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Human resource the word itself says so many things. It's very hard to describe this word we cannot give perfect definition of human resource because its describe by so many different authors. But in simple word we can say that selection of employees not by their knowledge but by their different skills, their background and also their image. Currently selection of employees is very difficult task for each and every company either the company is small or big it doesn't matter. Mostly selection done by conducting interview. Currently so many people are applying for jobs in this recession period for ex. If u want to do job as a cleaner than also you have to give proper interview for that. So nowadays recruitment became more difficult (Ju Chuel Min,Â Brian H Kleiner,Â 2001).
Human recourse management is one kind of service which companies are hiring from other people or particular HR company. This HR company do contract with companies and they help to recruit suitable people for that company. Many companies have their own HR department. Through HR general people can also apply for job and they will find suitable job for each and every person. If u are not eligible according to their criteria then from that stage you are unsuccessful.
Selection of people is very hard nowadays because there are massive amount of candidates who apply for particular job. Everyone want job in their field of experience and study. Because of this recession period company do cost cutting and they are not hiring more employers. But sometimes they need to hire someone who is best suitable for the post. At that time company as well people faces so many challenges. Such challenges like language, communication power, knowledge of particular field, writing skills, presence of mind and main thing is passion which many people don't have. Passion is main thing for each and every job. For example before few years one of my friend had applied for job in well known multinational company over there he had face this thing in interview. Interviewer had through file on his face and my friend simply gave smile and collected file and gave it to interviewer again and then the same thing
interviewer done many times. Every time my friend done the same and finally he got job because of his passion level. So the thing is if u are working with very big company on high post then sometimes you have to face such things which u cannot expect but at that time you have to control yourself (Ju Chuel Min,Â &Â Brian H Kleiner,Â 2001).
Selection on global base is very hard for companies because company as well employee who is going to work with that company can face such challenges like cultural shock, standard of living, method of doing work and many more. Nowadays company are hiring more graduates then experienced people because if they hire fresh candidates than they can train them in the needs of their criteria. Most of the companies hire employee on probation period so that if they don't like their work then they can fire them any time they want in this probation period (Eleanna Galanaki,Â 2002).
Types of Recruitment :
Process of recruitment is so much complex. There are so many issues which affect international recruitment as well local recruitment (Tomoki Sekiguchi, 2007). Nowadays craze of online recruitment is also increased. Each and every company do online recruitment these days. There are many reason behind that like it's cheaper than other kind of recruitment process, company can get more responses for the respective position, company can select candidates whoever they want. But there are demerits of e-recruitment also like it's a cheaper way but its more time consuming way of selection because company have to look on each any every application of candidates, moreover there are many undeveloped countries where people don't have more knowledge of online application process and company also can not dependent on such recruitment process Mohamed (Branine, 2008).
Than the second type of recruitment is international recruitment. International recruitment means select employee from other country (Donald H. Kluemper,Â Peter A. RosenÂ 2009). Currently most of the company focus on international recruitment because they want staff who have different quality and different knowledge compare to current staff. Nowadays most of the company open their subsidiary company in other region or other country over there they face many challenges to recruit staff of that particular region. Company have to face some challenges like economic condition, standard of living, education level, pay scale, family responsibility, culture of that region and many more. If suppose company hire one person who is married and having child than he can demand for house for his family where he or she is going to work (Branine, 2008).
Lastly local recruitment is also done by international companies. International company who open their own company or unit in other country they hiring employee from that particular company locally. There are few advantages of local recruitment like local employee have totally different kind of standard of living and mentality. Either company have to adjust with the employees or employees have to adjust with company. Economic condition is also affect local recruitment process. As an example of Australia here in Australia mostly there is a shift work so each and every company who came in Australia have follow certain timings and also pay scale which is given by government (Branine, 2008).
The process of recruitment is complicated. It's very long process and it's also time consuming process these days. Company have to follow certain things as per government rules and regulations. Even employee must be agree terms and conditions of a particular company where they are going to apply for respective job (Hackney, Michael, Kleiner, Brian H.,Â 1994). Process includes different steps which each and every candidate have to achieve if any candidate will not select between process than at that moment candidate will unsuccessful. Candidate must through from start to end. Here I am going to describe different steps of process (Noreen Heraty,Â Michael Morley, 1998).
Search for employee
Selection of employee (shortlisted candidates)
Conduct Interview for selected candidates
Checking of Reference
1. Organization Assessment :
This is the initial process of recruitment. Without these process company cannot advertise for respective job. In this process company do assessment of job that in which area position is available and which kind of candidates they want. Than they do certain analysis and make format of selection criteria and also terms and condition of employment. Then they decide how to start process and which steps they follow. How many number of candidates they want and also make particular computer program to make a draw and select some of candidates for interview.
2. Search for Employee :
After completing assessment company advertise their position through different communication medium to reach people. They gave each and every information of respective position so that people come to know what kind of this job is and what are the responsibilities for that position and what are they paying and what type of job is? It is permanent or contract base job. Mostly company hire employee on probation period to check that they are eligible for position or not.
