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According to Keith Davis, Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people act in organizations.Â It is the tool of the man the benefit of humans.Â Usually refers to the behavior of people in all types of organizations, such as industry, government, schools, etc. It helps people; structure, technology and external environment which are merged into a single efficient system.Â "
Stephen Robbins defines organizational behavior as "the field of study that the impact on individuals, groups and structure of an organization for the application of that knowledge to the effectiveness of an organization are examined to improve it."Â
According to Stephen Robbins, are the four elements of life Organizational Behavior?Â You have the leadership, employees of the company, under the guidelines of the organizational behavior of organization and timing.Â Organizational behavior is an important aspect of maintaining the interaction between employees in the company and also for healthy relationships with others ImprovesÂ to discuss other attributes such as leadership skills of the workforce, openness to the problems between workers of the higher ground and challenge are all integrated into the basic concept of organizational behavior in business to help them achieve their strategic goals.
The statementÂ isÂ intendedÂ to beÂ only inÂ theÂ roleÂ ofÂ governanceÂ andÂ behaviorÂ of people inÂ anÂ organization.Â It is theÂ relationshipÂ at different stages ofÂ the organizationÂ involvedÂ in the administration.Â ThereÂ is a closeÂ relationshipÂ betweenÂ organizational behavior and management theoryÂ in practice.Â It helpsÂ to understandÂ the problemsÂ inÂ the organization and howÂ managementÂ canÂ help solveÂ theÂ problems arise,Â whichÂ of courseÂ makeÂ some changesÂ that were implemented inÂ a modern organizationÂ and helps usÂ toÂ understand thatÂ managementÂ not only understandÂ the only toolÂ thatÂ hasÂ a handleÂ onÂ the various instrumentsÂ and go.Â Course workÂ for theÂ readerÂ theÂ relationshipÂ between the management,Â organizationÂ andÂ understandÂ theÂ trendsÂ inÂ modernÂ business organization.
General Electric (GE), the conglomerate in the State of New York Corporation, USA built, is famous for its culture.Â In the management philosophy of GE management employees to continue to share ideas to win in a culture of cooperation, vest more responsibility, authority and responsibility of front-line employees, eliminate unnecessary steps, workflow irrationalÂ repetitive (only through feedback from employees of light), remove the limits set by the crossing of the idea of sand and work where they believe that customers and the community as the emperor.Â Previously, emphasis was placed on team building and gave each other.Â All these aspects optimism helped the company build a strong faith of millions of workers to settle in the 120 long years since the company was founded by Thomas Alva Edison.Â Jeffrey Immelt, the entire society in a style that is widely known until now legendary.Â That was in 2000 until now, when overlaid GE has therefore been with the formulations of the writers of obituaries, the founders, said legacies, including the reason is the enormous growth in GE, but he was the only GE.
But after the merger of GE IT Corporation, Ling-Temco-Vought, Tenneco, things are deformed head.Â Older people as former GE chief dissection, managers, engineers and employees of all are saying about GE as something special.Â General Electric Corporation is usually visited sites, along with the community and employees in their projects, problems, etc.
The real problem began when John Francis Welch Jr., GE, years hired CEO.Â It must be hard to improve business productivity.Â A panic started setting among people who have real.Â The main provisions complaints against the people who abuse the redundancies and create a culture that is unfair to employees, OSA.Â I knew their intentions, AOT game with GE, visions years.Â She saw that as a sale of the club to other destinations that are given the same importance to achieve.Â Other objectives are the welfare of employees, customers, etc.
The above case is GE.Â It is a world thinks that GE is a pivotal role in the economy in place, year's performance.Â Critics say that an excellent corporate culture to support the company must take into account the time.Â But GE people will never agree that GE years almost every day of struggle were the days when GE was founded on the best and GE should focus on management style, to know the organization and its effectivenessÂ employees to work as well as GE is another successful company and a leading brand.
