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Industrial/organizational psychology is the diligence or prolongation of psychological methods and precepts for resolving organizational and workplace difficulties. I/O consultants are concerned with the resolution of problems induced by human functioning and those which impact human functioning within organizational settings. For resolving all these human related aspects and selection of appropriate candidates, I/O consultants develop effective selection systems (Jackson & Schuler, 1990). These selection systems are developed on the basis of specific standards or criteria's. For designing selection systems, I/O consultants usually work with HR professionals.
For the development of selection systems, I/O consultants make use of employ manifest-based practices so that they can identify the most competent candidates. It also includes a set process or standard that includes new hires as well as promotion of individuals from within the firm (Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 2010). As well, another substantial standard used by I/O consultants are the integration of specific selection tools like ability tests, personal interview, physical & knowledge tests, structured interviews, personality tests, work samples and the organized aggregation of biographical data.
Personnel selection processes are ordinarily formalized, i.e., established to be job applicable. It also makes use of different type of validity evaluations like content validity, construct validity and/or criterion-related validity. In addition to this, I/O consultants also comply with professional standards, like the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology's (SIOP) Principles for Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures and several others (Industrial/Organizational Psychology, 2010).
Solution - 2
Effectiveness of individuals, groups and organizations may be defined as the level to which an organization is thriving in arriving at its objectives. This simple definition of effectiveness becomes difficult when it associates with some specific selection of criteria. A number of theoretical issues are associated with selection of criteria for measuring the effectiveness of individuals, groups and organizations (Flood, Scott, Ewy & Forrest, 1982). The most common issues associated with this are definitions of goals that rely on what theoretical perspective is employed. For instance like a firm's turnout objectives would be accentuated in a rational system position whereas system or continuation goals would be emphasized in a natural system view.
Nowadays, organizations pursue manifold and sometimes unsuited objectives at the same time that makes an effectiveness assessment subjective and imperfect. Evaluation of effectiveness is complicated and contentious in present professional organizations. In present most of the law firms, healthcare facilities, universities and research organizations are usually multi-product firms that render different groups and interests with different goals (Flood, Scott, Ewy & Forrest, 1982). In this situation, determination of aspects of performance that can be emphasised is difficult as the ensuing measure of effectiveness can deviate in accordance to the facets analyzed.
Solution - 3
I would suggest subsequent process for conducting job analyses on the basis of my own experience and knowledge:
Identify aim of job analysis: First of all company should identify its aim of job analyses so that methods and type of data required can be determined.
Selection of Analysts: Then, the company need to select analysts from professional human resource, line mangers, incumbents or advisors.
Selection of appropriate method: Subsequently, it is essential to identify the positions that will be analyzed and review background information so that effective methods can be selected.
Train the analysts: Then, it is vital to train analyst so that they can undertake job analyses effectively.
Planning of job analysis: Afterwards, management of the company, need to do planning for job analysis. It can be done by communicating with other members and planning the documentation in the form of interview questions and questionnaires (Ngo, 2010).
Data collection: Subsequently, management should collect data by in concern to aspects like job activities, employee behaviours, human traits, working conditions and qualities necessitated to execute the job. Data can be collected by making use of different data collection tools.
Review and verify: In the end, it is essential to review and verify all the collected data so that appropriate job description and job specification can be developed.
With the help of above discussed job analysis process, my organization can significantly comply with set standards of job analysis like data collection and validity. If all these steps are followed in the given manner, the organization can easily prevent itself from the negative consequences of job analysis like wrong information about work or job and job relationships (Bratton & Gold, 2001).
Solution - 4
A competency is the potentiality to implement or apply a set of associated cognition, attainments, and abilities necessitated to effectively execute crucial work functions or jobs in a determined work setting. Competencies usually serve as a fundament for skill measures that delineate the extent of cognition, skills and abilities necessitated for attaining success in the workplace (Mathis & Jackson, 2006).
A competency model is an accumulation of competencies that exclusively evidences effective performance in a specific work environment. This model is the fundament of critical human resource functions like recruitment and employing, training and development and performance management. It defines what is necessary to choose for or to educate and explicate (Mathis & Jackson, 2006).
Job Analysis & Competency Modelling:
Job analysis is been used from last 100 years whereas competency modelling is comparatively new. Both of these concepts have identical objective - to comprehend the necessities to execute specific job or role. On the other hand, in reality these are different in the following way:
Job analysis is significantly concentrated on tasks, while competency modelling is concentrated mainly on the knowledge areas, attainments, cognitions, and other personal dimensions necessitated executing those tasks.
