Frederick Herzberg's two factor motivation hygiene theory categorizes incentives as being either hygiene factors or motivators. Hygiene factors are potentially dissatisfiers-factors associated with the job itself but not intrinsic to it. These factors such as salary, job security, administration, interpersonal relations, if not adequate could operate to dissatisfy someone but would not necessarily motivate someone when adequate. On the other hand, motivator-factors are directly intrinsic to the job itself and critical in the process of doing the job, including sense of achievement and recognition by colleagues, level of felt responsibility and empowerment are keys to real motivation (Herzberg, 1959). What is essential to understanding this concept is the distinction made between a motivator and a satisfier. A satisfier is that factor which, when fulfilled, is enough to get the employee to come to work at all. On the upper end, a motivator is
that which actively drives the employee to go beyond the minimum standard of simply showing up. Herzberg promoted such concepts as Job Enrichment, Job Enlargement, and Job Rotation as potential motivators that worked well for those operating at the higher levels of Maslow's need hierarchy. It is important to keep in mind that once an individual has thoroughly pursued a motivator, it is likely to become a hygiene factor, and the search for motivating factors continues.
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(Herzberg, 1959). Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory According to Herzberg, factors causing work satisfaction (motivators) are rather in connection with the content ofwork, while those causing dissatisfaction (hygiene) are in connection with work environment. Good examples of the first factors are taking responsibility, career advancement, recognition and
the possibility to develop (achievement), while salary, status, inter-personal
relations, company policy and administration as well as work conditions are
examples of factors of dissatisfaction
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Current risk organization theory and standards have the same opinion that not all risk is bad. Most of these include opportunity alongside threats within the meaning of risk, and they wait for the risk process to speak to both opportunity and threats justifiably, proactively and efficiently. However current risk management rehearsal still focuses on intimidation. Managing chance through the risk procedure is often seen either as an not obligatory extra, or as only for advanced practitioners, or as just plain wrong. Why is this? This paper draws on human motivation theory (Maslow) and the latest ideas in information science (memetics) to explain the discrepancy. It also proposes practical solutions to promote management of opportunity within the risk process. Maslow's "hierarchy of needs" seeks to explain human motivation, and proposes a layered series of motivators ranging from survival to self-actualisation. Applying this framework to risk management reveals why
individuals and organisations think first about threats, and why they see opportunities as optional extras to be addressed later if at all.
Memetics suggests that ideas (or "memes") can be seen as packets of information which self-replicate like genes. According to this theory, the "risk is bad" meme appears to be better adapted to the current environment
than the "risk includes both threat and opportunity" meme. The paper describes how to motivate project teams and organisations to address opportunity based on Maslow's theory, and how to enhance the competitiveness of the threat-plus-opportunity meme through memetic engineering. Applying these solutions will strengthen the ability to address opportunities through the risk
process, bringing practice into line with theory. Despite these different means of gratification, our common desire for love makes us brothers or sisters under
Â Over ten years ago, a debate arose within the project risk management community concerning the nature of the types of risk to be managed within the scope of the project risk management process (summarised in Hulett et
al, 2002). Until then project risk had been seen as exclusively negative, defined in terms of uncertain events which could result in loss, harm, delay, additional cost etc, with "risk" being synonymous with "threat". This definition reflected the secular definitions found in non-technical dictionaries (for example Collins, 1979).
From the late 1990's project management professionals began to realise that there were other types of uncertainty that mattered. Sometimes good things might occur on a project which would result in saved time or reduced cost, or which would enhance productivity or performance. Such "opportunities" could be brought under the existing definition of risk by simply expanding the types of impact to include positive as well as negative effects. This resulted in a change in approach by a number of organisations, including the Project Management Institute (PMIÂ®). The Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBoKÂ® Guide, 2000 Edition) adopted a definition of project risk as "an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project objective." (Project Management Institute, 2000). This broader definition
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
has been retained in the current PMBoK Guide and PMI's Combined Standards Glossary (Project Management Institute, 2004, 2005). It is also reflected in a number of other leading standards, both in the project management area (for example Association for Project Management, 2004, 2006) as well as in more general risk standards (Australian/New Zealand Standard, 2004; Institution of Civil Engineers et al, 2005; Institute of Risk Management et al, 2002; Office of Government Commerce, 2007). The forthcoming ISO risk management
standard is also expected to adopt a similar position. The use of the project risk process to manage both upside and downside risk is not only embodied in a wide
range of standards, but it has been described in textbooks as "good practice" (for example Chapman & Ward, 2003; Hillson, 2004; Cooper et al., 2004; Hillson & Simon, 2007). There are a number of benefits available to those who include opportunities in the risk process (see figure 1). The first potential explanatory framework for why organisations might find it hard to address opportunities as
part of their risk management process comes from the work of Abraham Maslow on human motivation, as encapsulated in his "hierarchy of needs" (Maslow, 1943, 1987). He postulated that humans are motivated by the drive to satisfy needs, of which there are a variety of different types. However not all needs are equal, and
Maslow arranged the various needs in order of their "pre-potence" or influence over people. This ordering is usually represented as a pyramid, with the "higher needs" at the top and "base needs" at the bottom. There are several alternative versions of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, one of which is shown in figure1.
