It is important to know the difference between the sequence and the rate of development as it gives us guidance when it comes to monitoring a child or young person’s needs during stages of their educational years. Not all children develop at the same rate we need to recognise this so we can underline if there is any disabilities or if any neglect that may be affecting their development needs. For example physical development should follow a particular pattern; a baby from birth to three months should be expected to move their head, arms and legs before being able to lift their heads at three to six months or a child of four should be writing their names and do basic drawings before they move on to more difficult tasks of joined up writing at around the age of eight. The sequence of child development is common amongst most children but what often changes is the rates in which they develop some make walk at twelve months where as another at fifteen months. Therefore it is important that we monitor this in order to put in place positive methods and activities to suit their development stage that they may be lower in for their age group. We can also get the help they need in order for their development to progress in whichever stage of their learning they are struggling in.
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2.1 And 2.2 An explanation of how children and young people’s development is influenced by:
External factors- care status, religion, background and family environment, culture, poverty and deprivation, if they have siblings, opportunities to socially interact, education and personal choices. Children come from many different environments and cultures. There may be situations that occur outside of nurseries and school in the children’s family lives such as bereavement, abuse or break-ups. The settings may not have been told about these circumstances so they are not aware. If they are coming from a background with abuse in then they may be socially lacking and be shy and even weary of others therefore could potentionly be at a lower development for their age group. A child in poverty is related to poor nutritional status and poor motor skills. Poverty is also associated with child obesity as they get older they may also turn to drugs, alcohol abuse or be in an abusive relationship or become abusive themselves. Children related to poverty may not have access to the food, toys and clothes that they need. A child in poverty is four times more likely to die in an accident and have nearly twice the rate of a long standing illness such as asthma and anemia. They are also most likely to have a poor education results and poorer attendance at school. The lifestyles the child choses can also affect their development, they may take to drug or alcohol abuse therefore having a great impact on their healthy development of their brain, and it is also hard to give up an unhealthy Patten and may continue into adult life giving more complications.
Personal factors – Health status, disabilities, Sensory impairments and learning difficulties. If a pupil suffers from a disability, impairment or poor health this could restrict their opportunities in development. For example a child with impairment may not be able to participate in certain activities that other children can. This could affect physical development and also maybe social activities. It could also affect them emotionally especially if they are not aware of their needs and how much it can affect them. It is important for the teachers and other adults in the school to be aware of the affects that the pupils could have from these circumstances so that they can be supported and can be ensured that they will be included as much as possible. Certain disabilities may affect what a child is able to do physically. Conditions such as spina bifida and cerebral palsy have a physical affect children and their development. Spina bifida occurs when the baby’s spinal cord does not develop properly during pregnancy. As a result the child’s legs may be partially or fully paralysed and they may have a curvature of the spine, difficulties in controlling their bowel and bladder and deformities in bones and joints, this could also have a big effect on their social development making them feel different and left out. We can encourage other to help the person with a disability to join in and by telling other children about the disability may make them understand it more so that they don’t feel that they are different just limited. A child who has learning difficulties can be affected in emotional/intellectual/social development depending on the child’s area of learning difficulty. These children need to be stimulated and praised to develop in areas to the best of their ability. The practitioner should be given advice and guidelines from professionals on how to manage the child’s needs.
2.3 How current practices are influenced by theories of development and the frame work to support development
Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Piaget was a cognitive theorist and is the most common of all educational theorists and possibly the main factor to current exercise of education. Piaget made vast contributions towards the direction, meaning and idea of current constructivism. Examples of Piaget’s efforts include his concepts that knowledge needs to be actively constructed by the child and learning activities should match the degree of the development stage of each child. Also, several major ways to the national course and instruction depend on Piaget’s theory. For example, Piaget influenced a lot of teaching techniques for example the focus on the process of the child’s thinking and also the active role from the learner. Piaget’s focus on the process from the child thinking promoted the development from the stages of cognitive development. Teachers use the stages in our classroom so that you can gauge a little one’s cognitive functioning. This shows the actual development of activities and learning experiences which can be at the correct cognitive development stage for that child’s ability to know. Piaget recognised that children have to be self-initiated and actively linked to learning activities. A current application with this concept today can be found, many of the actual national curriculum substance include interactive activities and also educational software for that child to engage in self-controlled learning. Piaget did not dwell on social relationships as much as other social constructivists. He took social and emotional development for granted and did not write about it in detail.
