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Organisations are structured in a variety of ways, dependant on their objectives and culture. The structure of an organisation will determine the manner in which it operates and it’s performance. Structure allows the responsibilities for different functions and processes to be clearly allocated to different departments and employees.
The most common organisation structures are:
· Centralised and decentralised
A flat organization structure has few levels of management between the executive level and the front-line employees. The premise behind a flat organization structure is to empower employees by making them a larger part of the decision-making process.
â€¢ Good communication between top management and worker.
â€¢ Better working sprit.
â€¢ Less bureaucracy and easier decision making.
â€¢ Fewer levels of management which includes benefits such as lower costs as managers are generally paid more than worker.
In its simplest form a tall organisation has many levels of management and supervision. There is a “long chain of command” running from the top of the organisation e.g. Chief Executive down to the bottom of the organisation eg shop floor worker.
â€¢ There is a narrow span of control i.e. each manager has a small number of employees under their control. This means that employees can be closely supervised.
â€¢ There is a clear management structure.
â€¢ The function of each layer will be clear and distinct. There will be clear lines of responsibility and control.
Organisation structure and culture [P2]
From the above diagram, we can see that, for a group of staff there is a one supervisor and there are three supervisors . Supervisors work according to the assistant manages instruction and assistant managers work according to manager instruction. And the manager receives the major instruction from the regional head office. Even though there are two layers in between staff and managing director, there is a direct communication between staff and managing director. And the manager directly control the management, operational issue like hiring of staff, marketing and sales promotion.
Factors that influence individual behaviour[P3]
There are certain factors that may influence the individual behaviour.
Fear of losing job: if there is a fear of losing job, it’s difficult to get 100% from them. So there should not be any fear of losing job.
Wages: well wages may increase the individual performance. If there is performance bonus that may also influence.
Consultation with subordinate: if there is any decision that related with employee that should be consulted with subordinate. Otherwise it creates bad effect on employee’s individual employee.
Cheap accommodation: As the status the people working here are almost categories it is a good idea to arrange a cheap accommodation for them
Flexible working hour: Among the employees few of them are students, students have strict restriction for working more than 20 hours in their study period. A flexible rota will help to make the working speed smooth.
Principles and Practices of organising [P4]
There are some organisational theory and management principles that help to maintain a organization. Some are given bellow:
Strategy/Finance: Those who want to improve the value of a company need to know how to organize to achieve organizational goals; those who want to monitor and control performance will need to understand how to achieve results by structuring activities and designing organizational processes.
Marketing: Marketers know that to create a successful corporate brand they need to get the organization behind the delivery of its promise; a thorough understanding of what an organization is and how it operates will make their endeavours to align the organization and its brand strategy more feasible and productive.
Information technology: The way information flows through the organization affects work processes and outcomes, so knowing organization theory can help IT specialists identify, understand and serve the organization’s informational needs as they design and promote the use of their information systems. Operations Value chain management has created a need for operations managers to interconnect their organizing processes with those of suppliers, distributors and customers; organization theory not only supports the technical aspects of operations and systems integration, but explains their socio-cultural aspects as well.
Human resources :Nearly everything HR specialists do from recruiting to compensation has organizational ramifications and hence benefits from knowledge provided by organization theory; organizational development and change are particularly important elements of HR that demand deep knowledge of organizations and organizing, and organization theory can provide content for executive training programs.
Communication: Corporate communication specialists must understand the interpretive processes of organizational stakeholders and need to address the many ways in which different parts of the organization interact with each other and the environment, in order to design communication systems that are effective or to diagnose ways existing systems are misaligned with the organization’s needs.
From the above discussion, we can easily identify what are the theories is required in order to create a new chain of restaurant.
