed a relationship between HRM practices and organizational performance, but the relationship between HRM practices like job analysis - employee Job efficiency remains unexplored.(Ajmal Waheed, 2005) In order to develop and adequate job description and specification for a certain position, we find ourselves obliged to conduct en efficient job analysis, and this is crucial for Human Resources managers in the process of conducting performance appraisals by highlighting employees' performance regarding their position's job description.(Dory Daw, 2011)
The purpose of this study is to show how a satisfactory job characteristic improves employee efficiency inside a firm in Lebanon. The process will be done through a face to face structured interview with 3 human resources companies:
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The population of our study is Human Resources managers in Human Resources consultancy companies whose specifications reside in recruiting, training and job analysis development.
The research was developed through qualitative methods in order to show explain the linkage between job analysis and employees efficiency. This means that it is qualitative and explanatory.
The previous studies about the relation between job characteristics and employee efficiency is limited. Most studies have investigated job preferences, needs, and satisfaction of working people without linking them to efficiency. Moreover, there is no previous study that has investigated about the influence of organizational and job characteristics on employee efficiency. When it comes to conduct an employee's performance appraisal, we should have a certain criteria to follow, thus a set job description. But, is the job analysis necessary for control the employee efficiency?
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study resides in the fact that businesses today's main objective is to set an efficient job analysis in order to get knowledge on how they differentiate employees roles within the firm, in accordance to help them assess their strength and weaknesses in the position they are holding. Hopefully at the end of the thesis, we can show a qualitative study on the subject in an effective manner that will help future business managers assess their job efficiency to improve their performances. In addition to that, we will be able to show how this effectiveness will help assess the turnover of the company, moreover helping us know how to be more cost effective saving the company lots of money.
Human Resource Management: is the management an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is responsible for the selection, training assessment and rewarding of employees.
Job Analysis: is an analysis conducted in order to set the specifications of a certain position held by the person in charge of doing the job.
Job Description: is the guideline for a certain job set after conducting the job analysis.
Employee performance: is the number of tasks or the percentage of completion of the employee in respect to his/her job description.
Performance appraisal: in the analysis done by Human resources officers and/or department managers in order to measure the degree to which an employee is effective and efficient in performing the required tasks set by the job description in order to fulfill his/her position.
This first chapter showed us the introduction to our subject where we have created a linkage in the thesis statement between the Job Analysis and the Employee's performance. In addition to unveiling our methodology of work, our sample and population and the approach we will be using, in addition to our problem statement and definitions of the key words used in this thesis. Employees are seen as vital resources for an effective business performance. In an effort to leverage their business performance, companies refer to creating an attractive work environment that motivate employees and lead to better work outputs. This study discusses the impact of a well set job analysis on employees' job satisfaction and efficiency. Job analysis steps, characteristics, and feedback are all discussed and interpreted in the research. Both primary and secondary data collecting tools were used in this study to support and attain the goal of the study. The primary data was based on a face-to-face interview conducted with three human resources managers. The key of success for every business is related to the satisfaction of the employees who will improve their performance. The business characteristics are changing based on many factors such as demographics, needs, and skills, therefore organizations tend to change their job descriptions in order to hire the best employees that will be satisfied in their jobs. In the past, companies focused on the quality of their products, the development of the used technology, and on the services; whereas these days companies are focusing on the employee's satisfaction in competing each other (David, 2004). Companies realize that attracting and retaining qualified employees is very important in competing in this changing market. That's why, the organization need to be able to create, manage, and transfer knowledge in order to ensure the importance of qualified employees. The qualified employees are characterized by their intelligence, skills, experiences, and commitment. The organization are trying to make themselves the best attractive employer offering jobs with important and preferred attributes to future applicants. The employees who are searching for a job, wants to find a good job where can be satisfied (Bruce, 1999). Sometimes, employees are obliged to stay in their work due to financial constraints, however they are not satisfied. Job satisfaction is related to the following attribute since every employee applicant seeks them in the job. First the advancement opportunities are the chance for promotion and career advancement offered by the company. The employee wants to know if the type of the work in order to avoid the boring and routine job. The exciting and challenging job motivates the employee to improve his Performance. Beside the company's type, every company has its reputation which increases its positive popularity while the culture is a shared set of attitudes, values, and goals. The employee will be satisfied when his job is secure which decrease his worries about termination; on the other hand training opportunities improve the employee efficiency (Brown,1997).