Important Work Organization Factors-
For aÂ laborÂ organization,Â noted thatÂ many aspectsÂ of success inÂ theÂ business world todayÂ andÂ the recessionÂ thatÂ is happening.Â InÂ business,Â changeÂ is still there.Â It is important to anticipate theseÂ changesÂ andÂ howÂ aÂ strategyÂ canÂ beÂ designedÂ toÂ be viewedÂ withÂ aÂ sustainable growth in theÂ business environment.Â Organizational needs andÂ desiresÂ of employeesÂ andÂ otherÂ stakeholdersÂ do notÂ maintain the requirements of its customers.
There areÂ internal problems andÂ external aspectsÂ of organizationsÂ toÂ influence decisionsÂ and strategies.Â The core competences ofÂ the organs,Â and howÂ they doÂ on your behalfÂ andÂ redirectÂ the use ofÂ differentÂ procedures.Â It alsoÂ depends onÂ theÂ people and managers throughoutÂ theÂ organizationÂ and policiesÂ of the directorsÂ presentedÂ their long-term goal.Â TheÂ reportÂ discussesÂ the above organizationsÂ onÂ issues that are crucialÂ to a successful businessÂ inÂ theÂ current market situation.
a) The contribution, motivation, rewards and roles of individuals within these groups and teams
According to Stephen P.Â Robbins, "The motivation is the desire for a high degree of organizational goals through the ability to exercise individual efforts must be completed for the year of maturity."
All functions of life are accompanied by a motivation.Â There are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic.Â Internal motivation is called intrinsic motivation.Â If external factors forcing the person to do something then it is extrinsic motivation.
Â [Http: / / www.elmotivator.com/]
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Elton Mayo, believes that a social worker will be motivated with ties to the work place and believes that workers might also recognize their social needs and make them feel important to motivating others.Â This is what is carried out by General Electric in the case of GE.Â Workers, who have known the truth of GE, said that "everyone is appreciated throughout the world as well."Â The staff was doing the independence to make decisions about activities and greater absorption is devoted to a given working groups relaxed.Â This model is called "Hawthorne affects that Elton Mayo.
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In the case study, General Electric has won a victory inspiring their employees simply on the ground.Â Never forget to get your staff to communicate with them and their problems and answers.Â All of this illustration, we can say that readers of the motivation of life.Â In everything we do motivation plays an important role.Â The concern of production, learning, ie, employment, power, victory, distribution, etc., must be motivated.
[Http: / / www.org-behavior.com]
Â The motivation process is demonstrated by various theories.Â They are:
1.Â theories based on needs: the needs-based theories include Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McGregor's Theory X and Theory of Herzberg's theory of two factors, Alder ERG needs theory, theory and McClelland
2.Â Process theories include expectancy theory, the theory of goal setting, reinforcement theory, and attribution.
3.Â Individual and organizational consistency objective is to exchange theories, housing, socialization and identification.
Maslow hierarchy theory:
Maslow's hierarchy of needs has a hierarchy of five basic needs are physiological needs: hunger, thirst, shelter, etc. Need for security: security and protection from physical and psychological damage Social needs: affection, security, love, acceptance and friendship
esteem needs: the satisfaction of internal and external meetings. Need for self: the desire to achieve their best potential.
Alder ERG theory speaks of three types of needs of the basic needs of physiological needs and security needs is like searching for the maintenance of important interpersonal relationships: social needs and external components of self-esteem needs and the needs of growthÂ : a deep desire for personal development: the intrinsic component of self-esteem and self-realization.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y.Â Theory X is the assumption that workers want to work and are lazy, unwilling to take responsibility, and unmotivated.Â Theory Y assumes that employees enjoy work, are creative, motivated, and farm seekers.Â Two-factor theory of talks Herzberg two opposing views of satisfaction and dissatisfaction, and also speaks of two factors: motivators and hygiene factors.Â Need McClelland's theory deals with the need for a service.Â In other words, calling for a desire to excel to a higher purpose, to seek greater responsibility and try to succeed.
