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The organizational structures can be defined as the distribution and appointment of the command and duties within the organization is called organizational structures. The classification of Handy's discovered the culture like power, role, task and person which are closely linked to the structure of the organisation which is accepted by management in top level. He stated that the structure and cultures of organisation are formed by believe of the system.
Entrepreneurial Structure and Power Culture
The structure of organisation which is based on the central power establishment or the power which emphasis on the particular top level management is called Entrepreneurial Structure. This power makes the autocratic system in decision making process in which a specialist person or senior leader which takes the responsibility of its own decisions.
The cultures of organisation which is dominance in entrepreneurial structure is called power culture. All this can be explained by using ruling spider by web.
From the above diagram we can observe that all the power is centralized toward the centre point of the circle. The circle shows the chain of the team workers and centre points indicates the central power of top level management. Like a judge of court gives the decisions with its self after the solictification of the events. This control may practiced on whim with personal influence then compulsory, on procedures or truly typical factors. This types of structure is applied in small scale or medium size organisation which is related growing and notifying to change.
They are strong, dynamic and quickly reactive to the demand which may be external or internal.
They can have the ability of self decision which helps to make right decisions in right time.
Bureaucratic Structure and Role Culture
The business structure that refers to the distribution of power, authority, and responsibility within the organisation is bureaucratic structure and the culture which is dominant in this type of structure is called role culture.
Handy explained the structure as like Greek Temple. Pillars of bureaucracy represents the specialization usually branched in different department just like finance, accounting, marketing, etc and is controlled according to authority, roles and procedures. This types of structure and culture reduces the maximum conflict between the employers and employee.
The differences with respect to others are as follows:
Bureaucracy and role culture and local government and public service or large insurance company.
Less conflict between the workers then in other structures and cultures is observed.
Matrix structure and task culture
The matrix structure refers to the team management. It is generally divided on the basis of the team work in order to completation of the large project. The task culture depend upon getting the best and most competitive individuals to work together for achieving the organisational goals.
The control of organisation is depending upon the project allocation, group works, target setting according to the budge available to the project. All the procedures is controlled by the team leaders.
The differences with respect to other structure and culture are:
Team work helps the different strategy of project completation by equal involvement.
They are project oriented hence can be change the way of completation on the basis of contract times due to flexibility.
Independence structure and person culture
The individual focusing type of structure is called Independence structure. The suitable strategic planning is decided by the individual to perform together in the organisation like doctors, consultancies, law firms and small companies.
The main focus of individual centered cultures is checked after the requirement of individual as often small group of professionals.
The differences are as follows:
It is likely to be only effective for their original member.
It is occasional culture, it require own identity so can be moved to other culture if needed.
The structure and culture which is followed by EThames Graduate School is Bureaucratic structure and Role culture.
There are division of department in EThames which makes the work efficient where every staff are working together for the goal made by the bureacratically by the views of all the members. The work management is divided in different category like student service, IT, faculty groups, management, etc. Where each staffs are working for the achievement of the same goal.
According to the bureaucratic structure every staff are responsible for the goals of the organisation in their own field and the work is only focused on the individual roles. The EThames had the division of different department in order to focus on the role of working of the staffs in their own field specialities. The ethames's staff is doing best in their department due to authority and procedure in related works so the business progress and minimum chances of conflict are within the staffs.
If all the responsibility in not carried out by each of the member staff then the business can lead in the unsuccessful status. If the single staff is failed to perform his best in its department then the system should be changed in another culture or the staff should be changed for the new views and way of working.
All the individual are as of different thinking in different condition. There are different environmental factors that can effect the individual at work which can lead negative as well as positive effect for the employers and employees as well.
In my point of view there mangers of a company are the most important persons that have to react very fast to any condition of a company so they have much responsibility for achieving the goals. As a manager the environmental factors that affect my behaviour are:
Coperation among workers
If there is no cooperation between the workers then the work cannot be completed efficiently as result the business will not success so as a manager I could be autocratic to take the serious decisions that may not be good for workers as they can go on employment tribunal but if there is good cooperation among staff then the appraisal can be given best and bonuses can be given if satisfied by work.
As a manager the safety and security can be considered as another reason that could change behaviour. If the workers are not working safely then the full responsibility of manager is to check for it because the only the security reason is the most important for working environment
If the conflict arises among the workers with top level management then it will be too difficult to get business goal. I would like to solve the conflict as soon as possible if appricable for business. As a manager I should give the first focus to the business . if the conflict is not solved then the achievement of goals will be too hard to get.
