Organic Derivatives of Water
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The distinction of various organic derivatives or water may be based on their characteristic solubility behaviour and reactions. During this experiment the 8 organic compounds used were Ethanol, 2-Butanol, tert-Butanol, Phenol, Diethyl ether, Unknown 1, 2 and 3. Small amounts of these organic compounds were tested for 2 purposes. First was to test their solubility reaction and behavior by the use of the Bayer's test,Chromic acid test, Ferric chloride test and Lucas test; and second to test their solubility alone by the use of water and NaOH. As a result, testing the solubility first, the following compounds, namely, Ethanol, Diethyl ether, unknown 1 and 2 had a negative solubility with the reagents hence making it insouluable to both reagents. While the organic compounds that gave a positive solubility were 2-Butanol, Phenol and unknown 3 which lead to the conclusion that they were souluable to the reagents used and lastly, the compound that was soluable in water but not in NaOH was the tert-Butanol with the probability that the components in NaOH were not compatible with the ones of tert-butanol. As to the next testing, which tested the solubility reaction and behaviour, the following results were gathered, Ethanol had a negative reaction to both Bayer's and Ferric chloride test while giving a positive reaction to both Chromic acid and Lucas test. While 2- butanol and unknown 1 however gave a positive reaction to 3 tests, namely, Bayer's, Chromic acid and Lucas test but gave a negative reaction to the Ferric chloride test. On the other hand Tert-butanol reacted positively with both Bayer's and Lucas test but reacted neagatively to the latter two. Phenol reacted with the Chromic acid, Lucas test and Ferric chloride test but gave a negative reaction to the Bayer's test. Diethyl ether, among others reacted positevly with the Bayers and Chromic acid test but reacted neagtivley with the Lucas and ferric chloride test. Unknown 2 on the other hand, reacted negatively to all the test being tested while unknown 3 reacted to tall the tests positively. These results were then found out to be the right characteristics of each organic compound therefore making this experiment correct and have been useful in classifying and determining their group of organic derivative of water.
The distinct characteristics or traits among various organic derivatives of water may be based on their characteristic solubility behaviour and reactions. You have to take into consideration that these groups can either be an alcohol, a phenol or an ether; to know how which is which let's start with the alcohols. Alcohols can be based on the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon that contains the hydroxyl group. While on the other hand, Phenols and Ethers, being aromatic compounds, can be based by the order from lowest to highest priority group. Another trait to take into consideration is the reaction of the product when the reagent is mixed in with the organic compounds, whether it may be a change of color, or a formation of cloudiness in the substance or how fast and slow the reaction will take place. These factors will lead you to which organic derivative is coming from; an alcohol, an ether or a phenol.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
8 organic compounds were tested for their reactions with the use of the Bayer's test, Chromic test, Lucas test, Ferric Chloride test and their given solubility state with the help of the mediums water and NaOH. For this experiment, about 10 drops of each reagent substance(chemicals or reagents used to test) were used to test the solubility reactions and behaviour with about 10 drops of testing liquid (8 organic compounds) and then shaken thoroughly. Seeing as to whether the organic substances belonged to an alcohol,more specifically a 1°, 2° or 3° alcohol, a phenol or an ether in the given reaction is further simplified in the given diagram in figure 1.
Organic Derivatives of Water
Place 5 drops of hexane, Eugenol, unknown hydrocarbon 1 and 2 on separate test tubes
For solubility in water add 5 drops of H2O, shake and observe
For solubility in NaOH, add 5 drops of it shake and observe
For Bayer's oxidation, add 5 drops of Bayer's reagent shake and observe the reaction
For chromic acid oxidation, add 5 drops of Na2Cr2O7 and 3 drops of conc. H2SO4. Observe the reaction
For Lucas test, add 10 drops of Lucas reagent shake and observe the reaction for 5-10 mins
For ferric chloride test, add 5 drops then shake and observe the reaction. Identify the samples comparing their solubility and reaction profile.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The reactive classification of these organic compounds are useful in classifying the type of Organic derivative of water and such profile were determined for 8 samples and the experimental results are summerized in Table 1.
Table 1. Solubility and Reaction Profile
Solubility in Water
Solubility in NaOH
Chromic acid Test
Ferric chloride test
Legend: ++(fast reaction) +(slow reaction) -(no reaction)
Identities of Unknown Hydrocrbons
Sample 1: 1-butanol (alcohol)
Sample 2: di-isopropyether
Sample 3: catechol (phenol)
(Phenol) ( Diethyl ether)
To start of, let's discuss the solubility of the organic compounds that were tested with the reagents water and NaOH. The following compounds, namely, Ethanol, Diethyl ether, unknown 1 and 2 had a negative solubility with the reagents meaning that they were insoluble when tested. While the organic compounds that gave a positive solubility were 2-Butanol, Phenol and unknown 3 meaning they were successfully dissolved in both reagents and lastly, the compound was soluable in water but not in NaOH was the tert-Butanol, which meant that the carbon atom or some atoms of the tert- butanol were not compatible with the atoms found in NaOH. Moving on with the testing reagents, namely, Bayer's test, Chromic test, Lucas test and Ferric Chloride test, we observed that some compounds are less reactive to some while others either react rather quickly; but before we go into detail of that, what are the purposes of these tests? The Bayer's and Chromic Acid tests were done to find out if the organic substance were oxidizable or can be tested by the use of oxidation. The Ferric Chloride test was done to check if there is a presence or absence of phenols in a given sample while the Lucas test was used to classify alcohols of lower molecular weight, more specifically, if it is a primary, secondary or tertiary alcohol.