A key feature of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is his contention that people are driven to satisfy lower needs before higher needs exert any influence. So for example, the most basic needs of air, water, sleep and food must be met first, and are the over-riding concern of each individual, even more important than being safe or feeling self-esteem. Once these are satisfied a person is free to be concerned about other things. As each level of "hunger" is met (with literal physical hunger at the lowest level), higher needs emerge which require satisfying. Maslow divided his hierarchy of needs into two groups, with "deficiency needs" towards the base, and "growth needs" (or "being needs") at the top. Deficiency needs are those which must be satisfied, and without which a
person might be said to be deficient or "needy". The individual does not necessarily feel anything positive if these needs are met, but feels anxious if they are not. When these needs are met, they are removed as active drivers of behaviour. Deficiency needs are mostly physical and emotional. Growth needs by contrast are those which add to a person, which are not necessarily required for a healthy existence, but which make a person more fully rounded and complete. This type of need is psychological and spiritual, and they form more enduring and permanent motivators. How is this relevant to the question of why individuals and organisations might find it difficult to implement opportunity management as part of an integrated risk process? Assuming that Maslow's hierarchy of needs is as valid for organisational motivation as it is for individuals, this framework would predict a strong preference for actions which satisfy "deficiency needs", and that these would take precedence over actions which target "growth needs". Translating this to the risk domain requires an understanding of which risks relate to the different types of needs.
Deficiency needs are about survival, ensuring that the essentials are available to maintain life. In the organisational risk context, this naturally leads to a focus on threats. A threat is any uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, will have an effect on objectives which is negative, unwelcome, harmful, adverse etc.
According to Maslow, both individuals and organisations will be motivated to address these risks as the highest priority. For individuals, the concern is to avoid problems, save face, protect one's reputation etc. At the organisational level, this is the realm of business continuity and disaster recovery, which aim to protect the
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business and ensure corporate survival. Deficiency needs are also addressed by operational risk management and health & safety, since these are also about feeding and protecting the corporate organism. At project and tactical levels, the need to tackle deficiency needs is also likely to be strongly influential, with a focus on dealing with threats to achievement of project objectives.
By contrast, opportunities would appear in Maslow's hierarchy as growth needs, being those uncertainties that, if they occurred, would have a positive, welcome, helpful effect on achievement of objectives. Such growth needs exist in such areas as marketing and business development, as well as strategic decision-making, and they also exist at project level in the form of project opportunities. While these are undoubtedly good things, and in themselves they are clearly worth pursuing, Maslow's hierarchy of needs predicts that there is likely to be less motivation to satisfy these higher needs than there is to address more basic deficiencies. In other words, given a limited amount of time, effort or resources (which is the normal situation in most projects), an organisation will
be driven to address threats before opportunities. If the environment is perceived as threatening, then the need to remove or minimise threats will always take precedence over the option of exploiting opportunities, since the drive to survive is stronger than the attraction of growth. Maslow's hierarchy of needs seems to explain why both individuals and organisations are motivated to deal with threats before opportunities, since threats operate at the lower levels of the hierarchy and threaten deficiency needs, whereas opportunities exist at the higher levels and are seen as lower priority.
A second useful framework for understanding the current reluctance to adopt an inclusive approach to risk management is the recently-developed hypothesis of memetics (Brodie, 1996; Blackmore, 2000). This wasintroduced by Richard Dawkins as a development of the "selfish gene" approach to biology (Dawkins, 1989). Dawkins proposed an extension of this idea, applying it to information theory, postulating the existence of a hypothetical "meme" as a self-replicating unit of information, analogous to a gene, which drives human behaviour and culture. From this initial innovation, the ideas of memetics mirror genetics, with such principles as survival of the fittest, competitive adaptation, mutation, replication, propagation etc. Whitty has applied the memetic approach to project management and found it to be a useful paradigm to generate new insights (Whitty, 2005). A meme is defined as a package of informational content, approximating to an idea or concept, which exists in the human brain or mind, and which seeks to replicate by transfer to other brains or minds. It is the basic unit of cultural transmission, and culture can be seen as the sum total of all memes. Clearly there are very many memes currently in existence, all of which are competing for the limited resources of human attention and absorption into current culture. The most successful memes are those which are best adapted to the environment in which they operate, which leads them to replicate and become dominant. Dawkins argues that dominant memes are not necessarily beneficial to human individuals or society, and that harmful memes can take root in the same way that viruses can cause pandemics. The important feature which determines the persistence of a particular memeis its competitive advantage when compared to the other memes against which it competes.
