Democratic Leadership Or Participative Leadership Business Essay

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Open system in Organisation: An open system means open to environment. Organisation exists and utilities in environment. Environment makes the organization to obtain right type of people, technology and structure so that the goals to serve the environment can be managed. The organisation is thus critically effect the environment.

Mostly the demands or wants of the people defines the strategies and goals of an organization. What are the needs in the market and how an organization can carry new and needy products to the market create a contact between the organization and the environment. Without communication, organization cannot satisfy required products or services to the users groups. This way, an organization is an open system, without which it cannot survive.

Organisation is goal oriented: Without goal or set of goals, organisation is unusable. There is nothing for the organization to do. Therefore, the main characteristic of any organization is its goal.The goal gives line of action; acquire required type of people and uses type of technology so that the goal is achieved in an expected time point. Without goal, organization cannot be designed.

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Collection of people in organisation: People are the main performers in any organisation. In other world, all the features of any organisation are the same except the people. Even with the same age, qualification, skills and services, the output of the people may differ, simply because the needs and wants of all people are not the same. What makes them work by heart and head is the one that differentiate organisations from one to others.

Organisation consists of technology: Technology is the means of doing works. There are various types of doing works. An organisation contains of more people, its performance technique should be of a fixed type so that each individual in the organisation can exercise them well. This is how technology pledges. Technology comforts the work and reduces the time. Technology creates a certain policy necessary to keep organizational beliefs in doings of the various people at different structural level. This saves the integrity of the people in succeed goals.

Organisation has continuity: As the organization includes people, and the people produce different needs, they can leave the organization or some may die too. This does not affect the organization to stop or decrease in size. Hence, it is said that every organisation has its own continuity. A good manager can leave but other better man can take over the trust of the organisation.

AC 1.2

I have chosen KFC fast food restaurant. Its mission statement is given below.

"KFC  Kentucky fried chicken.

Brand mission is to be our customers' favorite place and way to eat."

That broad and common mission statement is more clearly defined by the Kfc Values, which reflects the experience that customers can expect when walking into a Kfc fast food restaurant no matter where it is located...

· We place the customer experience at the core of all we do.

· We are committed to our people.

· We believe in the kfc System.

· We operate our business decently.

· We give back to our communities.

· We grow our business profitably.

· We struggle continually to improve.

As KFC mission statement states, they value their customers and want to be the best place for them to eat. KFC offer a wide range of fast foods like Chicken burgers, fries, drinks etc with affordable prices. Their quality of food is so good that one thinks to go to their restaurants again and again. They offer deals including different items on the cheapest prices.

From their mission statement, we can note that their goals are to achieve market share by becoming people's favourite. By visiting them, one can say that they have almost achieved their goals because every time a great rush of people always seen there. When someone goes to the restaurant, he/she feels like he belongs to that place. Staff performance to the people in a very good manner. Restaurants are kept very neat. Their quality of food is of such a standard that customers get the value for their money.

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AC1.3

There are many different features that affect the individual behaviour at work but there are some general factors. These general features are,

Ability and Skills

Personality

Perception

Attitudes

Ability and Skills:

Ability is a person talent to perform mentel Ara physical task

Skill is a learned talent that a person has acquired to perform a task.

Personality:

Personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and traits of an individual, the inter-relations between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other people and situations. Different factors that affect the personality of an individual are heredity, family, society, culture and situation. Personality can be regarded as the most complex aspect of humans that influences their behaviour in a big way. It can be concluded that the study of personality traits offers an opportunity to understand the individuals. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating them for the achievement of the organisational goal.

Perception:

The cognitive process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in a meaningful way is referred to as perception. Every individual on the basis of his/he reference can organize and interpret environmental stimuli. There are many factors that influence the perception of an individual. The study of perception plays important role for the managers. It is important for mangers to create the favorable work environment so that employees perceive them in most favorable way. The employees are likely to perform better if they are going to perceive it in a positive way.

