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1-it has adopted a culture of innovation and progression along with the changes in needs of customers
2-it has not selected a conventional hierarchical structure that could be quite in appropriate for the company based on research
3-it has focused on authorizing the employees to use their power within specified limits so he could get the ownership of his task
4-it has adopted matrix structure that could be the best way to bring out the maximum potential from the work force as people from diversified fields sit together to perform a specific task and thus synergized efforts results in a way better outcome
5-it has fostered the employees to strengthen their skills and capabilities by not only specializing them in their specified fields but also make them educated about situation handling, time management, leader ship skills ,task motivation etc
6-they adopted a concept of teams rather than group as positive synergy of team leads to maximum performance in which every member makes use of not only his own competency but also other 's expertise and skills ,this coordinated effort leads to comparatively better results than groups
1-its functional areas mostly work in collaboration with each other but it also works effectively as independent department .there is a need to specify situations in which each department has to perform its work independently or dependently in order to avoid misconception
2-as per few of team leaders their role is an intermediary between higher management and lower staff ,such statement could make confusion so there should be a specific style of leadership that their tam leaders should adopt so they teams performance could be enhanced
3-most of the scientist in Syngenta are not given specific research departments to use their expertise but they are rotated in different departments such as marketing that is totally new for them, they may move around different places for other tasks that could affect their specialized skill for which they are hired
4-in Syngenta the concept of innovation is a bit mixed up with the concept of openness to experience. It focuses on enabling employees to be open to experience different things to increase their innovative sills that may not be a necessary step to enhance creativity
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF P&G
1-it focuses on thinking globally as it is spread across the globe so for each of its products it has to consider the global aspect primarily along with focusing the local customer's interest according to their regions
2-its multidivisional structure enabled the organization to create the equity of brands distributed in its five business units worldwide and emphasizing on acting locally according to different regions
3-it has specified seven market development organizations which aim to develop new markets for the product line of company
3-global business services group is responsible for characterizing and then transferring information into a meaningful form throughout the worlds in every country where the company is running its business
4-corporate functions group aims to assist global business unit and market development organization to give their best practices; it also helps making external relations, human resource management and I.T management
5-it has strong focus on external environment to identify new opportunities by taking information from customers and suppliers
6-it supports creativity and seeking diversification of ideas to differentiate their products
7-low formalization and procedures in this structure provide comfortable environment for employees
8-low specialization causes the employees to be generalized about the tasks assigned to them in a certain job description
9-decntrailzation of decision making and authority enables the employees to interact frequently and exchange ideas about how to further differentiate the product
it currently uses cooperative form multidivisional structure to strengthen its production strength in which different division work in cooperation to share their competencies but they should also focus on other strengths like marketing ,R&D ,distribution to make use of cooperative form .
1-it currently focuses on product divisions for long term growth there is a need to emphasize on market divisions as well
3- It has modified the specific cooperative form of multidivisional structure according to its unique strategy
4-the success of cooperative multidivisional structure is influenced by how well the information is shared and processed by various departments so it may cause the loss of managerial autonomy and authority so, it may affect the integrated information processing activity that is demanded by this structure
5-it could also affect the individual performance of division as the reward system in the cooperative form structure is based upon the overall perfomance4 of company besides outcomes and efforts made by individual departments so it could be a bit discouraging for the high performance departments as they are being rewarded equally as others
APPROPRIATE CULTURES FOR SYNGENTA AND PROCTER& GAMBLE
The appropriate culture for Syngenta should be such that it not only emphasize on team building but also it should focus on leadership skills as there is an environment of diversification with innovation so all the employees should not only be given multi skilled teams but they should also be given a chance to work in their specialized teams. Teams should be made after discussing with work force so every member could be comfortable with each other. There should be a management by objectives in which employees and mangers set their goals with mutual agreement so every employee should be committed with his goal and this owner ship may result in achievement of tasks in a better way. Open door policy should be adopted in which lower level staff is free to interact with senior management via open discussion sessions. This uninterrupted communication will lead to enhancement of trust and loyalty among the employees. Team leaders should specifically be trained to enhance their leadership skills according to specific style of leadership relevant to their personality. There is a need to arrange employee activity programs on regular bass to enhance the relationship between employees and creating a friendly and helpful culture .these steps are important for the maximum utilization of its human resources.
