Evaluating Reliability Analysis to improve Employee Efficiency
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Published: Mon, 5 Dec 2016
Reliability refers to the extent to which a scale produces consistent results, if the measurements are repeated a number of times. The analysis on reliability is called reliability analysis. Reliability Analysis measure by testing for both consistency and stability of questionnaire and data obtained so that the research can be considered as solid. The purpose to conduct reliability testing is to ensure that the observed variables measure the ‘true value’ and whether they are ‘error free’ or had high error in the questionnaire. Cronbach alpha was used to ensure the internal consistency of items in scale. Cronbach alpha value can determine the question whether error free.
According to (Nunally 1967) for ensure each of the constructs it is reliable the Cronbach’s alpha the score for each of the constructs should be greater than 0.7. Cronbach’s Alpha indicated the reliability coefficient and how the items correlated to the one another (Sekaran, 2003).All the factors exhibit a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient indicating that the questionnaire (n=170) has attained high level of reliability for intrapreneurial behaviour in general. By using the reliability analysis for looking the Cronbach’s alpha value, all of the independent and dependent variables are tested to measure whether it is reliable or not realible. The closer the reliability coefficient gets near to 1.0 are better. If the reliabilities less than 0.6 are considered as poor, the question are less reliable .Those in the 0.7 range are acceptable and those over 0.8 as good (Sekaran, 2003).
Table 13: Results of Reliability Analysis
Number of Items
As shown above, the Cronbach’s Alpha of all the variables rewards, management support,time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries and employee intrapreneurial behaviour reach the value of 0.7 and above. This value is sufficient to prove its reliability as what Nunnally (1978) and Sekaran (2003) discussed in their studies. All the dimensions above are tested and shown that they are positively correlated to one another. In this research, the reliability result exhibits a high degree of internal consistency with a standardized item alpha of more than 0.6. Thus, the finalized data of this study is believed to be highly reliable for further statistical analysis. Cronbach’s Alpha of all the variables is exceeding 0.7; none of the item or question is deleted.
Overall Descriptive Statistics of the Study Variables
Flexible organisationsal boundaries
4.5 Pearson Correlation Analysis
Pearson Correlation analysis is conducted in order to examine the relationships between variables. By using SPSS 18 software, the summary result below is being obtained.
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
According to Hair, Bush and Ortinau (2003), the stronger level of association must be related to the higher of correlation coefficient. If the correlation coefficient value is below 0.20, it claim to be none relationship, 0.21- 0.40 consider weak, 0.41-0.60, moderate, 0.61-0.80 strong, 0.81-1.00, very strong relationship.
As shown in Table 4.14, there is moderate relationship between three independent variables and dependent variables, only one of the independent variables contain strong relationship towards dependent variable. But the organizational boundaries will contribute weak relationship towards employee’s intrapreneurial behaviour. There is a strong relationship between intrapreneurial behaviours with autonomy which score 0.608 in r values. Meanwhile, there is a moderate relationship between intrapreneurial behaviour with rewards, management support and time availability, which the coefficient r values are 0.568, 0.576, 0.550 respectively. Organizational boundaries was just contributed 0.382 correlation r value which is consider weak relationship towards intrapreneurial employees bahaviour.
Table 4.26 shows the result of regression from the ANOVA table between the five independent variables (rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, flexible organizational boundaries) and dependent variable (intrapreneurial behaviour). The variables were tested, resulted that p-value of with (p<.01) showed significant and F=31.913. The result concluded that p-value of 0.000 (significant) means the independent variables (rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries) can significantly affect intrapreneurial behavior.
In order to identify the relationship between variables, the regression test can be used to test for prove they have positive or negative relationship. By the regression test had presented there have strong inference R – Square which is 0.493. In other word, it can be concluded that approximately 49.3% variance of the employee intrapreneurial behaviour can be explained by the independent variables included in the regression equation (rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries). The adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (adjusted R²) clearly explains 47.8% of the variance associated with the independent variables.
The Durbin-Watson value of 2.208 was fall into the acceptable range (1.5 to
2.5), between the range, it means that there was no autocorrelation of error terms. Bases pn the result, showed the variance inflation factor (VIF) values were below 10, it indicated that Multicollineraity problems did not exist and the condition indices were below the safety limit of 30.
The multiple regression analysis indicated that the following tested variables were consider highly significant at p<.01 - a 99% degree of confidence. The beta value (standardize coefficients) of management support (Î²=0.260) and management support (Î²=.223) indicates that this two independent variable are positively related to employees' intrapreneurial behaviour. The others two variables were also found significant at p<.05 - a 95% degree of confidence. The beta value of rewards (Î²=0.173) and time availability (Î²=.146) indicates these independent variables are positively related to employees intrapreneurial behaviour. But one of the variables which is organizational boundaries was found not to be significant.
Hypotheses 1 (Rewards is positively related to intrapreneurial behaviour
) was accepted at p<.05. Hypotheses 2 (Management support is positively related to
intrapreneurial behaviour )was accepted at p<.01. Hypotheses 3 (Time availability is positively related to perceived ease of use was accepted at p<.05. Hypotheses 4
(Autonomy is positively related to intrapreneurial behaviour was rejected. Hypotheses 5
(organisatonal boundaries is positively related to intrapreneurial behaviour was rejected .