Attitude: are determines of behaviour because they are linked with

Perception, Personality, feeling and motivation.

Attitude: A mentel state of readiness

Learned and organized through experience

Exerting a specific response to people objects and situation which it is related.

Task 2

AC 2.1

Management:

Management is the act of getting people together to achieve chosen goals.

Management Functions:

The first person who said about the management functions was French named Henri Fayol 1916 book Administration Industrially et Generali. He identified five functions of management,

.Planning

.Organising

.Commanding

.Controlling

.Co-ordinating

Planning

The first step is planning this step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve the goal for an organisation and how to improve the company scale

The manager first step needs to decide step are necessary to accomplish that goal, these may be improve organisation growth, inventory and sales staff. The manager step to plane, than the plane is place.

Organising:

As the name suggests organising relates to assigning the tasks and roles to the employees. Managers must assign the tasks to the employees in such a way that they get clear understanding of what to do and also ensure that the tasks are assigned to employees according to their skills.

Commanding:

This function concerns how managers direct employees. Fayol addressed such activities as effective communications, managerial behaviors, and the uses of rewards and punishment in discussing how a manager should command employees.

Co-ordinating:

Co-ordinating means helping. So, managers must help their sub ordinates whenever they feel in trouble. They must try to create a friendly environment so that employees could easily share the problems they are facing while working towards the achievement of organisational objectives and goals.

Controlling

After the other elements are in place, a manager job is not finished, he needs to check result against the goal and take any corrective action necessary to make that this area plane is on track.

Managerial Roles

A role is a planned set of behaviours. Henry Mintzberg (1973) has defines ten Sub roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional.

as stated by Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 

1. Informational roles 

2. Decisional roles 

3. Interpersonal roles 

1. Informational roles: This involves the role of adjusting and disadjusting information as and when required.  

2. Decisional roles: It involves make good decision for orgnisation.

3. Interpersonal roles:

 This role involves personal things with people working in the organization.

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A.c 2.2

Management Styles:

Management styles are the characteristics of management about making decisions, their manners and behaviours with the people inside and outside the organisation.

There are four different management styles.

Autocratic

Democratic

Consultative

Laissez-Faire

Autocratic:

An autocratic management style is that where manager makes decisions on his/her own without asking their subordinates about their opinions. Manager of this style can be a confident person but he loses the trust by the subordinates. They may feel limited freedom of opinion. So, this can sometimes results to lack of employees, lack of trust and a potential lack of profitability.

Democratic:

A democratic management style is that where manager allows his/her sub-ordinates to take part in the decision making. This creates a sense of trust and satisfaction between managers and subordinates. Communication becomes easy between managers and subordinates. Complex decisions can be taken by using the specialist skills of the employees.

Consultative:

As the name suggests, consultative management style refers to consultation. Manager asks his/her sub-ordinates for their opinions but it is the manager who takes the final decision. Overall decision is taken in the best interest of employees as well as the company. In this style there is a sense of freedom but it is limited to some extent. Employees feel satisfied as they are involved in making decision.

Laissez-Faire:

Laissez-faire management style refers to the complete freedom given to employees by their managers. It is the style in which manager delegates the responsibility to the employees to make decisions. Manager directs the sub-ordinates towards the target and asks them to achieve the target using their own ways and ideas. There comes a sense of complete freedom, sense and satisfaction as employees are now free to complete the tasks using their own perception. It can bring the creativity and innovation to the work. It can also increase the profitability of the organisation.

By looking at all the management styles I would recommend the Consultative management style because, I think, a little gap between the management and the employees is must. In this style though decision is taken by the manager him/herself but he /she still asks his/her sub-ordinates about their opinions. So, he takes into account what majority needs and what will go in the favour of employees and company as well and takes the best decision. So, management is involved in decision making but up to a limit. So, according to me, consultative style is best to follow as a management style.