We can tell if the given reaction reacts negatively or positively by the change in color. Below is a table to check if what outcome was obsereved to know why the following compounds gave out a negative, meaning it didn't change color or was stoic when the reagents were mixed in or a positive result, meaning the color changed or gave a cloudiness appearance to the tested compounds.
Tests Used: 1. Bayer's Test
Original Color: Deep purple
Positive color change: Brown precipitate
Tests Used: 2. Chromic Acid Test
Original Color: Yellow-orange
Positive color change: Reen-blue
Tests Used: 3. Ferric chloride Test
Original Color: Yellow-orange
Positive color change: Brown-black or dark purple
Tests Used: 4. Lucas Test
Original Color: Clear
Positive color change: Cloudiness
The given results were tabulated. Ethanol had a negative reaction to both Bayer's and Ferric chloride test while giving a positive reaction to both Chromic acid and Lucas test. 2- butanol and unknown 1 however gave a positive reaction to 3 tests, namely, Bayer's, Chromic acid and Lucas test but gave a negative reaction to the Ferric chloride test. Tert-butanol reacted positively with both Bayer's and Lucas test but reacted neagatively to the latter two. Phenol reacted with the Chromic acid, Lucas test and Ferric chloride test but gave a negative reaction to the Bayer's test. Diethyl ether reacted positevly with the Bayers and Chromic acid test but reacted neagtivley with the Lucas and ferric chloride test. Unknown 2 on the other hand, reacted negatively to all the test being tested while unknown 3 reacted to tall the tests positively.
The identities of the 3 unnknown sample were later known to be: 1-butanol (alcohol), di-isopropyether (ether) and catecol (phenol)
Pertinent General Reactions
Bayer's oxidation (KMnO4)
(+) purple to brown
(+) if primary or secondary alcohol
Chromic acid oxidation (Na2Cr2O7 + H2SO4)
(+) yellow orange to green
(+) if primary or secondary alcohol
Lucas test (conc. HCl)
(+) if tertiary alcohol
Ferric chloride test (FeCl3)
(+) change in color if phenol
Alcohols, phenol and ethers are all organic derivatives of water, this being said because all of the form an H20 bond, H---O---H. Alcohols are R-O-H bonded, phenols are AR---O---R bonded while ether is R---O---R bonded. You can classify alcohol into 3..because of the carbon ion.. Teritiary alcohols cannot be oxidized for the reason that all the hydrogen atoms are already filled or occupied by the remaining 3 spaces needed and there are no hydrogen atoms attached to the alcohol carbon. In primary and secondary alcohols, an H is removed to allow the double bond of a carbonyl group to be formed. This is however, not possible with tertiary alcohols.
Phenols are more acidic than comparable cyclic and acyclic alcohol and are resistant to weak oxidizing agents because phenols have weak tendencies to lose the H+ ion from the hydroxyl group, resulting in the highly water-soluble characteristic. Esonance stabilization of the aromatic ting is one reason why the acidity increase over alcohol. Another explanation, increased acidity is the result of orbital overlap between the oxygen's lone pairs and the aromatic system. In a third, the dominant effect is the induction from the sp2 hybridised carbons; the comparatively more powerful inductive withdrawal of electron density that is provided by the sp2 system compared to an sp3 system allows for great stabilization of the oxyanion.
The mechanism for the neucleophilic susbtition of tertiary alcohols with Lucas reagent goes like this. The mechanism is found below.
The economic used of alcohols, phenol and ethers are major ingredients of alcoholic beverages which according to studies have some health benefits in our body. It can also use as alternative for fossil fuels because it only produce carbon dioxide and water. Ethanol is the least lethal of the alcohols. It is applied in perfumes to prevent the plant and animal extracts from leaving off. The major uses of phenol, consuming two thirds of its production, involve its conversion to plastics or related materials. Phenol is also a versatile part to a large collection of drugs, like herbicides and pharmaceutical and is also used as an oral anaesthetic/analgesic, and a general anaesthetic and sedative in the medical field.
Polyphenols refers to a chemical structure created by adding to an aromatic phenyl ring, a hydroxyl (-OH) group like to that found in alcohols. It acts as antioxidant that blocks the action of enzymes that many degenerative diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases needed for growth. They guard cells and body chemicals against damage rooted by free radicals, reactive atoms that give tissue damage in the body.
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