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Human resource management is the utilization of individuals to achieve organizational goals. In order to achieve these goals, job analysis is required where it determines skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. Job specification specifies the minimum acceptable qualifications a person should have to perform a certain job (Firesmith, 2007). The accomplishment of these goals needs a set of attributes, skills, and knowledge that makes the individual more likely to gain employment (Lees, 2002).
Education is the process that prepares students to be successful in the real business world through giving the right methods in enhancing their skills. In other words, education is also intended to train, discipline, and reveal one's ability.
According to Topel (2004), a person with great skills will be able to increase employers or the workplace productivity. According to Robinson (2000), employability skill is not similar to an occupation or technical skill. This skill is closely related with attitudes and actions.
Fugate (2004) stated that employability skill is the development of the employee in order to increase their working abilities.
Students focus in finishing their educational years and acquiring the degree without concentrating on the context of the courses. Each academicals course tends to provide the student with a specific skill that is required for job.
Plenty of fresh graduates are facing many problems to find a job or to contribute to the job they are performing due to the lack of skills needed to perform the job.
Thus in this literature review, the researcher will take into consideration all the factors that combines the process between both ends, starting from the job analysis, going through the psychological factors a job analysis emphasis on, to finally come through the performance appraisal, to summarize in the end the link between the job analysis process and the performance appraisal.
Good employees display qualities such as dependability, punctuality, initiative, a positive attitude toward the job, ability to get along well with others, flexibility, motivation, organization, and an ability to perform assigned duties.Â Work values have been shown to be related to the way people feel about their work, the way people behave on their jobs and their overall job satisfaction (Spence, 1985).
Jobs have five characteristics describing extent of skills variety where the employee uses a wide range of skills. Task identity where the employee involves in all tasks of job from beginning to end of the production. Task significance where the workers feel the task is meaningful for the organization. The employee has freedom to schedule tasks and carry them out which is called autonomy, finally employees get the feedback about their performance to the job (Mc grew, 2007).
Job Characteristics Model
Figure 2.1 Job Characteristic Models
Source: Hackman and G. & Oldham (2007)
Job Analysis Research Methods
The organizational attributes influence job choice decisions and companies' attractiveness to job applicants. There is a popular assumption that organizations with flexible work arrangements are more attractive to jobseekers than those with a standard work arrangement (Hyland & Barbara, 2002).
The most important factor considered by job applicants in accepting a new position is improving and balancing the work life. Flexible work arrangements are popular with applicants since the increased flexibility allows the worker to handle competing demands from work and personal interests (Goldberg, 2003). The attractiveness of these arrangements depends on job seekers' inter role conflicts. This means that arising pressure in one role is incompatible with pressure arising in another role.
There are three types of inter-role conflict: work to family, family to work and work to school. Employees with high role conflict are more attracted to an organization when flexibility was offered. On the other hand, employees who have not conflict are slightly attracted when flexibility working arrangements are provided (Goldberg, 2003).
The most well-known meta-analytic approaches are those associated with Hunter & Schmidt,Â Rosenthal,Â andÂ HedgesÂ &Â Olkin.Â With the help of meta-analysis, Hunter & Schmidt advanced the idea of validity generalization, which suggests that some performance predictors, specifically cognitive ability tests (see especially Hunter Â and Hunter & Schmidt ) have a relatively stable and positive relation to job performance across all jobs. Although not unchallenged, validity generalization has broad acceptance with regard to many selection instruments (e.g. cognitive ability tests, job knowledge tests, work samples, and structured interviews) across a broad range of jobs.