Stages of learning in Piaget’s theory
Assimilation. The child constructs a theory (schema)
Equilibrium. The child’s experiences to date seem to fit the schema (everything balances)
Disequilibrium. An experience occurs that casts doubt on the effectiveness of the schema. (Things don’t add up any more!)
Accommodation. The child changes the original schema to fit the new piece of experience or information.
(Cypw, Tassoni, 2010, p65)
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Based on Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a substantial role in personality development and always influence behavior later in life. Freud did not focus on the development of young children he thought that babies had only the id they were born with. Then they will get an ego which develops from the id. The ego works out how to meet the id’s needs such as smiling in some situations might get their needs met. Finally followed by the super ego which he believes develops later in childhood, it tries to control the ego. It consists of two elements, conscience and ego-ideal. The conscience will punish the ego if it misbehaves this is called guilt. Freud’s daughter Anna Freud did look into a young child’s development more. They believe that if a child is damaged by trauma or abuse then a loving relationship and being given a normal child life would heal them. Freud’s theory of psychosexual development is just about the best known, but also probably the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a few childhood stages during that this pleasure-seeking energies of the id become dedicated to certain erogenous areas. That psychosexual energy, or sexual interest, was described as the particular driving force behind behavior. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the effect is a healthy persona. If certain issues will not be resolved at the ideal stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent give attention to an earlier psychosexual point. Until this conflict is actually resolved, the individual will continue to be “stuck” in this point. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage could possibly be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation by way of smoking, drinking, or eating. Freud’s work has been criticised as it is not proven by scientific analysis. Although his observations into the link between our unconscious actions and our mind are still seen as useful.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970). Maslow’s theory is based on the notion that experience will be the primary wonder inside the study of human learning and behaviour. He placed stress on choice, creativity, values, self-realization, all distinctly human qualities, as well as believed that meaningfulness is more important than fairness. Relating to Maslow, development of human potential, self-respect and worth are generally ultimate concerns. Maslow rejected behaviourist Vistas and Freud’s theories judging by their reductionist strategies. He felt Freud’s see of human Mother Nature was negative, as well as he valued many advantages, dignity and purpose. Also, Freud concentrated on the mentally ill, and Maslow was enthusiastic about healthy human psychology. Maslow and his colleagues found refer to the movement as “third force psychology,” the first two being psychoanalysis as well as behaviourism. The third force is based on philosophies of existentialism as well as humanism. He is popular for proposing which human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs. The lowest degrees of needs are physical and survival needs like hunger and thirst. Through Maslow’s perspective, the drive to know is the key thing. The objective of learning is to bring about self-actualization, plus the goals of educators should include this process. Learning leads to psychological health. Maslow suggested other goals of learning, including discovery of the talent or fate, knowledge of values, realization of lifestyle, sense of fulfilment, satisfaction of psychological needs, and awareness of beauty and wonders in life, impulse control, developing decision, and grappling using the critical existential issues of life. Maslow’s hypothesis of learning featured the differences concerning experimental knowledge as well as observer knowledge.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Self-actualisation – Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice and acceptance of facts.
Esteem – Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others and respect by others.
Love/belonging – Friendship, family and sexual intimacy.
Safety – Security of: the body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health and property.
Physiological – Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis and excretion.
(CYPW,Tassoni, 2010, p69)
Albert Bandura (1925- ). Bandura believes that children learn about social behaviour by watching other people and by imitating other people. He believes that children imitate powerful personalities although research study did not give a natural situation but dose suggest that adults can be a big influence on a child’s behaviour. This should make us very aware of our own behaviour around children and the effect we can have on them. If we shout at a child they are more likely to shout at others or if we comfort a child when they fall they will learn to do it for others. Children often pretend to be adults in role play when they being to play imaginatively this is why it is important to have a role play area so that it can become all sorts of places inside or outside the setting. It does not regard that children are experimenting with different ways of doing things his theory suggests that the child is just copying what they see others do. But we now know that role play is a more complex than the theory would suggest. Identification is different to imitation as it may involve a number of behaviors being adopted whereas imitation usually involves copying a single behavior.
