An Introduction to the concepts of Motivation

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Motivation is a general and common word in the business world but it is quiet difficult to explain it in a scientific way. The idea or concept of motivation is quite different from other concepts like as instincts, drives and reaction of policy but at some extent it is also related with theses all concepts. People must be motivated to achieve certain goal or ambitions in life whether it may personal or business but it is always related with drives means eager to get something by anyway. In addition, motivation must be co-related with the ambitions. People are only motivated after setting up certain goals. Except natural behavior, motivation should only be on the base of emotional feelings. Motivation may come and draw non understandable reactions.

There are two theories to learn motivation; these are psychological theory and physiological theory. Psychological theory creates such type of environmental situation and manages stable eye sight on the outcome of that event and the behavior of motivated people. Physiological study comes by clarifying origin of natural motivation patterns. We can have an example of an animal to understand physiological motivation study; animal always stay on their goal even the environmental situation change or how does it behave when such condition change. Physiological study tries to develop physiological variables and natural regions which is related motivated behavior.

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Motivation is a process that has a physical or psychological needs that the behavior or the campaign, which aims to target active from the outset. Manager for each employee is expected to show an increase in productivity and quality. To get to the worker's behavior is very important. Employee behavior depends on the environment in which they reside. Finally, an employee behavior may be a function of innate drive or feel the need and opportunity he or she needs in the workplace or the disk is completed.

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Motivation is the most essential tool which does impacts on the behavior of human kind. Therefore during the management or implementation of organization's strategy manager gives more important to it. Rensis Likert called Inspiration as "core administration". Effectiveness of effective leadership makes impacts on both organizational people and individual levels of the organization.

JAMES, B., SR. 2008. Motivation Theory. SSRN eLibrary.

It is the fact that organization's ideas and strategic concept will fail down in a short time period when people are not getting agree with the organization's strategy and key objectives. It is quite different at a different person, so it's a quite complex task to motivate people. People's personality always matters during the identification of different motivational needs. There is a theory given by Eric Erikson, it is about the changes in people's needs according to come changes in their life stages as well as his experiments also defines about the distance or deviation between motivational training and demotivational training and a short lesson to implement practical learning events.

Motivational receptiveness and potential in everyone changes from day to day, from situation to situation. Get the alignment and values right, and motivational methods work better. Motivational methods of any sort will not work if people and organisation are not aligned. People are motivated towards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed. People want more. You should view the following motivational methods and ideas as structures, activities and building blocks, to be used when you have a solid foundation in place. The foundation is a cohesive alignment of people's needs and values with the aims and purpose of the organization. Refer to the Psychological Contract, and people-organization alignment and motivation.

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Motivation theories

Good leadership demands good people-motivation skills and the use of inspirational techniques. Motivational methods are wide-ranging, from inspirational quotes and poems, to team building games and activities, as ice-breakers, warm-ups and exercises for conferences, workshops, meetings and events, which in themselves can often be helpful for staff motivation too. Motivation is an essential part of life coaching processes and techniques too. Motivated people perform better - see McGregor's XY Theory for example. People playing games or competing in teams learn about each other, they communicate better and see each other in a new light. Mutual respect grows. People often enjoy events which include new non-work activities, especially when bosses and superiors take part in the same teams as their junior staff, which also helps cohesiveness and 'can-do' culture.

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Powerful positive imagery stimulates visualization in the conscious and sub-conscious brain, which encourages self-motivation, developmental behavior, confidence and belief. Playing games enables people to experience winning and achieving in a way that their normal work might not. People become motivated to achieve and do better when they have experienced the feelings of success and achievement, regardless of context. This is why fire-walking and outward-bound activities have such powerful motivational effect. All of these ideas, and more explained below; contribute to improving motivation, inspiration and performance.

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Douglas Mcgregor - Theory x y

Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise'. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture.

McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. McGregor's ideas significantly relate to modern understanding of the Psychological Contract, which provides many ways to appreciate the unhelpful nature of X-Theory leadership, and the useful constructive beneficial nature of Y-Theory leadership.

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Alderfer's Hierarchy of Motivational Needs:

Clayton Alderfer reworked Maslow's Need Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research. Alderfer's theory is called the ERG theory -- Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Maslow called physiological and safety needs.

Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to Maslow's social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need.

Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow's esteem need, and self-actualization

Alderfer's ERG theory differs from Maslow's Need Hierarchy insofar as ERG theory demonstrates that more than one need may be operative at the same time. ERG theory does not assume a rigid hierarchy where a lower need must be substantially satisfied before one can move on.

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Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

The key to understanding Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory is that the factors that involve job content (motivation factors) tend to lead to job satisfaction. When these factors are not present on the job, workers do not tend to be dissatisfied - they are simply are "not satisfied." Workers who are "not satisfied" do not tend to restrict productivity, they just don't get involved in their job or put forth the extra effort to do a good job. Workers who are "satisfied" put forth that extra effort and productivity increases. Factors that involve job context (hygiene factors) tend to lead to job dissatisfaction. When these factors are considered good, or acceptable, workers do not tend to become "satisfied", they simply become "not dissatisfied." Productivity is not restricted - it is just held at an acceptable level. When workers become dissatisfied with any of these factors they tend to restrict output.

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The Theory of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

If motivation is driven by the existence of unsatisfied needs, then it is worthwhile for a manager to understand which needs are the more important for individual employees. In this regard, Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic, low-level needs such as physiological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher-level needs such as self-fulfillment are pursued. In this hierarchical model, when a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is shown in the following diagram:

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