Having created this hypothetical framework, it is possible to develop an approach called "memetics", analogous to genetics, to describe how memes operate. The term "memetic engineering" can be used to describe attempts to manipulate memes in order to produce a desired outcome. While the basis for memetics is challenged by many as entirely hypothetical and unproven, the memetic paradigm offers useful insights into many aspects of human behaviour and culture, including management of risk.
Â Solutions from Maslow
Taking Maslow's model first, there are three ways in which an organisation might proceed if it wishes to adopt the broader risk approach including management of opportunities equally alongside threats.
1. Ensure effective threat management. The first is simply to make sure that all the lower-level motivators are fully satisfied all the time, allowing the organisation to move on to the higher levels. In other words, a risk process which deals effectively with threats will result in an organisation which is confident and relaxed, and which feels secure in its ability to handle both foreseen and emergent negative events and circumstances. Once these more basic deficiency needs are met, the organisation will feel free to release energy and resources to address the growth needs represented by opportunities.
2. Develop conscious opportunity management. A positive focus within the organisational culture on the benefits available from proactive management of opportunities will create a motivational force to counter that of the lower-level need to deal with threats. If management express a requirement for projects to
identify and capture opportunities, and reward such behaviour visibly, then teams will respond appropriately. Making management of opportunities both explicit and required will maximise the chances of this approach being adopted. By emphasising the value of the higher growth needs, their motivational
value can be increased, even if the lower-level deficiency needs are not all met.
3. Practice emotional literacy. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is not universally accepted, and some researchers and practitioners believe the linear hierarchy oversimplifies human motivation (for example Wahba & Bridgewell, 1976). The reality of human motivation is like to be much more complex. Studies of
disadvantaged communities where deficiency needs are clearly unmet often find unexpectedly high levels of contentment and fulfilment, indicative of the higher needs being met. For example the Kingdom of Bhutan is renowned for its high Gross National Happiness (GNH), introduced as a key national measure by
King Jigme Singye Wangchuck in 1972 (Kinga et al., 1999), despite its low development status.
Theoretical framework, population & sample, data collection, data analysis
The researcher visited the different libraries for journals, articles and studies needed for the research. The researchers gathered time-series data from different Banking institutions to assure of its validity and consistency. The researchers would also gathered different news and articles regarding the past events that involves or has consistent customer interaction as its main issue. It would tackle evidences of how proper services, awareness serves as the means affect the profit and increase the margin for more clients. The researcher has also researched data of the banks that have similar situations with CIMD The researcher would gather data from 2007-2009 to be able to assure consistency and reliability.
This study will took place within CIMB BANK BERHAD in Malaysia.Â Participants will be selected according to their desire to participate in this study.Â Narrative data will be generated from all researched studies such as journals, articles, academic references, etc. The data analysis will Quantitative research enables the researcher to generate new theories from gathering descriptive data about the research topic. Quantitative research process involves the result of a certain procedure. The type of qualitative research studies undertaken are ethnographical, which refers to the description of a phenomenon from a cultural group or society, grounded theory, which focuses on real life settings and phenomenological which describes different experiences.Â Quantitative research is used to identify the specific effect which leads to using statistical evidence and appropriate statistical tools. It is also used for intervention studies and randomized control trials, which is the gold standard, observational and cohort studies. The quantitative approach is applicable to smaller sample group to generate rich data. Â Hopkins (2008) defined quantitative research method in the following words, "Â In quantitative research your aspire is to settle on the relationship flanked by one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research design are either evocative (subjects usually measured once) or new (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A evocative study establish only relations between variables."Â Hopkins (2008) defined quantitative research method in the following words, "Â In quantitative research your aspire is to settle on the relationship flanked by one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research design are either evocative (subjects usually measured once) or new (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A evocative study establish only relations between variables."Â
Â Research methodology
The agreed consumers of CIMB BANK BERHAD to answer the semi-interviews are two medical practitioners, general managers, homemakers, and two college students. They were chosen purposively for the reason of this study. A designed questionnaire for semi-interview was utilized for collection of data from the participants. Below are the selected questions asked during the interview:
How long have you been patronizing CIMB SDN BHD-MALAYSIA's services?