Table 4.6, figure 4.1 and Appendix G list the result of multiple regressions 1.
Table 4.29 Coefficients Table
Result of multiple regressions
Variable Standardized beta
Management Support 0.223***
Time availability 0.146*
Organizational Boundaries 0.075
Adjusted R2 0.478
Note: ***p< .01, **p< .05, *p< .1
(Accept or Reject)
There is a relationship between reward and intrapreneurial behaviour.
There is a relationship between management supports and intrapreneurial behaviour
There is a relationship between availability of time and intrapreneurial behaviour.
There is a relationship between autonomy and intrapreneurial behaviour.
There is a relationship between flexible /loose organizational boundaries and intrapreneurial behaviour
(Accept or Reject)
Table 4.27 illustrates the result of the regression analysis. There are five independent variables rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries that are tested in this test which includes. The reason of the research run this test is to find out the relationship towards employees intrapreneurial behaviour.
Even though all independent variables are significant in Pearson Correlation analysis, but only rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy are significant in this regression analysis test. In others side, independent variables such as flexible organisational boundaries are not significant in this regression analysis.
As a conclusion,rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy are the determinations to enhance employees intrapreneurial behaviour referring to regression analysis. These four elements play the crucial role in enhance intrapreneurial employee behaviour regarding to regression test.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
After completed the data analysis, the overall research result will be applied in this chapter. First of all, the primary objective of this study is to determine the factors which bring impact towards intrapreneurial employees behavior with new variables modeled from the previous study which is from the literate review of this study. The new variables are rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries .Next, recommendation to this research will be mentioned in the following part. Therefore, there are some existing limitations to conduct the research and it will stated further. Following, suggestions will be mentioned and provide some guidelines or suggestion for the future of studies. Conclusio would be the last section for this chapter. The sum for it will be indicated in this particular research
Section 5.1 Section 5.2 Section 5.3
Introduction Recommendations Limitation
Section 5.5 Section 5.4
Conclusion and Suggestions for
Summary Future Studies
Reccomendation is essential to those employers who are desire to increase their employee’s intrapreneurial behavior which allow the employees to become more innovative and proactive in their organization. This research is vital in providing guidelines and understanding of the preference of employees toward their behavior. All independent variables are examined in this studies are positively influenced to dependent variable, which lead to positive result towards intrapreneurial employee’s behavior.
The results of this studies mean that rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries are the determinations which impact the employee intrapreneurial behavior. Hence, since the employers are desire to promote the intrapreneurial of employees, employers may have this research as reference and take into consideration in order to foster the employee’s behavior which will be leading the employee’s become more innovative, initiatives which lead better work performance.
For rewards, Employers should try to inquire their employees about what is the essentials stuff that they are desire to get for their exchange of contributions such as new idea or suggestion towards the organization and clear rewards system should be build. This is the most effective measures to improve the satisfaction of employees towards the rewards that have been granted by the employer. Some of the employees are desire to receive extrinsic rewards and it guaranteed their life secured and continuously stimulate their new creativity. When employees receive reasonable rewards from the employer, they will play their part as well which is contributing such new idea for the organization and give in their ability of knowledge to the company.
Therefore, new relationships between employers and employees should changed the attitudes towards risk and reward. If companies are to move to more participative style of management, actions need to be carry out by determining research management’s perception of the skills which required by team leaders in order for them to obtain concrete guidelines of ‘strategic’ autonomy. Besides that, mapping them against a current series of leadership skills and estimating the gap which exists for determining what training is required to develop team leaders into a greater managerial role involving more strategic and operational autonomy.
Undeniably that managers and supervisors play an important role in management support .Employers should provide liberty or autonomy for them to run their departments more effectively. Due to this matter, they should be more aware of the roles they played in influencing the employees under them because they will be the one who are going to be appraised. Lastly, they will also be judged by their superiors neither they are a good leader or not. This is because as a head of the team or department, they are expected likewise the grease in a machine, making the machine run more smoothly. The implementation is by guiding the employees to work with throughout their everyday dealings.
To boost intrapreneurial behavior, some of the practice should be conduct during training programmed. For example, brain storming in a group yields more ideas in less time than an individual brain storming for that same amount of time. The more ideas that are carried out, the higher chances of finding the right solution for the problems This may increase the problem solving skill. On the others hand, employees whom are grouped into teams are given certain job enrichments which are wider range of tasks and responsibility. This gives them the added flexibility to show what they are capable of increasing moral and spurring them on to achieve the goals given. This may lead into quality of work enhanced. When people work in groups instead of individually, they will tend to mingle and improve the team performance as they view themselves as part of a family. Family values will be most probably be applied here as well. More group related activities like camping trips or sports games for socializing and team building, it creates a tighter bond and understanding between employees and their employer,
For organization structure and boundaries, the employers have the responsibility to provide less formalized structure and promote decentralized of working environment to the employees because it helps to in build up employees autonomy. Therefore, it is crucial to foster the employee intrapreneurial behavior if the employees are able to work in an organization that has commitment and built with flexible organizational structure. Organizational bureaucracy should be reduced with fewer people collecting and passing information up and down the current chain of command:- this means that ideas and information does not need confimation from the top management and can be approved much faster and with less hassle. This increases the speed at which an idea gets implemented. In addition to that, empowered managers and employees should make day-to-day decisions on their own and be accountable for resulting success or failure of their actions:”more power means more responsibility.” Ensure that a strong supportive mentorship or coaching system is in place, the ideas and ways it is used will be noted for later reference by the younger staff. As quote mentioned: “To move forward, one must look to the past.”