Different approaches and organisation [P5]
There are couple of management approaches. These are given bellow:
There are couple of management approaches. These are given bellow:
ü scientific management
ü Classical administration
ü Human relations approach
ü System approach
ü Contingency approach
Among from these are the approaches I would prefer for scientific management approaches. Because there are some certain characteristics that would be helpful in order to expand the business. Key characteristics of scientific management approaches given bellow:
ü Scientific Job Analysis – observation, data gathering, and careful measurement determine “the one best way” to perform each job
ü Selection of Personnel – scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop workers
ü Management Cooperation – managers should cooperate with workers to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that developed the plan
ü Functional Supervising – managers assume planning, organizing, and decision-making activities, and workers perform jobs
Different leadership style [P6]
Leadership is a process by which individuals are influenced (could be a manager) so that they will be prepared in the achievement of organisational or group they achieved goals. It is the role of the leader to obtain the commitment of individuals to achieving these goals . There are three major leadership style exist in management theories. First of all the name and characteristics of different leadership style given bellow:
v Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)
v Participative Leadership (Democratic)
v Declarative (Laissez-Faire) Leadership
In authoritarian leadership leader does care about any one. The leader take decision without discussing with any one and leader hold the main decision making power and it creates high level of dependency on leader.
Delegative leadership style offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members. While this style can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise, it often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation.
Participative leadership acting as a father figure and will be holding the decision making power but may discuss with the subordinate which will help to take the best possible decisions. These leadership styles encourage workers; give instruction to follow and also belief in supporting staff. So from the point of view this is best leadership style that may helpful for the new business.
Different motivational theories [P7]
There are different motivation theories of motivation to increase workers productivity, efficiency and effectiveness.
Maslow theories: Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-Human Relations School in the 1950’s, which focused on the psychological needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy (see below) and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others.
A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfil each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy (see below). Managers should also recognise that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.
Hertzberg: Frederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygiene factors).
Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are:
Job enlargement – workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting.
Job enrichment – involves workers being given a wider range of more complexes, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement.
Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life
Relationship between motivation theory and management and impact(p8)
There is a relationship between practice of management and motivation. Management always wants get the job done but in order to get the job done employee has to be motivated. So that motivation is the key factor for management. Motivation can be done in a form of rewarding or simply appreciating for the good work. If the manager concern about both task and employee then according to black and mouton’s managerial grid it is called team management. So that in order to be successful in business it is important to follow some motivational theory and continue with the management practice. He has to consider that staff motivation is the key factor to continue management practice and be successful
Nature of groups and group behavior [P9]
In an organisation, the nature of groups could be following types:
o Groups and teams
o Informal and formal groups
o Purpose of teams
In an organisation there could be formal or informal group. Formal groups normally created to fulfil goals or specific task and it creates by organisation. For example within the finance department, there could be accounts group, payroll group, purchase group etc. apart from that there are some task group as well. Within the organisation there could be informal group and it could be created according to interest and friendship. The behaviour of groups can be affected by some factors like size of the organisation, leadership style, norms of the group, working environment etc.
Factors that will lead to effective teamwork (p10)
There are couple of factors that will lead a successful and effective teamwork.
Ø Choosing right team member
Ø Choosing right team leader
Ø Proper communication
Ø Good leadership
Ø Good understanding
These are the key factors that can make a team effective.
Influencing factor that could be Threaten for teamwork: not all the team get success. There are some factors that could be causes to failure of a team.
ü Lack of trust among the group member
ü Lack of team cohesiveness
ü Lack of clearly define purpose
Evaluation of technology on team functioning[p11]
For a team functioning technology can play a vital role. Communication is the key factor to be a successful team. In order to make effective communication, need to use some technology that are give bellow:
Email: by email team member can communicate without being a same place
Mobile phone: can talk each other whenever its required
Group ware: enables team to plan meeting, collaborate, delegate all within a virtual environment
Personal computer or laptop: helps individual team member to carry on the given task.
Mobile broadband: allows to be in online while travelling
From the above discussion it’s clear that technology has a great impact on team functioning.
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