A.C 2.3

Leadership

A leadership is the art of motivating a people or a group act towards to achieving a combine or common goal is called leadership.

Leader ship is a force who incurring the people to achieving a common goal.

Leadership styles

Leadership have many styles

Coaching

This one on one style focuses on developing individual showing them how to improve their performance, and the big thing is helping to contact their goals for the organisation, if the coaching is well people and employee learn more.

Afflictive

This style emphasizes the importance of team work ,and create harmony in group by connecting with each other .MR.Goleman argues this approach is very important "when trying to heighten team harmony, increase moral, improve ,communication or repair broken trust in an organisation "but he warns against when you using it alone.

Democratic

This style is draw on peoples knowledge and skill and create a group to a resulting goals ,this style of leadership is best work when the direction the organisation unclear its very helpful and the leader needs to top of collective wisdom of the group.

Commanding

This style of leadership the classic model of military, it is most often when the last condition, because it rarely involves praise and frequently employs criticism, even the modern military has come to recognize its usefulness.

Leadership

Advantages & Disadvantages

Democratic:

DISADVANTAGES

Shower decision making

Less production

Every one involve

Decision making is very difficult

Leader can unsure and make everything a matter combine or meeting decision

Advantages

More individual responsibility

More relation with other organisation

More easily targeted growth

More motivate the people

Greater for production

AUTOARATIC

Disadvantages

More group hostility

More dependence on selected leader

More apathy in group

.Decision making is very difficult

Advantages

.More group productivity

.Group makes the quicker decision

. Pushes the group for more production

AC3.1

Motivation:

The urge to take action to achieve specific goal is known as motivation. It means trying to encourage somebody to decide to do something for themselves.

Motivation is important to an organisation because it enhances the quality and increases the output of an organisation. Staffs get happy, so there comes innovation in the activities of the organisations. Motivation also affects the individuals working in organisations. It increases the morale of the motivated workers and helps them deal with the challenging tasks in an efficient way. They feel like more involved in the organisation and think that they are doing something best which leads the organisation towards the profitability and development.

Organisations use different techniques to motivate their employees. A few of them are,

· Monetary rewards- According to Frederick Taylor, Monetary reward are an important motivating factor. Most of the people do agree with the statement of Taylor and it is true to some extent. By giving monetary rewards based on performance, an employee gets motivated and works hard to perform better to gain those monetary rewards. Monetary rewards include bonus payments, paying a portion of basic pay on achieving more than expected profits etc.

· Enhanced Communication- Communication refers to, not only ordering and giving feedback but, listening to the employee needs. By asking the employee about his problems on the workplace, he/she may feel like part of the organisation and motivated to perform well in his/her area of performance.

· Employee Involvement- By involving an employee in decision making for the organisation, an employee may feel like he/she is trusted to give opinions and there might be a share of his/her thought in making important decisions. Involving an employee in organisation's important activities makes them feel they are trusted so this impacts the performance of employee in a positive way.

· Job rotation- There are a lot of workers in an organisation which have to do the same tasks daily. In order to motivate them, job rotation is best. It allows them to learn new skills by shifting them from one task to another.

Autocratic Leadership:

Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have absolute power over their workers or team. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest. Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Therefore, autocratic leadership often leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. However, for some routine and unskilled jobs, the style can remain effective because the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages.

Democratic leadership or participative leadership:

Although democratic leaders make the final decisions, they invite other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving team members, but it also helps to develop people's skills. Team members feel in control of their own destiny, so they're motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward.

Laissez-faire leadership:

This French phrase means "leave it be," and it's used to describe leaders who leave their team members to work on their own. It can be effective if the leader monitors what's being achieved and communicates this back to the team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership is effective when individual team members are very experienced and skilled self-starters. Unfortunately, this type of leadership can also occur when managers don't apply sufficient control.

