Recruitment is a process by which a company gets application for their available vacancies. Good recruitment is important to effectual human resource management. It is valuable like as many others human resource management process, as for example training and selection depends widely of the new employees attracted by the recruitment process. Recruitment is also important for whole society because it manipulate job seekers opportunities to getting a suitable job. Not only has that job it works vital parted most people's lives.
Recruitment can be carried out in numerous ways and generally it happens via both formal and informal processes. An informal process depends on the contacts of active workers or on new applicant. Since they threat being biased, word -of -mouth recruitment is not often suitable in public sector. Within business sector, word of mouth recruitment is well known, especially in those societies rated more socialist by Hofstede. International differences in the exercise of informal are considerable. It is also common all over the globe and especially in the developing nations like as Bangladesh, Nepal, Uganda, Bhutan etc. Recruitment of 'Friends and Family' is very easy and cheap as usually.
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According to Brewster et al (2008), there are four methods of particular relevance to International Human Resource management. Multinational companies follow these methods and recruiting, selecting, employing employees globally.Every recruitment process has some advantages and disadvantages.
In this method, recruitment agencies are work as service provider and they supply companies with recruits to put via their own selection procedures. This process is most common for managerial positions in developed countries like as USA, UK etc. Anecdotal data shows that almost 50% of executive searches are now cross-border. The global capability, geographical spread of individual search firms has consequently become difficult. The recruitment agencies may be preferred to internal solutions for many reasons and those reasons given below.
a) The recruitment agencies have the specialist nature of recruitment activities. Similarly, its potentially rare use, sometimes mean that almost competent way to start it is to subcontract and it is to expert providers.
b) Sometimes multinational companies would like to recruit in a country for the first time where they may not have human resource department to carry on this activity and simultaneously, they may not have local idea that would be essential. For this reason, they take help from the recruitment agencies.
c) The recruitment agencies are expert in this section and can do recruitment of higher level or higher skill; employees may take place from a proper prospective employees file. The recruitment agencies operate their activities all over the country or industry. They usually have a list and this is mainly true in the case of multinational companies recruiting in a country where first time.
Headhunters is particularly form of recruitment and agencies can be expected to charge a considerable payment for their services.
b)Cross national Advertising:
Now world is a global village and as part of globalisation, labour migration is more common and accepted all over the world. At present many companies seek to carry out cross border when they recruiting senior staffs. Brewster et al (2008) mentioned that the rising apply of advertising such as targeted outdoor poster sites -airport lounges, airline magazines and journey to work routes. Simultaneously, international, publications like as The Economist magazines, The wall street journal's regularly represents some advertisement for high level posts in many organisations all over the world. Although that advertising should consider cultural differences, it may well be the case that the valuable targeting of such advertisement ensures that they are seen more or less totally by people. They are more used to, and accepting of, these multi-cultural messages.
c) Internet Recruitment:
Today internet is an important source of job and used to cheaply mass market the recruitment messages that organisations interested to forward potential applicants. The electronic recruiting facility is re-shaping the job hunting process and this facility has the likely to cut the difficulty to employment on a worldwide scale. It is proving helpful for global graduate recruitment, attracting MBAs and post graduate level candidates, similarly specific roles such as accounting professionals and IT staff. Brewster et al (2008) mentions some reasons for its popularity in recruitment.
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1. Widen recruitment sourcing at relatively low cost
a) Fixed cost of designing a website have been incurred, the marginal cost of further website visitor is mostly zero.
b) At present internet user has grown highly, not only developed countries but also third world countries .So, now internet allows to firms reach potential applicants anywhere in the globe.
c) Similarly, now it is very easy for potential employees to apply for any kind of job and first stage is to fill a web form or email a copy of CV.
The main disadvantage of this is that the cheapness of applying by internet sometimes may encourage not only proper applicant but also large amount of unsuitable applicants too.
2. Attract applicant on a more specialised skill match.
3. Target sources of graduate like as MBA career centres.
4. Improve on traditional advertising approaches by targeting particular life style or culture fit groups.
The most common forms of selection methods are given below.
The way in which interviews are continued are one factor of national culture which radically impact the conduct of the interview and cultural awareness is very essential in this respect. In a simple face to face interview, the assessors may be confronted by considerable problem. As for example can mention here that one American multinational company recruiting managers in South Korea and found that interviewers had to be trained in multicultural awareness. According to the cultural rule of Korea, when asked a good question, to keep silent is known as sign of respect and similarly the better the question ,the longer period of silence the applicant maintains.Moreover,according to the American culture, if anybody ask a good question and receive silence, it is like as ignorance. Not only that face to face interview may produce fairly warped judgements.
2. The monitoring and targeting of disadvantaged groups:
In most countries negative discrimination against the interests of at least some disadvantaged group is not legal; similarly a small number of countries positive discrimination in support of interests of disadvantaged may be allowed or encouraged. Staffing practices are stoutly influenced by norms and morals, not possible by the law. As for example, many European countries do ban discrimination on the basis of age, but the application of age restrictions' varies considerably by country. It is not applicable in UK but common in Germany.
3. Assessment Centres:
Assessment centres are regarded as one of the most strong and suitable selection techniques and it should be expected that they would be used to assess capability for global manager. The major points of assessment centres are help to client companies to determine which candidates are appropriate to be employed. In this sense they offer their customers level of selection capability the may not take home.
Assessment centres tend to use different types of tools and these tools are situational interviews, work stimulations and role -playing etc.Some effort also face that units and the successful utilization of their set of tools requires there tools to be significant for the circumstance like as legislative, cultural economic etc, in which the recruitment is taking place. Thus there cannot be one size fits all approach and this causes extensive troubles for them.
4. Psychological testing:
The strength of some psychometric testing process is also uncertain. Psychologists state that variability of across settings for the equal type of work and across different of jobs is small .This testing involves asking candidates to full psychometric tests to allow their potential employer to verify the sort of person they are.
"Psychometric is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of educational and psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes and personality traits. The field is primarily concerned with the construction and validation of measurement instruments, such as questionnaires, tests and personality assessments. Those who practice psychometric are known as psychometricians and although they may also be clinical psychologists, they are not obliged to be so and could instead be (for example) human resources or learning and development professionals".
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In the hand of competent professionals' psychometric tests present an at times positive nearby into the individual features of prospective employees; in the hands of inexpert they are little more than a hazard to the achievement of a company.
The table below represents some indications of comparative use of these selection events in diverse countries in the hiring of an employee for a cleric positions. According to the table, 69.6% of Danish companies report that they use interviews, but a small number (5%) of French companies do it. Simultaneously, 43.7% of Spanish companies like psychometric tests, but only 0.9% German firm prefers it.
The uses of "Psychometric test "and "Assessment Centre" differs from country to country. A German assessment centre would use much diverse equipment to assess much different stuff than would an assessment centre in Canada.