Research can be the good in conducting analysis among peoples but for it , it does have limitation as well . Firstly, it would be time consuming or time restriction. A detailed and more accurate research can be secured if broader time range is given for students. This is because of the time constraint creates constraits to gather the significant data that need to be applied.
Secondly, the sample size of the respondents is limited or too small amount of sample size. For example, this studies only permits for 170 sets of questionnaire to be distributed to the employees. Due to this sample size limits, opportunities to obtain more dependable and accurate information or data collection had to be forgone. If the size of the respondents can be increased, more accurate data can be obtained.
Next, this research is lack of generalization. The coverage area is too small, by the illustration. For this research, selected employees only conduct at Perak, Kuala Lumpur and Malacca only. Since people from different states might have different opinions, this research should be extended to various states to have more accurate information can be obtained and the quality of such research can be increased.
Added to this, based on the questions of this studies; it is linked with scale which prohibited the respondents to give their own opinions or perception instead the studies that “forced” them to put in their answer in the linked-scale. Finally, knowledge for the usage of statistical tool SPSS will be crucial in the process of obtaining reliablity and accurate information or data which than generating a high quality or standard results. Therefore, researcher should always upgrade themselves by learning the latest version of statistical tool that can produce high quality research.
Suggestions For Future Studies
The research was conducted to analyze the factors towards intrapreneurial employee’s behaviour. As such, there is still quite a number of work that need to be done to understand the factors toward intrapreneurial employee’s behaviour Suggestions for future studies are as follows. First, future studies is needed to search for additional variables that can be test towards employees based on new findings from latest literatures at the time,In order to get have more accuracy data and encounter employees behavior, researchers may link this instrument’s five factors to financial measures of organizational performance, more deeply research on whether the relationship of intrapreneurial employees behavior would improve the company’s financial position . Consequently, future researchers should analyze the relationship between intrapreneurship dimensions towards financial performance measures.
Secondly, there is a need for future studies with investigation on a larger number of respondents and it should widely distribute in different geographic area in Malaysia to get the more accuracy data and more reliable result.
Third, it is suggested to perform more case studies related the current study. For future research, it may perform these studies in a range of companies from different industries and sectors. Besides that, using qualitative method such as interview for the current studies, it is recommended to include open questions which can lead to the discovery of issues which are not expected or explored before. The collected data will definitely be useful and reflects the factor towards employee intrapreneurial behavior. The employer may refer to the research and make some changes for improvements.
Finally, further studies can include more information regards to biographical data of the respondents and examine how each of this respondent’s personal data is relate to employee intrapreneurial behavior.
Conclusion and Summary
The findings generated from this research provides further evidence on the variables or attributes to measure the different dimensions of compensation and benefits way towards employee turnover. There are total of 5 independent variables and 1 dependent variable tested. These five attribute are rewards, management support, time availability, autonomy, organizational boundaries. Questionnaire was constructed and distributed as data collection method. The random selected employees are focused in Perak ,Kuala Lumpur state.
Overall, all of the independent variables had shown positively influencing the dependent variable which is employee’s intrapreneurial behavior. The result showed high accuracy because the analyses of data for all independent variables in reliability test are above 0.70. Employees’ feedback towards intrepreneurial behaviour issue had discussed and examine through the survey.
There are positive components that contributed towards the successful of improving the corporate entrepreneurship. Firstly, top management support and middle-level manager are the crucial in determining the success of corporate entrepreneurship since human being had good and bad times. Furthermore, autonomy such as task that allows employees to make decision freely, encouragement of climate in work and so on is another important factor to determine the successful of corporate entrepreneurship. But, it is important to comprehend that some “aggressive” employees are aiming high so the organizational policies should suit their appetite. The top management support and autonomy given to the employees are defined in this study as it represents a vital role in making a corporate entrepreneurship successful. This is well-accepted if the satisfaction of employees able to attain and it can completely assist to make the corporate entrepreneurship successful.
In conclusion, employers that wish to be successful should refer to this research because it is related to improve intrepreneurial behaviour. They can make some changes like awards or recognition of employees if he or she manage to create an innovative ideas that can help the company increase sales revenue but never look down on employees that fail to achieve the targets and by the way gives them encouragement in term of non-financial rewards such as recognition or give them small present (awards) in term of financial rewards. Therefore, emotion of the employees who fail to meet the company targets will not get hurt or feeling embarrass in front of his or her successful colleagues. There will be more and more potential human capital (employees) can be generated and determine the successful of intrepreneurial behaviour.
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