I believe that team work management is more important in the success of business. So I will like to prefer the team work rather then individual work. If the workers are managed in team to perform together then the goals can be achieves fast. If the workers are not in the way of team work then I would like to change whole the working system keeping the business in mind.
The business should be in profit at any cost because the main responsibility of manager in to make high amount of profit. I will motivate the workers by giving proper bonuses, commissions, flexibility, etc so that the worker can increase their efficiency of working. If the worker do so then I will be positive otherwise I will choose any alternative for that.
For all I will have the positive cooperation with the staffs upto when the business is going smooth but when the business tries to go beyong the track of the systematic planning then I will change the strategy and bound to take any serious action that can make the business in profit and makes worker happy as well.
According to David Crowther and Miriam Green, (2004)
The work of different theorists on bueaurucracy results the development of theories of organisation and hierarchy such as classical management school. There were the clear procedures and regulation roles seen regarding the recruitment of the staffs in the various positions within the organisation. The human relation theory has shown the clear concept of the procedure of working in the organisation and their relation with all the producer and consumer as well. And the contingency theory also has the same story that the relation is of size, structure, its technology, etc. Many others theorist criticised about these theories with the suitable reasons. The following is the brief explanation of the theories of organisation.
Classical School Of Management and Organisation
http://www.managementheaven.com/classical-school-of-management/ date assessed: 20/07/2010
The classical school of management and organisation derives from the sociology of Weber, the technical management research of Taylor, Gantt and Gilbreth and the administrative respective research of Fayol, Urwick and Brech. For increasing the economic status, the universal principal of operation looks for classical school. The organisation process within itself and focuses on management separated to the labour and make them specializes by proper training to perform more efficiently. Hence classical school of management and organisation can be explained in two points:
According to David Crowther and Miriam Green, (2004) organisational theories
The study of management which analyze and synthesis workflow within the organisation is called scientific management. The work is planned systematically so that if any problem occurs then it can be easily known and solved. It is advanced method which increases the efficiency of workers. Frederick Taylor explains all its points in the book called "The Principal Of Management" in 1911. He explained that the decision based on the rule of thumb and tradition should be changed by practised procedure after the serious study of individual work.
Towards the Identification of Management Principle
The main impact of scientific management is clearly shown of the management principle and helps to determine the systematic procedures and work management within the organisation. There was two thories related to this topic given according to theorists,
According to Mary Zey, (1998), Rational choice theory and organizational theory: a critique
He categorize his theory according to technical. Commercial, security, financial, accounting and management. He suggested his theory to the definition of management "To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to plan, to co-ordinate and to control". It is clearly seen that management refers to the control in the special way so that the business can be effective in accordance to the financial position of the business. He was the sensitive to the employers so he cited the ideal of motivation of staffs and fail recruitment of job in the category "On the Job".
Taking almost 20 years after Fayol, he modified the principle given by Fayol and focusing the scientific management he put forward his view by following principle:
Principle of Objective
Every organisation should have the expression and goals to get otherwise the organisation will be meaningless.
Principle of authority
In every organization there should be the division of authority concerned somewhere. And the authority should be posted systematically and supreme power should be kept centrally. It is also known as "scalar principle".
Principle of responsibility
The responsibility should be carried out by every staff of the organization and realized originally.
Principle of continuity
The organization is a continuous process so the changes and the process should be continued.
Principle of Specialization
The activities of member of any group should be confirmed to a particular work.
Principle of definition
Every work and position should be expressed and handled rapidely.
Span of control
The work should be checked and inlocked. No more than controlled by five or even six.
Principle of co-ordination
The each and every staff shoul be cooperative to each other.
Principle of balance
The work management should be balanced no any extra pressure should be held.
Unity of command
Every staff should have only one boss so that no any conflict is arises due to different ideas.
Human Relation School
According to Mary Zey, (1998), Rational choice theory and organizational theory: a critique
According to Elton Mayo ,
The key point which defined the human relation is based on the hawthrone plan of western electric company 1927 and 1932. The theory is based on the increasing the productivity of the electricity. He studied the condition of increasing productivity on the both status of illumination on the increase and decrease.
From the simple experiment by mayo the creation of vast body on the nature of human dimension to organisation, the following ideas came