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The report on Human Resource Planning focuses on the HR plan followed by one of the leaders in global IT services, the Wipro.The Company has booked itself a decent position in the niche market category of consumer goods, business process outsourcing services, product engineering services and illuminating solutions. The report tries to analyze the importance of a well structured human resource planning system in a multinational company like the Wipro.The need for a carefully constructed legal and organizational framework for the employment of staff, and the need for a very effective grievances system has been closely studied in this report. A sincere attempt has been put in to identify and understand the detailed recruitment process of staff.
Wipro provides an ideal platform for organizations seeking IT solutions because of its strong human resources, superior performances and sincere commitment towards quality ensurement.It provides business and technology consultations services to a number of organizations worldwide.
About the company
Wipro stands for Western India vegetable Products ltd.It began its operations in 1945 as a vegetable oil manufacturer in Amalner,India.The company has its equity shares listed in India(both in National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange)and also in US(New York stock exchange) . Wipro has its services spread over wide horizon of activities. Some of which are manufacturing, media, healthcare, telecom, transportation, aerospace, automotive, communication, energy, pharmaceuticals, financial and banking services, insurance, and technology.
It has over 800 plus clients and about one lakh associates from 70 different nations. It maintains more than seventy two outlets and employs ninety six thousand people over fifty five nations.
Wipro is the third largest R & D service provider in the world. It keeps track of all the latest developments in the technological field. It believes that such
latest technological innovations has an important bearing on the competitive strength of the concern.Wipro can be termed as a leading vendor of enterprise technology. It is because of its strong brand power that Wipro is now able to reach new heights.
Need & Importance of Human resource planning
The term human resource embraces the entire workforce in an organization form the top level to the bottom level. Human resources are considered to be the most important asset of an organization. The success of every organization depends on the efficiency of its manpower. The increasing global competition, rising customer demands, shortage of skilled and able workers has all contributed towards increasing the relevance of human resources in this era (Webb, 1989). The HR department of every organization should learn how to manage the employee performances effectively. Human resources are the power house of any organization and it is very much essential to nurture them through proper planning and management. The problem is how to utilize and manage these resources to deliver maximum results.
Human resource planning is an effective technique of empowering the people with competitive skills required for business management. It is a systematic process through which the need and availability of human resources for accomplishing the organization's strategic objectives are identified and assessed (Mathis &Jackson, 2007).
HR planning is concerned with determining whether the organization contains the right number of employees, with right skills and competencies in the right place at the right time. The HR plan should contain a detailed study of the skills, talents, knowledge, competency, experience and creativity of its employees. This information's forms the basis for taking optimum career decisions like promotions, de-promotions, dismissals and transfers.
Apart from studying the capabilities of its own employees HR plan also assesses the external environment for meeting the labor supply requirements of the organization. It involves forecasting of future manpower requirements of the company and making necessary moves to fill in the vacancies. The HR strategies must be in consistent with the organizational objectives.
In any organization it is essential to link the human resource plans with its business strategies and objectives (Rothwell & Kazanas, 2003). The HR plans have great impact on the strategic plans of the company. The aim of HR practitioners is to coordinate and align their efforts with the strategic planners. The business objectives can be closely related with the HR objectives as HR is an important part of the organization. Easy attainment of goals is possible only though combined human effort.
HRP at Wipro
HRP tries to highlight the means through which people are appointed and developed to increase the organizations efficiency (Armstrong 2006).HR plans estimates the number and kind of employees that an organization would require to perform its jobs efficiently and effectively.
Following are the important HRP goals in Wipro:
Determining the future staffing needs .
Accepting and adopting the changes in the internal and external environment.
Optimum and efficient utilization of existing workforce.
Systematic procedure for advancement of employees.
The figure given below shows the HR planning process followed in Wipro
Development and training of
Promotions and transfers
Fixing of payment scale
Here the HR planning system is broken down into different phases and arranged in the hierarchical order.
Recruitment is the process of inviting applications from suitable candidates and selecting the best candidate from amongst them. The aim of recruitment is to create a pool of applications (Aswathappa 2005).It involves searching various sources to find suitable candidates and persuading them to apply for the jobs.
"Recruiting is the term applied to the phase of personal management that involves reaching out and attracting a supply of people from which to select qualified candidates for job vacancies. An effort is made to attract potential employees with the necessary characteristics for the jobs available" (Megginson, 1981)
So recruitment means to finding and encouraging prospective applicants to fill up the vacancies in the organization. Recruitment can be made within the organization or from external environment.
There are two sources for recruitment: The external source and the internal source. The internal recruitment can be done through promotions, transfers, employee recommendations and references. Whereas the external means for recruitment includes advertisement, campus recruitments, employment exchanges and agencies.
In wipro the recruitment process follows three important stages.
Stage I - Written test,
Stage II- Personal interview, (Stage II consist of two parts)
(i)Interview to test the technical skills
(ii) Interview to test the HR knowledge.
Stage III - Placements
Stage I - Written test
Here the applicants shall be required to undergo a written test. It shall include questions to test the aptitude of the candidates. Sometimes the applicants might have to face verbal questions too.