Business is the idea of examined strategies that are studied for a final structure. Then this becomes a solid material for construction in an effective company for producing a product in types of material, social service, or political service. For achieving a company's goals and objectives the position of employees must be studied as well. Every single employee must have his own responsibilities to achieve his specific role. The most used organization structure consists of a manager, a marketer, a human recourse manager, customer service, sales men, accountant, and workers (Philip, 2007).
The company indicates the need of a specific job position which makes the team to determine the type and amount of information for filling the position. Then, the selection criteria will be identified by the managers based on one of the three criteria: generic, essential, and desirable. The company permits for a high number of applicants to apply for the job based on the selection criteria in order to select the most qualified employee. Therefore, the applicant must be passing the three selection criteria due to the high challenge. (Philip, 2007).
The essential criteria in the selection must be met by the applicants in order to have the chance in gaining the job position. However, it is not very important for the applicant to have all the knowledge and qualifications mentioned in the desirable criteria. The applicant will increase his chances of succeeding in the selection process if he pass the selection criteria and strengthen his ability to compete and face the challenges.
The Selection criteria highlight the personal qualities, skills, abilities, knowledge, and qualifications of a person who wants to perform the role effectively. These criteria involves in examining the ability of the applicant to perform in the job in a way that provide the company with advantages.
Selection criteria can be divided into two criteria (important and less important):
Important criteria are equally subjected.
Less important criteria are at equal rate but less subjected than the important criteria.
Each position in the company needs a list of essential and desirable selection criteria including education level, experience, and skills. The company focuses on these criteria in order to add to its staff a qualified employee that will motivate the team providing the position an effective role in the business performance. On the other hand, the applicant for the job must prove that he is the suitable person for this job by meeting the majority of selection criteria. (Philip, 2007).Â
Selection criteria have many positive points in which it can help to regulate employment process through insure the guide for both employees and employers, as an important and most desirable requirement while looking at an applicant's application, not only this it also be assistance to minimize the personal and social bases in our decision making in order to insure that the selection of the suitable applicant.
The selection criteria indicate the personal information of the applicant such as knowing his age, gender, address, and education level. In addition to that, the applicant will provide information about skills and experiences specifying the job he wants to work in mentioning the salary he has the desire to get.
The selection criteria differ from public sector and private sector. A public sector position must have selection criteria from human resources for all positions summarized in job advertisements. If that department has a web site then the selection criteria may also be available on that site under headings such as "employment", "positions", and "human resources". Moreover, the applicant may call the Human Resources department on the telephone number listed in the advertisement. On the other hand, the selection criteria in the private sector depend on the employer in stating if it is formal or not, however they must have at least the short list of requirements for needed position. The selection criteria in private may not be clear as in the public sector; however both are mentioned in the job advertisement. (Villiers, 2008).
There are many steps for the applicants to address the selection criteria in order to show the capability. This requires evidences on how to join all the selection criteria providing specific details and display the results using the STAR model (situation, task, application or action, and result): (www.bom.gov.au, 2008)
Step one: understanding the selection criteria: it is important to clearly understand what is meant by each selection criteria.
Step two: opening sentence: to address any selection criterion one must start with an opening sentence that need examples and details to be supported by.
Step three: brainstorming ideas: it is made for each criterion by confining the ideas to the last two or three years of employment.
Step four: expand on the brainstorming ideas: this may occur by using many evidences that refer to each criterion and choose what evidences needed to be used, once finishing the evidences the applicant must evaluate the number of them that met the different aspects of criteria. In this step the STAR model is most needed.
Step five: checking work: the applicants must check whether they used positive and specific language, strong action words, avoid unsupported claims about abilities, and addressed all aspects of criteria.