Job analysis requires collection of lot of statistical data whereas competency modelling employs more qualitative proficiencies.
The technique of job analysis covers almost all specifications while competency modelling only deals with those constituents that are vital to attain success (Competency Modelling & Job Analysis, n.d.).
Solution - 5
Performance can be delineated as the documentation of outcomes brought out on precise job functions or actions throughout a specified time period. It is essential to evaluate or measure the performance of an employee so that an organization or management can undertake further decisions regarding training or appraisal from time to time. Every company employs individuals for the accomplishment of specific tasks or goals. The measurement and evaluation of employee generated outcomes or results are essential for undertaking corrective or futuristic actions. By evaluating or measuring performance, the company and its managers can substantially promote or demote an employee.
Nowadays most of the organizations make use of several methods of measuring employee performance. Similar is the case with I/O consultants, they also make use of different methods for measuring and evaluating employee performance. The most common methods used are observation, rating and benchmarking. The most effective method used by I/O consultants is rating method. They use information from the job analysis for making determinations about job's performance dimensions, and then build a rating scale to depict each level of functioning for the job. With this method, it becomes easy for them to evaluate the performance of their employees.
Solution - 6
Nowadays, performance evaluation had become a critical tool for increasing employees' productivity and organization profits. However, there are some factors that work as barriers to performance evaluations that are as follows:
Lack of Fairness:
A performance appraisal process should be fair and treat employees uniformly. Unjust treatment of employees can work as a barrier to effective performance evaluation. Managers or leaders who only concentrate on the potential and acquisitions of preferred employees may neglect failings of other employees. This environment creates dissatisfaction and negatively affects performance evaluation (Heath, 2010). For resolving this barrier, it is vital that companies and management treat their employees in an equal manner and consider on the strengths and weaknesses of every employee in a fair way.
Lack of Regular Communication:
For effective performance evaluation, it is essential that regular communication is maintained among employees and supervisors. With regular feedback regarding their performance they will be aware with their future evaluations but if they are not communicated on regular basis, they will get shocked and it can also work as a de-motivation. This barrier can be resolved by regularly communicating with employees. As well, supervisors should also follow-up with employees so that their misunderstandings can be clarified and their performance can be improved (Heath, 2010).
Another substantial factor that may work as a barrier to performance evaluation is the conflict between employee and employers personality. Employees with low self-esteem may deliberate themselves incapable to change, and overconfident employees may deny admitting errors. This in turn creates lots of conflict. It can be resolved by developing a similar attitude or developing a trust and positive relations with employees so that they can be motivated to undertake change and admit their errors.
Solution - 7
Reliability and validity of assessment results is the most critical aspects in present time. Subsequent are the various factors that might influence the reliability and validity of assessment results:
Directions and assessment format: The most substantial factor that affects the validity and reliability of assessment results is the direction and assessment format. If the directions of assessment are not clear and all-inclusive, it is not possible to attain valid and reliable assessment results (Mathis & Jackson, 2006).
Assessment items: Another important factor that affects validity and reliability is the items used for assessment. If used items are adequate, correspond to what is established and easy, it is certain to assure valid and reliable results.
Construction: If the adopted performance assessment procedure is within the ability of employees and follows all vital rules for construction of items it is conform to attain reliable and valid results.
Setting: The next substantial factor that affects the validity and reliability of assessment results is work environment or setting. If analysts are distracted with noise or some other activity and are not allowed with adequate time, this may negatively affect the validity and reliability of assessment results (Bratton & Gold, 2001).
Length of assessment: Length of an assessment, substantially affects its reliability and validity. As longer an assessment is, it is more reliable and valid.
Solution - 8
Some of the threats to internal validity of assessment results at the time of evaluating the performance of individuals, teams, and organizations are potential confounding, selection bias and missing data.
In organizations a lot of administrative data is accumulated from everyday practice that is mostly used in observational studies. These data significantly differs from data that is accumulated in a study employing an experimental design where employees are randomly assigned to evaluation. In respect to observational designs, there is not any other design mechanism that can evenly distribute or control employees' features between evaluation groups. Therefore, there is a substantial potential for confounding of outcomes due to existing deviations in employees or teams (Decenzo, 2009). This threat can be resolved by establishing group equivalence through check of confounders throughout the data analysis stage to denigrate potential confounding.
Selection biasness is the results of inappropriate selection of employees for evaluations. If employees are selected in an appropriate manner or in some pre-established manner, it will become easy for organizations to reduce this threat to internal validity (Bratton & Gold, 2001). Appropriate selection of employees is essential for attaining a firm internal validity as otherwise it can direct towards biasness.