Do you have any plans changing banks?
Are you happy with the services provided by CIMB SDN BHD-MALAYSIA?
Â Â Â Â Â Â The questions consisted of the following broad sections; and approach through the services proved by CIMB BANK BERHAD and information and insight about dissimilar aspect of their services. These selected interview questions were created to identify how CIMB BANK BERHAD conduct their sevice and how much they aim to satisfy their financial needs. Since they interact with such with the representatives of CIMB BANK BERHAD first had, they are the most suitable subjects for this study. I have incorporated their family's views on this and how they respond to the participant views. Their family's wer3e included since they are also consumer body. These participants were invited through the accumulated list of consumers that participant in their Customer Satisfaction Survey (CSAT). 30 participants were invited however, only eight responded. Each participant went through semi-interview for 30 minutes. Â
A previous meeting was made with the participants. Accordingly the participants were briefed and were given a schedule as to when the official interview will occur. Â
Both Doctors, in this study, have the same qualifications below:
More than a year as customers of CIMB SDN BHD-MALAYSIA
Above 25 years old
Has active profession
Both homemakers have the same qualifications:
More than a year as customers of CIMB SDN BHD-MALAYSIA
Above 18 years old
No source of income except their spouse
Both Students have the same qualifications:
Dependent on their parents regarding financial needs
Above 18 years old
Both general managers have the same qualifications
Has control and jurisdictions on the profit of their industry
Above 25 years of age
Apart from the consumers of CIMB, this study has interviewed employees, upper management to discuss several questions in regard to the services they render.
During the interviews the doctors, general managers, and homemakers were willing to answer the questions. The students, in the other hand, were at times reluctant to answer some of the questions. The students must have thought their answers weren't accurate.Â
Â Limitation and scope of the study
Â Â Â Â Â Â A form from HR department had to be filled detailing the research project and once approved by Human Resource manager, it will be forwarded back to the researchers' university for approval.Â Once approved, further permission would have to be sought for the research project by filling out forms from the Ethics committee. Also the researcher will require the permission from the CIMB BANK BERHAD board.
The limitations of this project would be of financial assistance and the participation of the patients. Participants may not be willing to participate and share their information. While financial assistance may have denied assistance.
The participant are initially invited verbally. If willing, the patient signed a waiver that he/she approved the participation of this program.
The participant will have the option not to disclose certain information if requested. Participants who present with acute right lower abdominal pain, over the age of 10 years, referred from Human resource and Operations management. Â
Finding & discussion
The wide purpose of the study was to recognize the manner of the participants towards CIMB BANK BERHAD clients and their information and awareness about dissimilar aspects of their service. The result revealed that all are satisfied with the services that they have been receiving from CIMB BANK BERHAD. Below are the statements argued by the participants:
'I don't to change banks since they are very much in tuned with what I need'
'A lot of people are deprived of basic assistance; Here, I feel that customer service is their priority and they make sure that I get something from my investments'
All of them affirmed that they may meet battle from other banks and hey have been invited several times to change bank. Two of the articipants, have tried venturing to other banks. However, they only did those as supporting banks, their priority Banks is and will always be CIMB SDN BHD-MALAYSIA.Â
Summary & conclusion
Most of the industrial countries gradually changed from industrialized economies to information or knowledge based economies, where human beings become the most valuable asset due to the tacit knowledge embedded which is difficult to access (Gwin , 2003). Therefore, we have knowledge management system which developed to discover, capture, apply and share the knowledge. The knowledge management is actually rather new in banking industry of Malaysia. All the while, there are a lot of hidden knowledge or inside knowledge that have not been explored. In conclusion, knowledge management is an effective way for Malaysian banks to build up the competence in the market not only to compete with foreign banking institutions but also gaining reputation in the eyes of world.