All these theories more or less what happens to the factors creating the motivation of individuals and the influence of motivation in a company.Â As General Electric (GE), previously the company was in the assembly in a good mood and improves the effectiveness of the company.Â But after the merger, things are completely in the head. The new high-level officials are so intently on profitability and not on the motivation of their employees.Â This opened the way to disappointment among workers with a negative impact on business productivity. Reward system consists of financial rewards and benefits to workers who are collectively known as payment.Â They also include non-monetary benefits such as recognition, promotion, praise, power, responsibility and personal growth.Â Recent studies and surveys on pay systems those organizations of the criteria for the reward, both monetary and non-impact a large monetary reward to workers and the performance and employee performance.Â In response to the question of why belongings system needs, we have some reasons to improve the efficiency of the organization is able to achieve integration, motivate employees to compete in the labor market, greater work commitment, it can to attractÂ workers with better skills and more equitable, quality improvement, the development team.
As part of General Electric (GE), but compensation plays an important role in staff morale has been more influenced by changes in the emotional environment of the company and abrupt changes in corporate culture.Â If playing with a different culture of informality, it is difficult in the new environment that is so formal, and does not give importance to survive his opinion.Â If an organization is important for the views and opinions of staff, consider it better to work on these cases because it is human nature to want to see improved performance when people are given a series of functions.
[Steve Williams & Fred Luthans (1992), ' The Impact of Choice of Rewards and Feed Back on Task Performance, Journal Of organizational Behavior. Vol. 13, P: 653-666]
[Katzenbach, J.R. & Smith, D.K. (1999). The Wisdom Of Teams. New York: HarperBusinees]
Management and leadership relating to both groups and teams:
Alan Keith said that "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute, something strange happened." Said Tom De Marco guide to distinguish the gossip.Â North house said guide is a process in which an individual influences a group of individuals towards a common goal.Â Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art, things made by man."Â Defining a new direction or vision of a group with the objectives of this group is known as the initiative completely.Â But management is the organization that brings together people and resources in a group already established names.Â terms of management and leadership are often confused, they are actually different, but interrelated.Â General Electric (GE) developed dealt with the familiar style of leadership to the organization as a family.Â Apparently, since the growth of General Electric (GE), which have been very successful in dealing with people.
Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus (1997), he said. "Leadership is like the Yeti, whose tracks are everywhere, but is not in sight" Leadership is everywhere, but nobody seems able to determine if you see whatÂ good leadership.Â He was studying in Holland in his book a study of the HL Smith and Krueger (1933), the various primitive cultures in the world and concludes that the guide exists among all people, regardless of culture, race or positionÂ discussed.Â Although companies do not like traditional leaders or elected officials, tribal leaders, administrators, there is always someone who starts a process and plays a crucial role in deciding a group (Bass, 1990).Â General Electric (GE) found that leadership qualities are hidden in each individual case and thus created a culture of respect for each other to develop a sense of integrity in the organization.
According to Hollander, the direction of a process that consists of three main parts. The first is the leader, the second and the third is the work culture of the organization.Â If the relationship between these three components is not compatible, so a long-term vision and leadership fails, then the team.Â The first component of leadership is the leader.Â A leader must have certain beliefs, perceptions, characteristics of good leadership and team performance.Â A leader must be in possession of the Wallenda factor closely.Â The Wallenda factor is the ability to think only in the next, and concentrate on the task and not think about failure.Â The Wallenda factor given the name of a famous tightrope walker Karl Wallenda fell to his death.Â Karl Wallenda was preparing for his most difficult trick of his life.Â But I could not think of 3 months before the maneuver failed, instead of difficult specialist.Â Control and supervision of the construction of his rope, he has never done before and after you think otherwise, has fallen for the first time.Â (Bennis and Nanus, 1997).
The willingness to share power and control over the quality of the team needs a leader. As a traditional rule is not good for a leader should be as a player or coach.Â As already seen in the case of General Electric (GE), managers should be to support and encourage our employees to solve problems themselves.
[Bass, M.B. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. New York, NY: The Free Press]
[Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1997).Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. New York, NY: HarperCollins]
[Hollander, E.P. (1978). Leadership Dynamics. New York: The Free Press]
Group structures, goals and objectives:
Group structures are important because it plays an important role in determining the productivity of a group.Â A group can be more independent than the combined effect of employees.Â A successful leader of a group can lead to success.Â Several organizations form the structure of their groups differently depending on their objectives.Â Groups of no more qualified employees or vice versa.Â The lack of qualified group cannot reach the goals.Â Tasks and objectives provide the team with the means to do anything and will end its successful implementation.
