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Natural Selection and Evolution

Paper Type: Free Assignment Study Level: University / Undergraduate
Wordcount: 1672 words Published: 12th Oct 2021

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1. In no more than 100 words write down what you consider ''Science'' and the study of ''Science'' to be.

Science is what determines the findings of many things on this earth and in the universe. Science is the applying of knowledge and trying to understand of how things got to where they are. Personally, I believe that science is another way for us to logically approach all organisms and creations on this earth and continue to develop new studies on them. Science is also not only fixated on the earth but also things in the universe. There are many sciences coverings these studies such as astrology which is the study of movements and positions of things in the universe. To me science is such an important part of our everyday lives as it allows us to discover things that are vital to our everyday lives. Without science many of the simple things we see around us would not exist.

2. Why is Natural Selection not the same as Evolution?

The biggest misconception of Natural Selection and Evolution is that that they are the same thing. However, they are not. Evolution is the gradual change in traits of organisms over many generations. Natural Selection is the process where organisms are best suited to their environment giving them the best chance of survival, which allows them to continue passing on their genes. While Natural Selection is about the survival of organisms, Evolution is the development of those organisms.

3. In evolutionary theory, what role is given to mutations?

Mutations play an important role in evolution. For evolution to have gone forward, a mutation would always have to occur as it creates a DNA sequence for a specific gene, making a new allele. An organism is not anything without its DNA. Without it, it would affect how an organism looks, behaves and its physical structure. Therefore, mutations are essential to evolution.

4. What is the difference between Micro and Macro Evolution? Give examples to support your answer.

Micro-evolution refers to the change in a gene pool of an organism's population that over time results in small changes of the organism in the same species. On the other hand, Macro-evolution refers to the change in organisms which eventually gives a completely new species. The changes in micro-evolution occurs over short timescales. Take the peppered moth as an example. These moths are normally white with black speckles across the wings. Their pattern gives them good camouflage. However, there is also a natural occurring genetic mutation which causes some of these moths to develop black wings. For macro-evolution we have many examples. One being the development of organisms that are invertebrates but evolve to vertebrates. The earliest example of this is the hagfish that lived more than 500 million years ago. As other species of fish appeared, they evolved traits such as jaws, an endoskeleton and a vertebral column.

5. What evidence is put forward to support each of these models? Give at least two examples of each.

The flowchart for this assignment gives 5 examples of the origins of mankind. The first example shown is Naturalistic Evolution. This debated model believes that there was no ''intelligent agent involved in creating the universe'' or in other words no type of God responsible for the creation of the universe. As evidence, many believe that the fossils show many examples of evolution transitions: land mammals to whales, apes to humans. Not only that but those who believe this theory see natural selection as evidence. It is proposed that evolution can be explained by the different survival of organisms independently following their naturally occurring changes or variations.

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The second example shown is Intelligent Design. This theory believes that there was a God that created the universe but it's not relevant what type of God it was. Those who believe this go on the evidence of biology, showing that even the simplest living one-celled organisms were designed with Intelligent Design, regardless of the God who did it. Another example they always use as evidence is the detailed structuring of DNA. To rebut the theory of evolution they look at the designing of DNA to argue that a God must have made this because of the detailing shown. The third debated model is Theistic Evolution. This is the belief that there was a God that created the universe, that God being of the Bible that used evolution to create humans. Those who believe this theory don't have any evidence to prove they are right and instead assume that God either let evolution continue through natural selection or the use of Genesis verses that use the words like 'create' and 'made' that show that we were made through evolution. Another theory shown is Young-Earth creationism. This theory is the belief that our planet and the universe was created by God from nothing in six days, approximately 6,000 years ago. This belief is evidentially supported by the Biblical book of Genesis. The Bible upholds majority of the evidence to show that God created all the universe and earth in 6 days. Young Earth Creationists don't listen to the mountains of scientific evidence showing that the Earth is older than a few thousand years old and continue to use Genesis as their main support. The last theory is Old Earth Creationism, which is the belief that accepts the scientific evidence, unlike Young Earth Creationism that the Earth was made more than 10,000 years ago and sticks to the belief that the Earth was made by a God. These believers follow Bible scriptures from Genesis but, change the wording of it to create two different stories to fit in real-world facts about the age of the Earth and even facts about evolution.

6. Take ONE model and the evidence listed in Q5. Explain in detail how this evidence supports your chosen model. With that SAME evidence, choose 1 other model and explain why it DOES NOT support that model.

Intelligent Design is one of the many theories listed In Q5. This theory stands for its belief that there is no specific God that made the universe but claims that biology gives much evidence that the detailing of the world must have been created by some type of God. As mentioned in Q5, the theory of intelligent design simply states that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent being creating them. On the other hand, we have the belief of Naturalistic Evolution which is the belief that there was ''no intelligent agent that created the world'' but the theory of organisms changing forms in order for survival in specific environments. These two theories are very different from each other as one believes in God creating the earth while the other doesn't believe there was a specific God at all.

7. Which model do you personally support? Why? (there is no 'wrong' model to support for your answer. You just need to be able to give your viewpoint)

The model that I can most relate to is the theory of Evolution. I personally don't belief all that this theory has to say but, I can relate to it the most. There are many fossils that we see nowadays that prove things have evolved. The process of natural selection allows organisms to adapt to their environments which I believe occurred by nature and the help of biology. Personally, I think nature and selection of organisms created the universe and the earth.

8. What questions do you have about the origins of mankind?

Where is the evidence that there was a God that created the universe?

What came before the beginning of Evolution?

How can we rebut all other theories when there is no absolute proof that they are false?

Is there a limit to how many organisms that 'God' can make?

How is it that the Bible explains the Earth to be 6,000 to 8,000 years old when we know that dinosaur bones are at least 65 million years old?


Khan Academy 2019, Evolution and Natural Selection review viewed 8 October 2019, .

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C, R 2019, Difference between Micro-Evolution Vs Macro-Evolution, Bio differences, viewed 8 October 2019, .

Your Dictionary 2018, Examples of Macro-evolution, viewed 8 October 2019, .

NCBI 1999, Evidence supporting Biological evolution, viewed 8 October 2019, .

Access Research Network 2019 Doesn't the Fossil Evidence Support Naturalistic Evolution? Viewed 8 October 2019, .

Meyer, S 2018, Yes, Intelligent Design Is Detectable by Science, Evolution News, viewed 8 October 2019, .

RationalWiki 2019, Young Earth Creationism, viewed 8 October 2019, .

RationalWiki 2018, Old Earth Creationism, viewed 8 October 2019, .


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