Nowadays, many men or women are considering to make themselves looks better so decided to have cosmetic surgery. A lot of cosmetic surgery provider advertising their cosmetic skill and benefit of cosmetic surgery to attract more customer. Cosmetic surgery contain positive and negative morality.
Teleology theory can be defined as moral consequence position, in which moral behaviour means achieving an ethical consequence without concern over the process by which the end result is achieved. Right conduct with teleology means that which in turn promotes the best consequences or perhaps identifiable good (Craig, 1996). Utilitarianism can say by the phase “the greatest good for the greatest number” (Mill, 1983). From the view of Chris, Chris decided to have nose surgery is moral because acting accordance with happiness. Nonetheless, Chris are appearing upon a low delight. Even though the surgery will bring Chris several happiness but it is something that become endless pursuit. If there is a propensity for Chris into the future out feeling and looking better, than this surgeon did their own job and there is nothing immoral happening. Where the layaway is acceptable and surgeons do not have permit to practice, in pain and annoyance, there is immoral about the particular action. After the nose surgery operation, Chris perceive that there was some pain and discomfort after the surgery operation within a couple of week. Besides that, Chris having the second operation to correct a minor. After the operation, Chris satisfy with the result and bring Chris happiness.
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Based on the Chris’s decision to take action on cosmetic surgery, Chris’s mother was fully disagree Chris to having the nose surgery. Because Chris didn’t know what are the risk will occur during the operation. Chris’s mother keep on recall back the story of famous footballer’s wife which who are the one kept going for cosmetic surgery and passed away because of complication after the operation. From the view of Chris’s mother is based on deontology theory. Deontology define since the rightness as well as wrongness of action by evaluation of particular formal properties of act for instance duty, justice as well as respect a great individual’s autonomy (Stahl, 1996). All of the parents will worry about their child by doing some activities to damage or hurting themselves because of this, parents will have the responsible to avoid the activities happen. Even Chris’s mother also tried to persuade Chris do not have cosmetic surgery is because Chris’s mother worrying about Chris will have any danger during the operation. In the other way, Kantian ethics believe that consequence could never make right or wrong because an action may bring the happiness but still might be wrong. Because of the prominent nose was bring Chris unhappiness and dissatisfaction so Chris decide to have nose surgery for the beauty and seeking happiness.
Archie B Carroll said that the definition of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has four type of classification which include economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility and discretionary responsibility (Carroll, 1979). These four type of expectations reflect a view of social responsibility that related to some in the definitions made available earlier although that categorizes the social responsibilities connected businesses within a more inclusive manner. In order to make the Naturea clinic be more profitable, the Naturea clinic have to maintain a strong competitive position in surgery industry. Therefore, the Naturea clinic have to maintain a high level of operational efficiency by providing the best service quality to fulfill customer need and make sure the customer satisfied with the result after the surgery. Naturea clinic employees had been training to help them proceed within a cautions along with measured method, but the employees are being chivvied with the management team to become more energetic and market-facing to make the clinic more profitable. In addition, the Naturea clinic should perform in a manner consistent with maximize earning per share.
Furthermore, Naturea clinic must obey to the law cause of law is the society’s codification of right and wrong. Clinic have to perform in a manner in keeping with the expectations of government along with the law and it is also important to comply with numerous national and supranational laws and regulation. Other than that, Naturea clinic have to meet the minimum legal requirements by providing goods or services. For example, a qualified surgeons provide face or body plastic surgery to satisfy customer need. The rules and regulation for Naturea clinic by not doing illegal activities such as providing fake information about the cosmetics surgery, cheating customer by saying do not have any risk occur during the surgery operation.
Ethical responsibility encompass those standard, norms, or expectation that reflect a concern for just what consumers, workers, shareholders and the community consider as fair, just or commensurate with the esteem or protection of stakeholders moral legal rights. The Naturea medical team members complain amongst themselves the company has been hijacked by the team of the managers and the medics feel very pressure to hit the targets pertaining to the number and characteristics of operations are expected to perform. The manager of the Naturea clinic should treat their employees fairly, provide training to surgeons to ensure become a qualified surgeon to satisfy customers and do not give them high pressure when performing their work. Ethical responsibility for Naturea clinic is important to prevent ethical norms from being compromised as a way to achieve corporate objectives. Besides that, ethical responsibility could help clinic to recognize which corporate integrity along with ethical behavior go beyond mere compliance with regulations. Lastly, the ethical responsibility also important to Naturea clinic by recognize and also respect fresh or innovating moral ethical norms used by society.
Discretionary responsibility almost like philanthropy initiatives try to be good corporate citizen by doing some community activities, charitable work, donation to good causes and providing day-care centers to create a positive image for company (Blowfield and Murray, 2008). The Naturea clinic should do some charity activities such tend to arrange for teams of volunteer physicians carrying medical supplies to complete the mission. Increasingly, these teams also work to improve medical infrastructures and to train personnel. The manager and employees of Naturea clinic participate in voluntary and charitable activities within their local communities. Cause-related marketing (CRM) occurs when a company forms a strategic relationship with a particular social cause that are mutually advantages to all parties (Kolter and Lee, 2005). CRM are advantage to Naturea clinic such as, increasing the clinic population, increasing the brand awareness and services quality, developing good public relations and increasing the customer loyalty. And there are advantages for the social cause by increasing in donations through better exposure.
For some, plastic surgery is an approach to recover an ordinary appearance after a mishap. For other, plastic surgery is an approach to revise saw corrective blemishes. Despite the purpose behind the plastic surgery, there are serious disadvantages that must be considered before having surgery (Holley, 2013).