In Procter and gamble there is a need of clear and simple communication from the top management to lower staff so every employee could easily understand the continuous innovation and modification in products .currently there is a strong focus to gather information from external environment like customers and supplier so internal sources of information from employees should also be considered important .decentralization should be implemented to a certain limit as there may be certain thing for which decision making by middle or lower management may be harmful so there should be a centralized approach in few cases. There is need of formalized procedure and standard operating program to run the operation in an organized manner. Specialization of tasks should also be taken as important factor to bring the maximum potential out of employee, as lack of specialization and generalized activities under a certain job description may cause confusion in employee. There is a need to utilize the employee skills according to his expertise for which he is specialized whereas diversified tasks should be assigned alongside. There should be a culture of specialization as innovation doesn't only come up with diversification but specialization and research in a certain field may lead to creation of a new product.
EFFECT OF STRUCTURE AND CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONS SUCCESS
It is the most important factor for the success of an organization as it arranges the employees, management and workforce in a chain of commands. There is always a need for a formalized structure of positions and ranks in which the whole organization is arranged. The culture of a company is vital for its employee's growth and survival. Most of the employees don't find convenient to work in strict and centralized management structure. Currently the multiple layers f hierarchy has been reduced to one or two layer in which the communication between upper and lower staff has been made relatively simple and easy. There is no need to get approval due to delegation by senior management to lower staff .It is an attempt to build trust and confidence in the employees. Culture plays a vital role in performance of employees Multidivisional structure is a good example of organizational structure in which every department works in collaboration with each other and thus creating the best value for customers. Total quality management approach is also an attempt to produce quality by each and every member of organization for the satisfaction of customers. Structure is important as it helps the employees to view the clear picture of how they can approach the highest position and how they can interact and share ideas with them. Culture of organization should always be friendly and trustful as it helps employees feel as if they are at home. By establishing a positive and helpful culture we can achieve the organizational objectives not only better but also higher than expected through maximum utilization of employee's potential, because happy employee leads to enhanced performance.
FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR AT WORK
Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are, culture, ethnic group, time, gender, etc. company favor people that go to superior socio economic setting, well cultured, youthful etc as they are supposed to be performing superior than the others. In Syngenta the youthful and active professionals that have first-rate educational background and efficient communication ability are always required, the analysis of demographic feature is important as it help out managers to choose the appropriate applicant
2. Aptitude and expertise: The physical ability of a person to do anything can be called as aptitude. Expertise can be termed as the skill to act in a way that permits a person to do better. The person performance and presentation is extremely inclined by aptitude and expertise. An individual can do well in Syngenta if his aptitude and expertise are coordinated with the job necessity. The managers should compare the aptitude and expertise of the workers with the job necessity.
3. Perception: The process intended for inferring the signals of environment in a significant manner is termed as perception. Every person on according to his mental capacity can systematize and understand environmental signals. There are many aspects that manipulate the perception of a person. The examination of perception is extremely important for the managers at Syngenta, It is vital for them to generate the positive work setting so that workers recognize them in most constructive manner. The workers are probable to do well again if they perceive it in an optimistic manner.
4. Approach: approach can be defined as a propensity to react constructively or critically to specific individual, situation and object. The factors such as relatives, culture, background, and association influence the development of approach. The managers in Syngenta must learn the factors associated with work as to generate the job setting in a positive manner that workers are convinced to create an optimistic approach towards the individual job. The workers can do better if they their approach is positive.
5. Personality: Personality can be termed as the examination of qualities and attributes on an individual and the relation between those characteristics and how he responds to certain situations. The numerous issues that affect the personality of a person are genetics, relatives, civilization, society and circumstances. It involves the truth that persons vary in their style while reacting to the environment of organization. It helps the individuals to appropriately guiding their hardships and encouraging them for the achievement of the objectives of company .in Syngenta it needs to be considered that dissimilar environment may create different reaction, so the study of these reactions is very important. Syngenta requires a specific kind of behavior from their employees like creativity and innovation in job, need acknowledgement for achievements, passion to achieve etc .and such behaviors can be revealed during inspection, education, experience, guidance, etc
HENRI FAYOL'S FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT AT SYNGENTA
The Five Functions are:
At Syngenta there is a need to draw up strategy of activities along with agreement, stability, elasticity and accuracy considering the company's assets, kind and importance of effort and potential. Constructing a strategy is the most complicated of the five functions and needs the vigorous contribution of the whole association. Planning must be synchronized on diverse stages and with different periods of time.