Stage II - Personal interview
Technical interview comes first in stage II. Technical interview is conducted to assess thee basic technical knowledge. The elimination process starts from here. The applicants shall be selected to the next stage on the basis of the performance.
The next is the HR interview. Here the interviewers shall include some general questions like asking the candidates to give a self assessment, asking about their ambitions, family background, their knowledge regarding the company etc.
A group discussion may also be conducted to assess the communication skills and vocabulary of the candidates. The filtering process shall be completely depending on the individual performance of the candidates in the above stages.
The final stage is the placement of employees. Placement implies accepting the selected candidate and placing him in the post for which he has been appointed. It is concerned with matching the selected candidates with the jobs. Once a candidate clears all the stages the Manager (HR) shall provide him with the employee code number. He/she has to agree upon the terms and conditions of appointment and shall submit their joining letter.
After recruitment the newly elected candidate must have to undergo compulsory training, to make them well equipped and familiar with the organization. The talent transformation department of Wipro takes care for this.
The following illustration shows in detail the recruitment process followed in Wipro:-
Measures taken by the company to promote employee welfare
Wipro considers its human resource as one of their most priced asset and hence has taken every precaution to make sure that they retain their employees and strengthen their commitment. It has launched various welfare measures for its employees. Such as educational facility for their children, medical reimbursement, housing finance, recreational facilities, insurance policies and canteen facilities.
Among these, promotional opportunities play a very important role in making employees happy. Promotion means advancement from the current post to a higher post. Promotions offer better status and payment to the employees in the concern. Opportunities for advancement shall be based on the performance of the employees.
Understanding grievances of employees
A well structured grievance system is essential for effective identification and redressal of employee grievance. Such an efficient grievance system is a must for ensuring employee satisfaction and better labor relationship (Durai, 2010).It is a prerequisite for every organization to ensure quality employee performance.
According to Wagen (2007) a grievance process should consider the following aspects:
The process must be duly agreed by everyone in the company.
The process must be communicated in English.
The procedure followed for filing the complaint must be unambiguous.
An objective approach must be followed while dealing with the complainants.
Confidentiality must be followed wherever it is necessary.
The entire process must be clearly documented.
The grievance procedure to be followed is stated below (Selwyn 2006):-
i. The employee shall specify his grievance or complaint (in writing) and a copy of the sane shall be forwarded to his employer.
ii. The employer shall call upon the employee to attend the meeting where the matter is going to be discussed. The employee has to ensure his attendance. Once the meeting concludes the employer shall inform the employee about his decision with regard to the grievance. The employer must inform the employee his right to make an appeal if he is not satisfied with the judgment.
iii. The employee should communicate his intention of making an appeal to his employer. Accordingly the employer shall again call a meeting to discuss on this matter. The employee should take every effort to ensure his attendance. After the hearing the employer shall convey his final decision to the employee.
Wipro maintains a very effective grievance system. The grievance process followed by the company contains all the necessary ingredients as discussed above. By following such a system the company is able to easily resolve employee conflict and maintain a peaceful environment.
Disciplinary process in the company
Discipline is an indispensable factor in human resource planning in a large organization like Wipro.Discipline ensures strict adherence to the procedures, plans and rules of the company. Absence of discipline can bring utter chaos and confusion within the organization.Wipro follows a strict and fair disciplinary system.
Following are the important questions raised during the disciplinary procedure of the company:
What acts of offence, violation, misconduct have been done by the individual?
Did such act amount to breach of code of conduct?
The impact of the offence.
Is the offence in anyway related to the job performance of the employee?
In case of minor offences the employees shall be given warnings or memos. But if such act of offence has affected the company in a grave manner the employee shall be dismissed immediately. Acts of deceit, willful suppression or destruction of important information, willfull negligence of duty, causing personal injury or accidents shall invite dismissal with immediate effect.
The dismissal procedure includes:
1. Issuance of sufficient show cause notices
2. Providing an optimum opportunity to be heard
3. Ensuring the presence of the individual during the hearing
4. Permitting the employee to present witnesses
5. Hearing of the witness account
6. Recording of all the procedures and decisions taken in the meeting by the officer in charge
7. Announcement of the decision
It should be noted that the presiding officer be impartial and fair in his decisions.
IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE ORGANISATION
What is ACAS?
ACAS means Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service. It was established in the year 1975 under the Employment Protection Act. The purpose of ACAS is to ensure better working life and improve the labor relations. ACAS is directed towards solving of employee problems and raising their standard of performance by conducting quality education and training programs for them.
ACAS plays three important roles in improving the employee relations (Currie 1997).They are:-
1. Advisory role: - ACAS can be viewed as an 'advisory body' as it offers advisory and consultation services to the organization and employees who feel that they have been overlooked or unfairly treated. Through the information's contained in the code of conduct issued by ACAS, it shows an organization the need to maintain a fair grievances and disciplinary system. Many organizations have adopted the principles of ACAS.
