Kirkpatrick's Theory of Change Management
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According to (Kirkpatrick, 2001), the important element of a preforming well manager is handling with change. Running change combine theoretical in image with practical application to address the manager effective managing change with record interference. There are three element empathy, participation and communication are the approaches for managing change efficiently.
In effective managing change Kirkpatrick describe that how the key and action is supportive for implementing new ideas policies and strategies for almost any kind of organization.
According to (Rags dell, 2001)The main objective of every organizational change is to shift the organization from its existing position to an advantageous position, on the other hand the organization change can be achieve in different ways whichever through fundamental change or through incremental change.
According to (Tushan et al, 1985) Dealing between two types of change by creation of punctual equilibrium model of organization change.
According (Charles Handy, 1990), today change is pole apart because it is flashing. He thinks this kind of modern disorganized change calls for alternating positive impact thinking to compact with it.
In case of curt house hotel the management needs to look after for the upcoming changes in the organization. As they are changing the property from 3 stars to 4 stars they need to look after on the three element of the change management.
If the organization will give a look on these elements they will achieve the objective in next summers. It's a long term plan so that they have to think before and they need to use the management function. They will provide a quality service to Japanese delegates with no hassle.
How to manage change effectively
Kirkpatrick recommends a organized model for managing change. There are certain steps for managing change efficiently are as follows:
- Shaping the requirements and aspiration for a change
- Formulating an uncertain strategy.
- Investigating possible feedbacks.
- Creating an ultimate result.
- Creating a schedule.
- Making a plan for change.
- Executing the change.
Individual reaction on managing change.
(Bridges, 1986 et al), we can identify that how individual apply change by the use of various models to describe this occurrence by process. The most important objective of each and every skilled employee to understand the concept of change and how its effects on individual, and change is also give an advantage to the employee to accomplish the goals and objectives.
Change affects the performance of an individual with an organization more efficiently.
(Juck, 1990 et al), The set of approaches to change concerns the experience of individual in the managing process focus on the psychological adjustment that individual person of organization must make during organizational change.
Kirkpatrick's 3 elements of managing change
(Kirkpatrick, 1985), the first things to managing change are believe that change is necessary; employee can be motivating in the company towards change by creating the realness for change. These are 3 methods for creating realness to change first one is sensitive people about the pressure of change, shows discrepancy between undesirable stale of affairs, and communicate positive realistic expectation for the advantage of change.
(Kirkpatrick, 2001), three elements explore how employee thinks about change and how their motives, needs, and possibilities carried them until goal.
The crucial ingredients of Kirkpatrick three elements of managing change is empathy which is really beneficial and use full for organization.
The main thing of any organization is communication, which is called central of all the effective change. Communication is " creating understanding" between two or more people- is not complete definition of communication but the communication is treatment of listening and feed back is practical and cogent.
Another and very important elements of change management are participation, which is perceived as a sough- after result of the empathy and communication.
Empathy, 1st key
(Robert bacal), the first elements of managing change is empathy, employee reaction to change are commonly not logical from and outsider's perspective. People reach according to their needs and want. People reaction to any change differs between person-to-person or even within one person. It refers to ability to "walk in other persons shoes" and more importantly, the emotional of individual faced with change. Knowing the employees understanding their concerns, and developing empathetic relation ship with the employees should be normal procedure of all managers. It is more critical during period of managing change.
(Kirkpatrick, 2001), According to Kirkpatrick manager should put him self in the place of employee, which is, best way to realize the employees feeling and it is also better for manager to achieve the goal with the support of team. Empathy is also a good way to know the person individually. A better manager knows the individuals who will be affected by change. There are some steps by which a manager can know about the employees, first step is looking personal files, second step is asking questions from the employee and the next and last step is listening and observing. Empathy is no inherited trait; this is something that can be developed by gating to know the other person the better way to know the person individually to analyze of conversation with each of the staff members, which they resist of, accept a change. Empathy also helps to provide clues for the communication and participation.
Participation, 2nd key.
(Coch et al, 1948), Main action step in managing change is participation. Participation is the change tends to reduce resistance build on the change and motive people to make the change to work. Participation may also lead to obtaining new information from that participation, information that may enhance the effectiveness of the change or the future
(Kirkpatrick, 2007), Participation is technique for use in conducting instructional meetings. It consists of participation of the part of learners under the guidance and control of the leaders. It only effectively used when experience have idea to contribute. The participation has it's two basic approached first one is which one is most common form is to have discussion among the participation without any hesitation and leaders gives questions and problems to entire group. Employers answer it to the leader. Second approach is that group is divided into buzz group of 4 or 5 people so that each employee can participate actively.
(Cynthia D.scott, 1995), people will more really accept change if they are involved in the process involvement means that they will have a role in defining how to meet a goal, or respond to a new situation.
Communication, 3rd key
(Robert bacal), communication play an essential role to the employees for effective change management in an organization. Managers need to have an effective communication between employees to make them realize how communication is important and it also create understanding in an organization. Managers need to look after on the employees whether they understand the importance of change management because it's a two way method.
(Kavanaugh and ninemier), the effective communication will build a better relationship among the staffs in the organization. It also improves productivity in an organization and it provides a growth to better levels of guest satisfaction.
(Sir nick Scheele, 2007), systematic communication with the employees in an organization offer an important phase for creating support to feel part of the result.
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