If the work is done in well-managed groups, groups that benefit from the freedom of operation and management that can increase job satisfaction.Â Group members should be aware of / his contribution to the group, and is estimated to start each individual program attractive group as a whole.Â The group structure of good work to employees of the partnership.
Statements that describe the vision that meets or regards the results of actions implemented in the future as targets.Â Goals provide a broader context of what is the vision and what he wants.Â Objectives are statements that are more closely linked i.e concrete, tangible products and services benefits that accrue as a result of the action. The goals set high goals.
Goals can be more than one goal at a higher level.Â To be precise, the achievement of many objectives will guide the success of a goal.Â The general objectives cannot be measured.Â The objectives are defined as long-term objectives, in which validation is possible in the future, while the target was a gradual process and the result is the successful culmination of a goal.
Obstacles to Organization Performance:
In the last decadeÂ aÂ largeÂ amountÂ ofÂ evidenceÂ can beÂ said isÂ thatÂ successful companies are controlledÂ byÂ effective leaders.Â TheÂ long-term successÂ canÂ onlyÂ be ensuredÂ through effective management.Â SuccessfulÂ managersÂ promote sustainable growthÂ throughÂ skills, attributesÂ and personal qualities.Â AfterÂ PlefferandÂ VeigaÂ (1999),Â common senseÂ and general knowledgeÂ are different.Â DiscoverÂ thingsÂ are different.Â The abilityÂ to analyzeÂ a problem isÂ toÂ recognizeÂ a problem andÂ aÂ realÂ solutionÂ isÂ to proposeÂ an effective manager ofÂ allÂ theÂ features thatÂ makeÂ the efficient organization ofÂ the most important factorsÂ in qualityÂ andÂ humanÂ resource management.Â In thisÂ test,Â the essential characteristics ofÂ an effective organizationÂ andÂ the main obstacles toÂ the effective performance ofÂ the organizationÂ andÂ discussed howÂ toÂ overcome.
Qualities of the human resource:
The successÂ of an organization dependsÂ on the type ofÂ humanÂ resources.Â According to WhettonÂ andÂ CameronÂ (2005)Â theÂ most important personalÂ qualitiesÂ is essentialÂ to raising awarenessÂ of himselfÂ andÂ as aÂ manager'sÂ abilityÂ to solveÂ problemsÂ analyticallyÂ and creatively. Self-consciousnessÂ does not stopÂ atÂ theÂ individual level,Â butÂ awarenessÂ of theÂ inner potential andÂ possibilitiesÂ as a team andÂ organization.Â Self-awarenessÂ helpsÂ customersÂ better understandÂ a lookÂ atÂ yourÂ lifestyleÂ and historyÂ ofÂ CoxÂ (1994)Â inÂ their workÂ suggestsÂ that self-awarenessÂ isÂ veryÂ importantÂ forÂ aÂ concept thatÂ they defineÂ their ownÂ dignityÂ and people's intelligence,Â emotional.Â awareness of theÂ valuesÂ of the person,Â the guidelines state thatÂ decisions are made.Â IfÂ a person knows heÂ isÂ inside,Â youÂ can see the differencesÂ between individuals inÂ theÂ group work.Â AÂ effective managerÂ isÂ easyÂ to appreciateÂ different perspectives andÂ a senseÂ ofÂ obligationÂ toÂ create a team.Â Other people skillÂ aÂ managerÂ requiresÂ the ability toÂ solveÂ problemsÂ analyticallyÂ and creatively.