The first disadvantages of having surgery is medicals risks. Plastic surgery, in the same way as any surgery, convey a danger of medical complications, including death. The absolute most regular dangers connected with plastic surgery are serve bleeding, infection and nerve damage that may lead to dumbness, tissue death, fluid collecting around the site (seroma) and wounding in the range. Blood clusters can profound vein thrombosis are likewise complications of plastic surgery.
The second disadvantages of having surgery is about the appearance. Unsightly scarring is also disadvantage of plastic surgery. With these scar, which are called hypertrophic scars, are thick and red. Wounding and swelling for a period of time after the surgery are frequently hard to cover up, particularly when the work was carried out in the facial area. Besides that, Ptosis or drooping and sagging in the surgical area, might be another disadvantage. Furthermore, some of the patients find that the result of the procedure are not what they anticipated.
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The next disadvantage is cost of the plastic surgery. Numerous plastic surgery procedures are costly. As indicated by American Society for Aesthetic plastic surgery, microdermabrasion was the least expensive procedure which costs an average of $139 per procedure and the most expensive with a costs of $7,976 is a lower body lift. Besides that, there are some fees also will be calculated when considering the costs of plastic surgery which is surgeon fees, hospital fees and anesthesia fees, along with lost wages and medication costs.
Cosmetic surgery tourism can be defined as the motion of the patients from one location to another to carry out “aesthetic” medical procedure, which is the growing area of medical tourism (Reisman, 2010).
Some of the activities like sunbathing, drinking alcohol, jet skiing and swimming should be avoided after surgery said by the American Society of Plastic Surgery (ASPS) (ASPS, 2008). The disadvantage of cosmetic surgery tourism is that impossible for the patient to meet up the doctors to operate on the patient before travelling, it is required to have a talk with doctor or surgeon to know detail of the surgery and the effect of travelling for operation.
Many patient lack of knowledge about the problem of cosmetic surgery oversea. An accident or bad cosmetic surgery can occur. For example, Elliott (2004) reported that a patient had liposuction on her legs and the surgery so radical that the patient leg badly dimpled and require more fat to fill them out. All cosmetic surgery possible present the dangers to patient or tourist health.
Some of patient face extra language and culture barrier that obstruct communication with physicians and nurses (Casanova, 2007). When post-operative individual decide in tourism activities will raise the chances of undesirable results and complications.
From my opinion, I felt that the advertising of cosmetic surgery by clinics such as Naturea should be banned. As of now, cosmetic surgery supplier are free to promote their services without any restriction on content. The advertisement heedlessly trivialize invasive surgical procedures that consist of inherent heath risk. Every people have their own definition of beauty. Genuine beauty lie in your individuality, if one of the boy or girl consider as ugly but they have a good personality which mean there is still have people find them because they are attractive. But the cosmetic surgery trend has misdirect the people into imaging that looks are generally vital. They may duplicate their idols’ looks so they can like themselves and be acknowledge in general. This would be bad for the society. We should respect our parents because our looks are a present from our parents, if we have cosmetic surgery and changed our looks are considered as cheating. Besides that, some of the advertisement show that cosmetic surgery do not contain any risk and guarantee that the surgeons is a qualified surgeons and have their own license. All of the advertisement is tried to cheat customer and actually cosmetic surgery involves risk such medical risk. Some of the surgeons might not have a license or unqualified surgeons, if you having cosmetic surgery from the surgeons that do not have license and not a qualified surgeons and the end result is not what you expected, you would not be able to do anything on it. Currently, people have no choice, but still exposed the aggressive marketing plot of some cosmetic clinics, whether in the public, social media such as internet, magazines or advertising on TV. Because of these, the advertising will affect everyone that already considering to have the surgery.
As a conclusion, cosmetic surgery can satisfy what customer need and also will damage to the customer after the surgery. If cosmetic surgery fulfill the happiness of the customer then the action of the surgeon is moral. And there are four responsibility in corporate social responsibility which include economic, legal, ethical and discretionary responsibility. There is also a disadvantage of having cosmetic surgery and cosmetic surgery tourism.
- ASPS, (2008), Warnings of ASPS, [Online] Available from:<http://www.plastisurgery.org> [Accessed: 7 April 2015]
- Archie B. Carroll. (1979). The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4, No.4 (Oct., 1979), pp. 497-505
- Blowfield, M., & Murray, A. (2008). Corporate Responsibility: a critical introduction, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK
- Craig, E. (1998).Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge.
- Casanova, E. (2007) The Whole Package: Exploring Cosmetic Surgery Tourism, [Online] Available from:< http://www.allacademicresearch.com> [Accessed: 6 April 2015]
- Elliott, J. (2004) Do not Rush into Cosmetic Surgery, [Online] Available from:< http://www.bbc.co.uk> [Accessed: 6 April 2015]
- Holley, Casey. ’Disadvantages of Plastic Surgery | LIVESTRONG.COM’. LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., 2013 [Online] Available from: < http://www.livestrong.com/article/23750-disadvantages-plastic-surgery/> [Accessed: 5 April 2015]
- Kotler, P. & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility: doing the most good for your company and your cause Wiley Publications, New Jersey, USA
- Mill, John Stuart. The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Gen. Ed. John M. Robson. 33vols. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963-91.
- Reisman, D. (2010) Health Tourism: Social Welfare through International Trade. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
- Stahl DA. Ethics in subacute care—part1. Nurs Manage. 1996;27(9):29-30.
- Thomas MCElhenney “The Ethical Issues behind Cosmetic Plastic Surgery. [Online] Available from :< http://parenethical.com/phil140sp11/2011/03/07/thomas-mcelhenney-the-ethical-issues-behind-cosmetic-plastic-surgery-and-how-js-mill-and-immanuel-kant-would-view-it/> [Accessed: 8 April 2015]
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