As seen in the report, all of the interviewed parties are very much satisfied with the services that they acquire from CIMB SDN BHD-MALAYSIA.Â
Ackoff, R. L., "From Data to Wisdom", Journal of Applies Systems Analysis, Volume 16, 1989 p 3-9 Â
A. J. Cañas, J. D. Novak, F. M. González, Eds. 2004, The Value of Concept Maps for Knowledge Management in The Banking and Insurance Industry: A German
Case Study, Pamplona, Spain.Â
Bank Negara Malaysia 2005, Laporan Tahunan 2005,
Kuala Lumpur: Printelligence Sdn. Bhd.Â
Daniel Moonkee Min., Jong Ryul Kim., Won Chul Kim., Daihwan Min., Steve Ku. 1996, "IBRS: Intelligent Bank Reengineering System, "Decision Support System 18, pp. 97-105.Â
Foskett, A.C., The subject approach to information, Linnet Books, The Shoe String Press, Inc., Hamden, Connecticut, 1982, p. 1Â
Gwin , C. 2003, Sharing Knowledge- Innovations and Remaining Challenges, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.Â
Hafiza Muhamad Ali, Nor Hayati Ahmad September 2006, Knowledge Managment in Malaysian Banks, A NewParadigm, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 7, No. 3.Â
Hafizi Muhamad Ali, Zawiyah M. Yusof 2004, Knowledge Management in Malaysian Banks: A Study of Causes and Effects, SAGE Publication, Vol. 20, pp 161-168. Knowledge Management in Malaysia - Why Slow Adoption?[online] 2006, available from: http://www.knowledgeboard.com/item/2643/23/5/3Â
Knowledge Repositories: Organizational Learning and Organizational Memories, available from: http://www-sers.cs.york.ac.uk/~kimble/teaching/mis
Pete Loshin 22nd October 2001, Knowledge Management [online], ComputerWorld, available from: http://www.computerworld.com/databasetopics/data
/story/0,10801,64911,00.html "The Bank of Tokyo- Mitsubishi, Ltd.", Accelerating
Customer-Oriented Banking with Knowledge Management [online], available from:
WenCang Zhou 2006, The International Journal of Knowledge Culture & Change Management, The Knowledge Management in China Banks, vol. 6,
no. 5, pp 91-97.Â
Wettayaprasit W., Wongshuay T., Sahatpatan K., Chamtitigul N., Jirasontikul R., Sriraksa R., Benjapolpithak P. 2005, Knowledge Management for Information Technology Section of Government Saving Bank(GSB) in Southern Thailand.
Wikipedia, Knowledge [online], available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge
Ackoff, R. L., "From Data to Wisdom", Journal of Applies Systems Analysis, Volume 16, 1989 p 3-9Â
A. J. Cañas, J. D. Novak, F. M. González, Eds. 2004, The Value of Concept Maps for Knowledge Management in The Banking and Insurance Industry: A German Case Study, Pamplona, Spain. Â
Bank Negara Malaysia 2005, Laporan Tahunan 2005, Kuala Lumpur: Printelligence Sdn. Bhd. Â
Catherine Gwin 2003, Sharing Knowledge- Innovations and Remaining Challenges, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Â
Daniel Moonkee Min., Jong Ryul Kim., Won Chul Kim., Daihwan Min., Steve Ku. 1996, "IBRS: Intelligent Bank Reengineering System, "Decision Support System 18, pp. 97-105. Â
Foskett, A.C., The subject approach to information,Â Linnet Books, The Shoe String Press, Inc., Hamden, Connecticut, 1982,Â p. 1Â
Hafiza Muhamad Ali, Nor Hayati Ahmad September 2006, Knowledge Managment in Malaysian Banks, A New Paradigm, Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 7, No. 3. Â
Hafizi Muhamad Ali, Zawiyah M. Yusof 2004, Knowledge Management in Malaysian Banks: A Study of Causes and Effects, SAGE Publication, Vol. 20, pp 161-168. Â
Knowledge Management in Malaysia - Why Slow Adoption?[online] 2006, available from: http://www.knowledgeboard.com/item/2643/23/5/3 Â
Knowledge Repositories: Organizational Learning and Organizational Memories, Â available from: http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~kimble/teaching/mis/Knowledge_Repositories.html Â
Pete Loshin 22nd October 2001, Knowledge Management [online], ComputerWorld, available from: http://www.computerworld.com/databasetopics/data/story/0,10801,64911,00.html Â
Â "The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi, Ltd.", Accelerating Customer-Oriented Banking with Knowledge Management [online], available from: http://www.realcom.co.jp/en/doc/case_BTM.pdf Â
WenCang Zhou 2006, The International Journal of Knowledge Culture & Change Management, The Knowledge Management in China Banks, vol. 6, no. 5, pp 91-97.Â
Wettayaprasit W., Wongshuay T., Sahatpatan K., Chamtitigul N., Jirasontikul R., Sriraksa R., Benjapolpithak P. 2005, Knowledge Management for Information Technology Section of Government Saving Bank(GSB) in Southern Thailand.Â
Wikipedia, Knowledge [online], available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge Â