3. Application Process :
Now in this stage candidates have to apply for the respective job. Application either made through internet or maybe written. Candidates must having such degrees or work experience or skills or knowledge as per requirement. Candidates also have to give proof of their education or work experience.
4. Selection of Employees :
Next step is a selection process. Massive candidates had applied for the respective job but company can't take interview of all of them so among them company select some candidates whose application match with their system. As per their requirement candidates become shortlisted and that candidates go to next stage.
5. Conduct Interview for Selected Candidates :
Now it's time for interview. Company invites all the candidates for interview process. Then they take interview personally as well in group. From all these candidates interviewer select only few candidates and they will go to next stage (Mak, Charles,Â 1995).
6. Checking of Reference :
When candidates apply for the job at that time they provide some reference of person whom they know. Company can call that referral and cross check of candidates. If Hr found something wrong than they can disqualify candidate at that level.
7. Final Selection :
In this stage company select relevant employee for respective designation. In this stage company select employee who is best (Mak, Charles,Â 1995).
8. Negotiation :
This is the last stage of selection process where employee bid for himself if he is deserving and having potential more than companies expectation. At that time company do negotiation with employee regarding pay scale or where they want employee on permanent bases or on contract base. After finalizing all this things than finally they hire employee.
Challenges of Recruitment :
When company do Recruitment they have to face many challenges. Challenges which include both financial and non-financial. There are many ways of recruitment process and all process having different kind of challenges.
1. Challenges of International Recruitment :
When company do International Recruitment at that time they have to focus on each and every area such as economic condition of that country, education level of people, standard of living, culture and so on. Without focusing on this area company can face many other things or they mate be recruit inappropriate employee. Here are some challenges for international recruitment (Russo, Giovanni,Â Rietveld, Piet,Â Nijkamp, Peter,Â &Â Gorter, Cees.,Â 1995).
Qualification : when company doing international recruitment first challenge they face is qualification. Each and every country have different qualification level. If we talk about India most of career oriented people having post graduate degree but if talk about Australia most of the employee having graduate degree on initial stage then if require than only they will study further.
Competition : Competition also plays important role. Most of the company having this challenge while they are recruiting people. For people company is new to their area so if people got chance to work with the company who is more familiar to them than they gave first preference to that company because other companies are new to their area.
Ethics : Ethics is very important for each and every business. But ethics is also challenge for company when they are doing international recruitment. Different countries follows different ethics. So it's hard to cope up with new employees. New employee follow their own ethics and company wants employee to follow ethics which company follow. So its very hard for company.
Immigration : Immigration is also challenge for company but less. Sometime employee apply for visa to go where company situated. But meanwhile government refuse his visa for something than company cannot do anything for that.
Culture : Culture also affect to international recruitment. As an example if one American company hire people from India than there employee may get cultural shock and sometimes he will going to left from that job.
Timings : Timings also plays a very important role while company doing recruitment. All countries have different kind of shift work like if they are hiring employee from Australia for India than there is a totally different kind of shift work in Australia.
Government Acts : While company doing international recruitment company have to recruit people as per government rules and regulations. If they hiring people from other country than for that people government have different kind of working rules. As an example if any student come to Australia and want to work with one company than there is certain work limit which either company or employee must have to follow.
2. Challenges of Local Recruitment :
When company open their subsidiary company in other country and will do recruitment from that country only than company also faced some challenges. Few challenges are same as international recruitment like qualification, ethics, competition, and government acts. There few more challenges like religious culture, standard of living, and economic condition.
Religious Culture : Religious culture is very big challenge for company. Culture differ from country to country. Suppose if any company open their subsidiary company in India than they have to follow religious culture of India. As per religious culture they have to maintain their working hours and holidays.
Standard of Living : Standard of living also affect local recruitment. Each and every country having different kind of standard of living. If we compare U.S.A. with South Africa than both countries have different kind of standard of living and mentality.
Economic Condition : Company have to focus on current and past economic condition of that country. If economic condition of country is not good than company have face other challenges like growth of company and that will directly affect to recruitment process.
HR Outsourcing : Company can outsource Recruitment process to other company. Third party will do Recruitment for that company. So that company don't have to face such challenges of Recruiting and can focus on other activity.
Motivation : Motivation plays a very important role in organization as well employee. Both have to motivated and co-operative. Without help of each other they do not take important decision.
Recruitment process is becoming more challenging day by day because of day by day culture of each and every country changing and people are also focusing more on their career. Competition also play important part in recruitment so recruitment process will be more tough in coming future. E- Recruitment is more famous way these days to recruit people because company don't have to interact with all people directly. So company can shortlist some selective candidates which are eligible for respective position than they do interview and all other stuff. So E-Recruitment is easy way for them to Recruit people. HR companies also plays important role. These days so many HR companies who does recruitment for particular company to save their time.