The job choice decisions are related to company's image or reputation, which provides competitive advantage to companies when recruiting. A company's reputation has been defined as the image noticed by corporate leaders, Investors, consumers, employees, or students (Montgomery & Catherine, 2003). Company's reputation also influences the companies' ability to attract applicants. It was indicated that students indicated they would accept a lower salary to work for a highly reputable company.
Job description is designed by the management to show the applicants duties, responsibilities, and rights. However, sometimes the expectation of the employee doesn't meet the job requirements.
Creating a job description
A job description is usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis considers the areas of knowledgeÂ andÂ skillsÂ needed for the job. A job usually includes several roles. The job description might be broadened to form aÂ person specificationÂ or may be known as Terms of Reference.(Dr.Khadij,2007)
Roles and responsibilities
A job description may include relationships with other people in the organization: Supervisory level, managerial requirements, and relationships with other colleagues.
A job description need not be limited to explaining the current situation, or work that is currently expected; it may also set out goals for what might be achieved in future.
Prescriptive job descriptions may be seen as a hindrance in certain circumstances:
Job descriptions may not be suitable for some senior managers as they should have the freedom to take the initiative and find fruitful new directions;
Job descriptions may be too inflexible in a rapidly-changing organization, for instance in an area subject to rapid technological change;
Other changes in job content may lead to the job description being out of date;
The process that an organization uses to create job descriptions may not be optimal.( Human Resource Management)
Strategic human resource planning
The human recourse department has designed several selection tools such as the interview which facilitates the decision making based on the performance.
Interviewing candidates without a resume is a critical skill. If the employer is a telephone screening a candidate referred to him, he will not have the ability to refer to the resume in order to generate the questions (Falcone, 2002).
The Supervisor responsible for making the final hiring decision indentifies theÂ keyÂ categories of behavioral qualities and knowledge requirements of the position in order to develop the interview questions (Graves & Ronald 1998).
The selection process consists of several steps; it starts with the Preliminary Interviews. The organization uses this type of interview in order to provide the applicant a brief overview about the company and the responsibility of the job. The purpose of this type is reducing the number of candidates by removing who don't meet with the criteria. After the preliminary interview finish, the blank application starts; it contains data record of the candidates such as details about age, qualifications, reason for leaving previous job, experience, etc.
The organization conduct a written test based on the selection criteria, it includes intelligence test, reasoning test, personality test, etc. after the result of the written test show on, the accepted candidates are called for an employment interviews which is an interaction between the interviewer and the potential candidate.
The medical examination is conducted to ensure physical fitness of the potential employee. Based on all the previous interviews, tests, and examination, the selected candidate will be given an appointment letter in order to inform him that he is appointed (Employees Selection Process, 2009).
In the journal of management, Thomas Wright and Douglas Bonett examined in their study that was published in 2007 the job satisfaction and the psychological well being as predictors of workplace turnover. In the study, the two authors refer to many experts who have examined the relation between job satisfaction which lead to employee's efficiency and the workplace which mean the job analysis. First, they introduce their articles referring to the two authors ( Schmitt & Chan) who mentioned in 1998, that the company makes effort in selecting qualified employees based on the job analysis in order to ensure the high productivity. The article shows that if the satisfaction is high, then the employee will stay in his current position making an effort in enhancing his productivity in order to be efficiency. The previous studies shows that the lack in job satisfaction leads to employees turnover and decrease in the efficiency. The article explained that the most important thing for productivity is employee work happiness which is resulted from job satisfaction due to the match between employee expectation and job description.
In the international journal of business, Solomon Markos and Sandhaya Sridve published in 2010, a study about "Employee Engagement: the key to improving Performance". They highlight on the employee involvement in important tasks such as job analysis in order to improve the organizational performance. They said that the employees who are highly involved in their job are motivated to increase their productivity and their efficiency. The article ensures that challenging business environment is making it hard for the managers since the organization is in need for many qualified employees.