2. Role of Conciliation: - Here ACAS tries to resolve employee conflicts before the issue reaches the hearing phase. The conciliation officer tries to guide and make both the parties understand the probable outcome of a tribunal.
3. Role of Arbitrator:-In common practice, the employee conflicts are solved within the organization. But the need for an arbitrator arises when the internal dialogues fail to settle the issue. Most of the organizations prefer ACAS to don the role of arbitrator. While acting under this role ACAS may appoint an arbitrator or even form an arbitration board. Such decisions shall be based on the complexity and relevance of the issue.
ACAS codes and principles mainly stresses on the importance of maintaining discipline in the organization(Taylor, 2005).ACAS has set specific codes and procedures to be applied on the disciplinary system and dismissal process of the company. Following are the important points covered by the ACAS code in this respect:-
Every company should maintain specific and systematic disciplinary procedures and these procedures must be kept with the company in the written form.
The name and designation of the person authorized for taking disciplinary actions must be separately stated.
The procedure must precisely state the grounds on which disciplinary actions shall be evoked against the defaulting employee or employer.
The employee has to be informed about the complaint raised against him. And he should be provided with a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
The company should have fair warning system. Proper warnings have to be raised whenever it is necessary .An opportunity must be given to the employees to correct their actions.
Every employee has the right to appeal. The company should have a well structured complaint redressal committee before whom the employees shall appear.
The employees have the right to representation. Any employee or member of the trade union can accompany the employee during the hearing.
Hence ACAS plays a very important role in ensuring a fair and effective grievance and disciplinary system in an organization.
The Employment tribunals were introduced in the year 1964 for the first time under the Industrial Training Act (Pettinger 1999). Employment tribunal is another important organization which plays a very important role in promoting employee welfare in the industry. They deal with safeguarding employee rights.
The tribunal is empowered to give a fair trial to the employees who have been unfairly dismissed (Chandler, Waud 2003). If an employee is dismissed on the basis of any incorrect information's or if he has been denied the right to appeal then the employment tribunal (if the employee is able to prove his innocence) shall dismiss all the allegations against him.
Person, persons or bodies like labor unions filing the case to the employment tribunal is termed 'applicants'. And the other party (employer or the company) against whom the case has been filed is termed 'respondents'. The applicants as well as the respondents have the right to present witnesses to their support. The tribunal may require each of the parties to produce necessary documents or evidences while conducting the trial.
The decisions shall be taken on just and equitable basis. Two remedies are available to the employees who have been unfairly dismissed. One is to seek re-engagement and the other is to claim compensation. The employment tribunal has the power to issue orders for re-engagement and awarding compensation for the aggrieved employee.
The tribunal has been setup to provide a platform for easy settlement of disputes between the employees and the employers (Pettinger 1999).In this manner employee tribunal tries to solve the grievance of employees in a very effective manner. It stresses on the fact that no employee shall be dismissed unless he has been given a reasonable opportunity to prove his innocence .The ultimate objective of the tribunal is to promote and protect employee welfare and rights through fair trials.
Apart from the tribunal, the Trade Unions, welfare organizations formed by the employees themselves, government agencies set up under various statutes are in the continuous process of protecting the rights of employees and increasing their job satisfaction. They ensure that the employee grievances are met in a satisfactory manner and a fair and just disciplinary process is followed by the concern.
The report on Human Resource Planning tries to highlight the importance of human resources and the need to effectively plan and manage the human resource in a large organization like the Wipro.
Human resource planning is concerned with determining whether an organization has the right number of employees, in the right place at the right time. The report goes through the various phases of human resource plan followed by Wipro.The HRP goals of the organization have been clearly stated in the report.
The various stages in the recruitment process of the company have been well explained with the support of a detailed illustration. The report also explains the importance of having a well planned and systematic grievance and disciplinary system in an organisation.The disciplinary process followed by the company has been studied in detail. The dismissal procedures have been clearly mentioned in the report. The report attempts to bring out the importance and impact of various employee welfare organizations like ACAS and the Employment tribunals. The principles and procedures specified by the ACAS and the tribunals must be considered while developing the grievance and disciplinary process.
On the basis of the report we arrive at the conclusion that Human Resource Planning is an indispensable part for any organization. An organization enjoys the following advantages of having a well built HR planning system. They are:-
It helps in estimating future manpower requirements of the organization.
Scarcity of employees - An entity contains a number of jobs requiring highly specialized knowledge. And there is a shortage of skilled employees.HRp helps to identify such talents and ensures adequate supply of such talented employees thereby alleviating the problem of shortage in the organization.
Trying to cope up with the changes - With frequent changes and development in field of technology, market conditions etc, it demands more sophisticated operations. And an effective HRP tries to solve this problem by supplying the right person with right skills.
Growth and development - Employees leave the organization due to various reasons like death, retirement, dismissals, transfers etc, and it is necessary that these gaps have to be filled. Through proper HR planning such problems due to growth and development can be dealt effectively.
It understands manpower requirements and takes suitable actions to supply the right kind of persons, considering the current business operations and future activities of the organization.