According toÂ StephenÂ P.Â Robbins,Â "TheÂ motivationÂ isÂ theÂ desireÂ forÂ aÂ highÂ levelÂ ofÂ effort forÂ theÂ organization intends to carryÂ out,Â dueÂ toÂ the abilityÂ of the effortsÂ ofÂ aÂ numberÂ of individual needs."Â InÂ GE,Â when theÂ company wasÂ different disputes workersÂ leftÂ their hopes.Â ThisÂ hasÂ createdÂ conflictsÂ between theÂ organizationÂ and employees.Â Soon,Â the organizationÂ has madeÂ a motivating factorÂ in society.Â Because workersÂ have relaxedÂ theirÂ hopesÂ wereÂ re-motivated toÂ work inÂ theÂ security chain.Â GE is the social contactÂ atÂ workÂ with theirÂ employees.Â The workersÂ wereÂ motivatedÂ byÂ the recognitionÂ ofÂ social needsÂ and make themÂ feelÂ important,Â among otherÂ things.
Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The staffÂ was not evenÂ at work,Â wearing shortsÂ withÂ poloÂ shirtsÂ andÂ sneakers.Â They areÂ toÂ workÂ comfortably.Â They were askedÂ toÂ tellÂ jokesÂ andÂ fun lovingÂ work.Â Â
The general managerÂ hasÂ always believedÂ thatÂ societyÂ is strongerÂ when there isÂ loveÂ inÂ theÂ atmosphereÂ thatÂ fear.Â This has createdÂ aÂ cultureÂ of responsibility, respectÂ and responsibility thatÂ comes fromÂ freedom. ThisÂ makes themÂ the mostÂ admiredÂ in theÂ world.Â TheÂ agendaÂ had onlyÂ followedÂ the staff areÂ theÂ firstÂ customers.Â GEÂ believes thatÂ ifÂ youÂ treatÂ yourÂ employeesÂ wellÂ asÂ theyÂ treat customers well.Â AndÂ ifÂ you treatÂ yourÂ customersÂ andÂ returnÂ and theÂ shareholders are happy.
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE:-
In GE becauseÂ employeesÂ were treatedÂ asÂ firstÂ customerÂ to take,Â there was aÂ gapÂ between managementÂ and employees.Â AlthoughÂ GEÂ has triedÂ to overcome it butÂ notÂ fully understood.Â EmployeesÂ haveÂ a mutual understandingÂ between them andÂ theirÂ leader, butÂ not theÂ administration.Â CEOÂ agreementÂ wasÂ someÂ controversyÂ amongÂ the employees.
InÂ GEÂ staff takesÂ theÂ regular timeÂ toÂ beÂ in management.Â AndÂ older workersÂ are not satisfiedÂ withÂ theÂ employee.Â BothÂ wereÂ trainedÂ andÂ educated inÂ the sameÂ environment, evenÂ ifÂ they conflict withÂ their culture.Â TheÂ newÂ advertisingÂ thatÂ collisions.GEÂ soon have triedÂ toÂ overcome.Â This can beÂ overcomeÂ if theÂ workersÂ are inÂ the sameÂ routine,Â or mayÂ workÂ in differentÂ layers.Â Therefore,Â theÂ problemÂ ofÂ culture clash might be resolved.
CHANGING NATURE OF MODERN WORK ORGANISATION:
The changing nature depends on the people of the organization. Environment causes and mental attitude of the people in the organization.Â As elsewhere in the world, the economy changed, put on improving the competitiveness of companies in the market and more customers.Â There are no constant or flexibility have different changes in the company.
New technologies and the rapid spread of the market in public and private sectors and the different effects of increased social and political attractiveness to business ethics.This attention to the ethical decisions of managers and employees.Â Consequently, many of them have started to select these ethics.Â The changing nature of work of the organization is lobbying the awareness and importance of modern ethics.Â Global competition is to ensure the management philosophy of the application on trust and teamwork.Â Employees are responsible to work for it.Â Employees receive training and personal development.Â The technology has enabled business innovation to be way back to work and restructured and jobs are hard to change the redesign of the organization. This management has taken the diplomatic decisions and new ideas of motivation and development process. Employees are encouraged and permitted their goals and objectives.
Due to the modern way to work the type of organization, the emergence of management has changed.Â Many organizations have their organization to the changing nature of the organization.Â A management decision on the last or the type of organization has changed management is the cornerstone of organizational effectiveness.Â "