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Consumer Behaviour

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Published: Tue, 18 Oct 2016

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table of Contents

-Aim of study:


-What is the rationale for study?

-relevant theories:


-Research methodology:

-limitation of research:


Cultural and other type of bias


-advantages and disadvantages of observation method



-Target market:

-Ethical & social issues:


Psychological Effects on consumer’s buying behavior towards Hair care:

-Aim of study:

  • My aim of study is to get knowledge and awareness among the people about hair care products and to know comparison between imported and local brands in shampoo.


  • To observe, how many peoples are brand conscious.
  • To observe, what is consumer’s preference when purchasing the shampoo?
  • To observe, is price of a product motivate consumer to buy another product.
  • To observe, is advertising effect on consumer’s buying behavior?

What is the rationale for study?

In ancient times people use to wash their hair with soap and other things. Many herbs are used for hair care. With the change in technology and time shampoo is introduced in markets. Shampoo is a personal hygiene product which is very important in daily life. Now shampoo is one of the growing industry in the world. It contributes a lot in annual income. Therefore, it is essential to examine the reason that why consumers need certain types and brands of shampoo. Usually consumer select shampoo according to their hair types. The main purpose of this research is that we will study consumer preferences and the factors which influences them to switch between brands. Imported shampoo is dominate in markets so the aim of the research is to know how much awareness people have regarding to shampoos or they just switch the brand on basis of convenience of their friends and relatives. And also collect the information about how advertising effect on the psychology of consumer in case of brand switching. This study will be helpful in calculating the assertiveness of a consumers towards the usage of shampoo. And other many reasons for the consumers about switching their brands which have been suited them. The purpose to purchase shampoo is thus prejudiced by all these issues and it is vital for researchers to determine the actual or best leading factor that control consumer buying behavior.

-relevant theories:


According to Ajzen in 1988 the theory recommend a model which can measure how social actions are directed is called theory of planned behavior it forecasts the incidence of a specific behavior, providing that behavior is planned. The TPB is included of six concepts that jointly represent an individual’s real control over the behavior.

  • Attitudes – This states to the degree to which an individual has a favorable or unfavorable valuation of the behavior of concern. It requires a deliberation of the results of performing the behavior.
  • Individual norms – This refers to the certainty about whether most people support or criticize of the behavior. It narrates to a person’s opinions about whether aristocracies and people of position to the individual consider he or she should include in the behavior.
  • Behavioral intent – This mention to the motivational issues that impact a given behavior where the strongly the intent to achieve the behavior, further possible the behavior will be performed.
  • Social norms – This refers to the usual codes of behavior in a collection or people or larger social situation. Social standards are measured normative, or typical, in a group of people.
  • Supposed power – This refers to the supposed existence of issues that may ease or obstruct presentation of a behavior. Supposed power subsidizes to a person’s apparent behavioral control above each of those influences.

Marketing mix.

The marketing mix states to the set of activities, or policies, that a company uses to encourage its brand or product in the market. The 4Ps is one way of describe the marketing mix, and was first stated in 1960 by E J McCarthy. These 4p’s are Product, Price, Place and Promotion. But, currently, the marketing mix gradually contains numerous other Ps like Positioning, Packaging, People and even Politics as vital mix rudiments.These 4p’s are likely applied in this study that how product, price and promotion attract customers. Possibly, customers should buy low cost product which is same in quality with high cost item.

-Research methodology:

MARSHALL and ROSSMAN (1989) define observation as “the systematic description of events, behaviors, and artifacts in the social setting chosen for study”. Observation is method of collecting data by viewing behavior, actions, or noticing physical appearances in their natural situation. Observations can be evident (everybody knows they are being observed) or secret (no one knows they are being observed). The advantage of secret observation is that people are more possible to perform naturally if they do not know they are being observed. Nevertheless, we will typically need to conduct evident observations because of ethical issues linked to concealing our observation. Observations can also be indirect or direct. Direct observation is in which we notice interactions, procedures and behaviors as they occur. Indirect observations are when we watch the results of interactions, procedures and behaviors.

I will do research through observation method. According to Earl R.Babbie 2009 Field observation also diverge from some other models in that it is not just a data gathering activity. So I observe customers through field observing method and by mechanical devices. That what should be in their mind when they are going to buy shampoo? Is promotions are effect on their buying choice or else they buy specific brand. To get my objectives study has been conducted in general stores, pharmacies and markets located in Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Following are the important things what I want to do for field observation.

  • We have to have a permission to observe in the location that we have selected. We should be open with our task, but be alert not to interrupt others.
  • We must familiarize with location personally and observe the actions that take place.
  • While observing, make records of what we have seen and heard. In addition to written notes, we can also record observations by using camera or an audio device.
  • After field observation we should also examine data to get meaningful information out of it.

For the observation through mechanical devices, video cameras, tape recorders are placed on the event. Telescopic and microscopic lens are used in cameras. These cameras and devices are make record which can be analyzed later and may be used to demonstrate evaluation report.

limitation of research:

The limitations of the study are those features of strategy or approach that stuck or influenced the submission or explanation of the results of study. Some possible limitations are:

Access: Our study depends on having access to people for surveys. If our access is denied or else limited, then it impact bad on research, the causes for this must to be labeled.

Cultural and other type of bias: Bias is when a person, place, or thing is observed or revealed in a steadily wrong way. In research process if we get notice for bias, we must be acknowledged and we should explain what actions were taken to escape extending bias. Mostly there is lot of cultural bias are in Saudi Arabia.

Time: time is one of the main limitation for this study because we have not enough time to observe lot of consumers one by one.

-advantages and disadvantages of observation method


  • Collect the original data at the time it happened.
  • It is the only process available to gain certain type of data.
  • Subject seem accept an observational intrusion better then they respond to questioning.
  • This method allows us more clearly to observed that what people do, rather than depend on what people say they did.
  • We get whole event as it happen in its natural environment.


  • Observing someone is slow process and it is expansive also.
  • Observing and recording equipment must be available at the place of event.
  • Incomplete as a way to study about the past.
  • Cannot observe rationale for action themselves.
  • Even small scale observations take lot of time and we are not sure to get the outcomes of our wants, so we have to estimate sensibly when we use this technique.

Target market:

There is no target market for this observation, we should observe customers as many as we can.

-Ethical & social issues:

DeWALT, DeWALT, and WAYLAND (1998) guide the researcher to take certain of the field notes openly to support that what the researcher is doing is gathering data for study purpose during the research process we should take care of ethical and social issues.

  • Our research must not offend others.
  • We must respect the privacy to customers, and not to observe them as in that they irritate.
  • We must have legal permission from the branch manager to conduct research in their place.



  • E. Jerome McCarthy, 1987.Basic Marketing. Edition. Irwin Professional Publishing.
  • Marshall, Catherine & Rossman, Gretchen B. (1989). Designing qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Earl R. Babbie, 2009.The Practice of Social Research. 12 Edition. Cengage Learning.
  • DeWalt, Kathleen M. & DeWalt, Billie R. (1998). Participant observation. In H. Russell Bernard (Ed.),Handbook of methods in cultural anthropology(pp.259-300). Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.

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