In the present competitive world every individual wants to be successful in his business. For successful business there should be efficient business and the management should train and motivate the staff to achieve the organizational objectives. All the employees should be aware about all the concepts which are related to the management. Marketing is very important factor in every business. All the companies advertise their products through marketing. Every company needs customers for their services and products and marketing plays a prominent role in creating customers to the business. Mature marketing and over capacities leaded for the evolution of marketing. Most of the companies to stay in the profit mode shifted their focus from production to customer, so that they started to concentrate to create customers for their products and services through satisfying the existing customers. All the companies need to be aware about all the cultures in the marketing. Every business includes different cultures some of the main cultures of the business are Hofstede, Trompenaars, Schwartz and Globe Study. We need to discuss about the two cultural frame works that is Hofstede and Trompenaars.
Greet hofstede's dimensions
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Dr. Greet Hofsted had conducted a comprehensive study and explained how culture influences the values at the work place. He worked as a psychologist in IBM from 1967 to 1973. In the time of working in IBM he has collected the analyzed data from aver 100000 individual from more than forty different countries. To the above study he made some additions and he developed four dimensions and later on he added fifth dimension that is long term outlook. Geert Hofstede's dimensions investigation can support the trade individual in enhance understanding the intercultural variance within regions.
"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. GeertHofstede
The different dimensions of the Geert hofstede are explained below they are
- Power distance index (PDI)
- Individualism (IDV)
- Masculinity (MAS)
- Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)
- Long term orientation (LTO)
Power distance index (PDI)
This dimension explains about the degree of equality or inequality between the people in the society of a nation. A high power ranking shows the inequalities of power and wealth which have been allowed to grow with in the society. The societies are mostly following a caste system which does not permits upward mobility of its citizens. Power distance is defined as "the extent to which the less powerful members ofinstitutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power isdistributed unequally". (Hofstede, 1994, p. 28)
The second dimension of hofstede is individualism/collectivism. The concept in this dimension is discussed most frequently and it is the researched concept. Hofstede defines this concept as “individualism pertains to societies in which the ties between individualsare loose: everyone is expected to look after himself or herself and his or her immediatefamily. Collectivism as its opposite pertains to societies in which people from birthonwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people'slifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty." (Hofstede, 1994,p. 51)Individualism is the most important dimension in the hofstede dimensions it is cited in most of the variety intercultural research. This is the dimension which is grasped more easily and it is frequently encountered when looking at other cultural behavioral patterns.
Masculinity and feminity both are equally powerful. A high masculinity ranking reflects a nation which experiences a high degree of gender variance. . In these cultures, males dominate a major part of the traditions and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. The lower level of variance between the genders is shown by a low masculinity ranking
Hofstede explains this dimension as "masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i.e., men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life); femininity pertains to societies in which social gender roles overlap (i.e., both men and women are supposed be modest, tender, andConcerned with the quality of life)." (Hofstede, 1994, p. 82-3). Hofstede noticed that masculinity is often neglected. It is believed that the controversial name given to this dimension created some popularity to this dimension. It also seems to be confusion with the individualism.
Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
It is one of the other dimensions of hofstede. This dimension shows the level of tolerance for improbability and indistinctness inside the society. The low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity is shown by the high uncertainty avoidance ranking which resulted in creation of rule oriented society which constitutes of rules and regulations to control the uncertainty. A low uncertainty avoidance ranking shows about the society which is less rule oriented. Hofstede explained this dimension as "the extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by uncertain or unknown situations."(Hofstede, 1994, p. 113
Geert hofstede had conducted another international study with Chinese employees and managers and that gave rise to a new dimension hofstede described the new dimension as long term orientation (LTO)
Long term orientation (LTO)
High long term orientation reflects the ethics of long term commitments and respects for society. A business may takes longer to enlarge in the the world particularly for an outsider. A low long term orientation shows the country which does not follow the concept of long term orientation. In the society changes may occur frequently and long term traditions may not implement and it may change rapidly.Hofstede describes long-term orientation as“characterized by persistence, ordering relationships by status and observing this order, thrift, and having a sense of shame, whereas short-term orientation is characterized by personal steadiness and stability, protecting your "face”, respect for tradition and reciprocation of greetings, favors, and gifts.
Fons trompenaars is the author who belongs to dutch he is one the author of cross cultural communications. Fons studied economics from free university of Amsterdam and he got hid PhD from Wharton school. Trompenaars and Charles hampden have developed a culture which have seven dimensions. Five of his dimensions covers the way in which people interact with each other. The dimensions of trompenaars are explained below
1) Universalism versus particularism
The cultures in universalism stand for strictly implied rule based behaviors which indicate distrust in people. Particularism cultures focuses on the exceptional nature of present circumstance.
2) Individualism versus collectivism
Trompenaars identified this dimension as to indicate the conflict between group and individual interest. Trompenaars explained this dimension “Individualism as a prime orientation to the self and Collectivism as a prime orientation to common goals and objectives.” Some of the factors that are affected by the by the individualism and collectivism are international management, negotiations, motivation and decision making.
3) Neutral versus affective
The range of feelings is included in this dimension. The relationships between people are very important reasons and emotions play a prominent and equal role in peoples relations. Some of the people will be belongs to neutral culture and some of the people belongs to affective culture. The people in the neutral culture keeps their feelings carefully and controlled. People who belongs to affective culture tends to be demonstrative
4) Diffuse versus specific
Diffuse indicates low context and specific indicates high context. The way in which individuals engaged in specific areas explores the culture. Task-relationships are segregated in specific cultures. There will be tacit communications ground between boss and subordinate in case of specific cultures. This dimension seems to have some of the particular significance to the evaluation in an international setting and it does not seems to be related in a national wide cultural context
5) Achievement versus ascription
Some people will ascribe higher status than some other people in the society so attention should be focused on that people and also on their activities. Some society's accord position to the people based on their achievements and the other ascribe the status to them by good worth of age, education and some other factors. The previous is categorized achieved status and the second as ascribed status.
6) Attitude to time
The perception of time can be ranged from sequential to synchronic. The central dimension of culture is orientation of time from past, present and future for enabling members to co-ordinate activities.
7) Attitude to environment
Attitude to environment is considered as major cultural variable by Trompneaars. There are two orientations of society towards nature they are that they should be able to control the nature by using their will and the other is they should believe that man is a part of nature and should go along with the law, direction and forces. The previous culture is observed with machines and it is known as inner directed and the second one is outer directed culture
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