At syngenta it is required to organize the resources, employees and supplies for the operation of the company, and outline a structure to go with the work. Organizational composition relies wholly on the number of workers. An enhancement in the number of functional activities increases the association's human resource needs and supports added levels of management;
At Syngenta it should maximize return from all workers in the benefit of the whole company. Booming managers have private truthfulness, converse without a doubt and support their decision on normal review. Their systematic knowledge of workers generates harmony, vigor, innovation and devotion and remove lack of ability.
At Syngenta there is a need to merge and synchronize actions and hard work to continue the stability between the actions of the association as in production to marketing and finance to marketing. Fayol has suggested weekly meeting for department leaders to solve issues s of general concern;
At Syngenta it is required to categorize flaws and discrepancies by regular feedback, and coordinating actions with strategy, guidelines and commands. Fayol's management functions let authority functions to operate professionally and efficiently through coordination and controlling techniques. At Syngenta, there is a need of relationship officers and a common group.
MANAGEMENT APPROACH AT SYNGENTA
HUMAN BEHAVIOUR APPROACH
It takes Organization as community, it consist of two parts:
a) Interpersonal Behavior Approach - it involves the Psychology of individual employees
b) Group Behavior Approach - it involves the behavior of a group of individuals
-it makes use mainly from human psychology and sociology.
-it focuses on understanding individual relationships.
-it gives importance to motivation that leads to high productivity
Leadership, participative management, good human relationships and group dynamics are the major areas of this approach
-it explains how management can be effective by making use of knowledge regarding behavior of
It treats management quite similar to human behavior
It highlights the organization and organizational behavior in an indistinct manner.
MANAGEMENT APPROACH AT PROCTER AND GAMBLE
SOCIAL SYSTEM APPROACH
â€¢it mainly focuses on understanding the behavior of individuals and groups.
1. Social System is an organization of cultural associations
2. The association exists between exterior and interior atmosphere of the company.
3. Formal association is a relationship of social groups working within an organization based on culture.
4. The collaboration between different departments is necessary
5. There is synchronization between the goals of organization and goals of groups.
Decisions of organization are based upon the interest of every individual rather than for a single group of individuals
- It does not completely cover the practice of management
-it neglects numerous management approaches and methods that are essential to involved managers.
LIKERT'S LEADERSHIP STYLES
In this style, the leader has a small worry for citizens and utilizes such technique as bullying and other terrifying technique to get acceptance. Communication is approximately downwards and the expressively isolated issues of citizens are overlooked.
When the leader adds worry for public to a commanding place, a 'benevolent dictatorship' is shaped. The leader now utilizes rewards to motivate suitable actions and take notice more to issues of lower staff, although what they pay attention to is often limited to what their inferior staff believes that the manager wants to listen. There may be a small allocation of authority to inferiors but still decisions are made in a centralized way
The upward surge of information here is still vigilant to some extent, though the manager is making authentic efforts to pay attention carefully to new ideas but major decision are still made via centralized system
The manager makes utmost use of participative technique, involving lower level staff of organization in making decisions. People across the organization are emotionally close to each other and perform well at different levels .they are given chance to participate in exchanging ideas and information regarding decision making for the organization
In Syngenta participative style of leadership is used in which employees from diversified department are given equal opportunity to share their views and inputs in various functional and operational levels. They are given opportunity to participate along with team leaders in resolving different issues of team and making improvements and innovation in the products and value for the customers
ALDERFER'S ERG THEORY
It is divided into three types of needs
Existence needs are requirements for physiological and material comfort.
Relatedness needs are requirements for fulfilling interpersonal associations
Growth needs are requirements for sustained mental augmentation and progress.
This approach is practiced by mangers of Kellogg which is a well known name in health foods it suggests that dissatisfied desires motivate behavior and when lower level needs are satisfied they get less important. He probably goes for higher level needs but if could not be achieved then he gets dissatisfied again and goes down to lower level needs which is termed as frustration regression. Which shows that already satisfied lower level needs may get reactivated and influence individual's behavior if his higher level need is not met .so managers normally give chance for personnel to emphasize on the significance of higher level desires.
HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY
Frederick Herzberg offers structure to understand the motivational aspect of job setting. In his two-factor theory, Herzberg spotted out two kinds of factors that influence motivation in the office:
Hygiene factors include salary, job protection, work setting, managerial rules, and practical excellence of management. Though these aspects do not encourage workers, they can create discontent if they are missing. Advancement in hygiene factors does not essentially enhance satisfaction.
Satisfiers or motivators includes dependability, accomplishment, development chances, and feelings of acknowledgment, and plays a vital role in job satisfaction and motivation. For instance, managers can get to know what people actually perform in their work and make augmentation, thus enhancing their job satisfaction and performance.
it's being practiced in NESTLE(UK) in which mangers practice this useful theory of motivation to motivate the staff and subordinates in order to enhance their job satisfaction .using Herzberg's two-factor theory, managers make sure that hygiene factors are sufficient and then put up satisfiers into jobs.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TEAMS AND GROUPS
CHARACTERISTICS OF A TEAM
Team has Shared Leadership roles. It discusses, decides, and does real work together. There is a specific purpose of tem which it delivers accountability is mutually by the whole team and individual as well .Efforts are always made collective and performance is also measured in collective form. It always welcomes open ended discussion and active participation in problem solving .in Syngenta there is trend of teams rather than groups which is a positive approach in making innovation and advancement by making multi talented teams in the organization having members from different specialized fields.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A WORK GROUP
It has Strong, clearly focused solo leader who discusses, decides and delegates power to members. The objective of group is similar to that of organization .accountability is entirely individual .Efforts are made and performance is measured on individual basis. Meetings are normally run to share information. There is problem with group that it does not exactly determine what the organization requires from them. They can't even analyze the exact potential as group. They are not capable to design any strategy specifically for the group. It is normally seen in pharmaceutical companies like GSK where sales teams are made but they are actually groups in which every person is responsible for his own territory and assigned a specific sales target .all he does is to achieve the target and he doesn't need to bother about other members. Sales meeting is normally done to review the sales figures and future planning.
SPECIFIC ELEMENTS OF TEAMS AT SYNGENTA
At Syngenta there is a concept of innovation widely accepted and for that purpose projects teams are designed in which individuals from different departments are taken into team having own specialty and expertise regarding the project which is lead by trained team leader who normally adopts participative leadership style as every member is expert in his own field so he has given equal chance to participate in project accomplishment that is how every member of tem gets benefit from each other .the major issue with these is that they are short lived means they normally gets dissolved after a short period of time when the task gets accomplished and members are shifted to another project in that way they are unable to develop interpersonal relation with other members of teams .here it feels that main task of the team is not to make a synergized work force but to achieve the objective of company .These project teams are effectively working over major business strategies so there is a need to develop intra team liaison and emphasize on strengthening them as they are vital for making a successful teams .Although communication is better within the team but it is not up to the mark to develop understanding between team members .its functional areas can be improved to a great extent by focusing on team building as its members a competent enough to make effort as a team member as per their expertise. Leadership is also effective here as members have complete trust on their leaders that he understands their issue and resolves them quickly .the reason is that leaders are well trained and supportive to get the maximum potential of members so it should always be focused because a change in leadership style may cause inter team conflicts and resistance by members for leader.
EFFECT OF INCREASED USE OF TECHNOLOGY ON TEAM PERFORMANCE
improvement in networking and telecommunications have show the way to the propagation of virtual teams that do not work face-to-face but communicate over a computer based medium of communication .its members work together as interdependent group members on a common task while they are far away from each other at distant places .so the only way to interact and share ideas is computer mediated communication network and computer supported cooperative work. in Procter and gamble it has affected the team performance as virtual teams are not as effective as real teams because there is a lack of physical interactions and there is less chance of understanding each other as a team because every member is isolated from each other. Each member takes his task as the only responsibility to fulfill rather than team performance. There is lack of synergy in such teams and accountability is also individual. Even performance evaluation and efforts are also individual based rather than collective. So it overall affects the performance of team because every member thinks about his own performance regardless of what team is performing and how well the task is accomplished by the team due to lack physical interaction and passion as a team.