A.C 3.2

Motivation

Motivation is a process to attract the people for giving some packages, salary, bonus, etc.

Many companies are working in the world and TESCO is one of them

TESCO is begin 1919 with one man Jack Cohen ,a market stakeholder selling groceries in London since the TESCO has across the world ,now 2,200 stores in whole the world they have meet and customer needs ,goods TESCO have more polite ,well educated staff and trained staff. TESCO considers that the business into two groups people customer and staff.

TESCO have reward to their staff flex working

Discount gym member ship

Staff discount

Company share option

In 1911 the engineer Frederick Taylor published one of the earliest motivation theories.

Taylor search people work purely for money

In the early 1930 theorist Elton Mayo suggested that motivation at work was promoted by such factor

Greater communication

Good team work

Showing interest in other

Involving other decision making

Ensuring work is interesting and no respective

Maslow and Herzberg C:\Users\AMA\AppData\Local\Temp\ksohtml\wps_clip_image-4749.png

Maslow

Maslow argued that humans are motivated by five essential needs, and he formed a pyramid demonstrating these needs and these are called "hierarach" of needs

At the bottom of the pyramids basic needs those are motivated for food and shelter, once time these needs through pay, individual want security through, for example, good job position social need, refer to the needs to belong and to be part of a group

Maslow suggest that achieving one level motivates achieve the next

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Herzberg

Herzberg theory is based on two parts hygienic factor and motivators, his research showed that certain factor where the true motivators

This theory shows that to truly motivate an employee a business and need to the certain condition.

It's very helpful committed to work place.

Herzberg theory motivating factor helps to build a business that delivers and give consistently strong result.

Conclusion

Employee motivation is an important task for a company managers that's why the Taylor suggest pat motivated worker to improve the production and Herzberg suggest by hygienic conditions.

A.C 3.3

Frederick Herzberg, after interviewing a lot of employees, gave his theory of motivation. His theory is also known as Herzberg's two factor theory because, after interviewing the employees, there were two factors common among all the employees. These factors are Hygiene factors and Motivators.

Hygiene factors are often referred to as dissatisfies. These include the factors that make an employee unhappy for example in an autocratic work environment, employees may feel unhappy, dissatisfied and low trusted. These are the things that lead an employee to demotivation and hence, affect his performance and companies as well.

On the other hand, motivators are the factors opposite to hygiene factors. These are sometimes referred to as satisfiers. These are the factors that satisfy the employee's needs on a workplace. These factors include promotion, job recognition, responsibility etc.

Herzberg believed that businesses needed to ensure that hygiene factors were minimized in order to enable motivators to have their full effect. Managers must keep the environment in such a manner so that they could understand the problems employees are facing. They must ensure the open communication with the employees so that they could work out to solve them. These things motivate the employees and they start working and thinking in a positive way.

AC4.2

My name is Muhammad Adnan. In the class we were grouped by teacher. Then we decided the name of group. Our group name was Tiger. We decide 1 electrical thing that was cut camera.

4.1

Our group was arranged by the teacher. We was three guys in the group. Adnan sherbet iftakhar we were advertise the cctv camera.cctv  is use for monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting.cctv is amazing technology.first we thought about cctv how can we advertise the purpose of cctv.then we made a plan.we imagine one organization. DR.Browne give a chance to present ourselves and promote abilities and utilize our experience .First of all we decide to present on CCTV , because many robbery cases are seeing in city ,in banks ,or country ,when we were working a team everyone feel relax ,because many advisor who were giving many ideas but finally we decide CCTV. Teamwork can lead better decision and quality of team work may be measured by analyzing in the following six components of collaboration among the team work.

1. Communication

2. Co-ordination

3. Balance member

4. Contribution

5. Mutual support

6. Effort

When you work in a team communication is very important, teamwork is done well when everyone proper contributes and with co-coordinative mind, then your team play effective role.

In my teamwork my experience is good and will helpful for my factures.