B.F. Skinner (1905-1990). Skinner believes that it is not useful to use theorise about mental states that could not be observed. He was a radical behaviourist and he developed the idea of operant conditioning. He believes the behaviour of a child depends on its consequences and if they have reinforcements or even punishments, which make it approximately likely that this behaviour will take place again. His principles are however combined within cures of phobias, addictive behaviours, and in the improvement of class. Skinner believed how the only scientific method to psychology was one which studied behaviours, certainly not internal (subjective) mental processes. He denied the existence of any mind as something separate from one’s body, but he would not deny the living of thoughts, which he regarded as simply as private behaviours to become analysed according to the same principle while publicly observed conducts. To further enhance the objective scientific value of observed behaviours he invented this “Skinner box” a compact, soundproof chamber in which an animal may very well be isolated from almost all distractions and outside influences, responding simply to the controlled conditions inside the box. Skinner was heavily influenced by the work of John B. Watson as well as early behaviourist pioneers Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike. Skinner divided the consequences into three different groups: Positive reinforces who are more likely to make people repeat the same behaviour if they get something they want from it, such as trying a free sample of washing powder which they like so they then buy it. Skinner believed using positive reinforcements was the most effective way of inspiring new learning. Negative reinforces are likely to also make people repeat their behaviour but the difference is that this is done to stop something happening. This could be if a child did not like going to fast on a swing they may put their feet down to slow down. Punishers are likely to stop people from doing it again such as touching a radiator will burn them therefore they will not do it again.
John B Watson (1878 to 1958). Watson created the term “Behaviourism” in 1913. Behaviourism assumes that behaviour is visible which enable it to be linked with different noticeable events. There are events that lead and follow behaviour. Behaviourism’s goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behaviour (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or even neutral effect). Watson’s theory was more interested in effects of stimuli. He got a lot of his thinking from Pavlov’s animal studies (classical conditioning). This is also known as “learning through stimulus substitution,” a reference to the substitution of one encouragement to another. For case, the ringing of any bell eventually produced the same response as food intended for Pavlov’s dogs. Aspects involving Watson’s theory: He used contiguity to spell out learning. He considered emotion to get just another example involving standard training. He also rejected the idea of individual differences and he thought complex behaviours came to exist through mixtures of spectacular reflexes. Watson was a main supporter of “nurture” and believed that human differences were the effect of learning and he believed that practice strengthens understanding. Watson said “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years.” (Watson J B, Behaviorism revised addition, 1930, p82).
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We have seen that many theories of development help us in our work practice and over the past years they have been put into combined use for children’s care and education. The best example of this is the Early Years Foundation Stage which contains the framework elements of Vygotsky and Piaget’s theories. Social pedagogy Is a practice concerned with human beings learning, well-being and inclusion to society treating children in a child centred way and a holistic way making sure that every child’s needs are met especially those who are in need. These are what my setting bases there approach to child care on. “Social pedagogy seeks to bring together theories and concepts from phycology, sociology and education to create a holistic way of working with children and young people”. (CYPW level 3 handbook, Stearns J, Page 140)
3.1 How to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods
We observe children to find out about their needs, what they are interested in and what they can do. This way we can take note on children’s responses in different situations. Then we can analyses our observations and highlight children’s achievement or their need for further support. We also observe children so we can see the progress that the children are making. An observation helps us to decide where children are in their learning and development and to plan what to do. This is an essential part of daily practice in any setting, regardless of the age of the baby or child. Looking, listening and noting is important because it helps us to get to know a child better and develop positive relationships with children and their parents plan appropriate play and learning experiences based on the children’s interests and needs, and identify any concerns about a child’s development. We can develop a systematic and routine approach to using observations and use assessments to plan the next steps in a child’s developmental progress and regularly review the progress of the child.
These are specific frameworks that we use as a guide to see if the child is developing to their average age group particularly in academic performance. The Early Years Foundations Stage is one of the main frameworks and P-Scales for children with learning difficulties.
There are some standardised assessment methods these include health assessments including height, weight and head circumference, reasoning tests, cognitive aptitude tests (CATs). They are used to establish where children are developmentally compared to other children their age. This means in the setting the may be “just average” but when their assessed against standard measurements they may be “above” average.
Information from carers and colleagues
Parents/carers who know the child and colleagues expertise are invaluable, especially when planning for social and academic success for pupils with special educational needs and/or disabilities. If we are concerned about child’s development it’s good to ask/share information. By involving others we can get a wider perspective because they will see the child in different situations. It is also useful so we can then include them in different things which they may have a different perspective to others.
3.2 Why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected Patten
Emotional reasons are a significant element in a child’s development. If a child is loved and has a settled background and is emotionally attached they are more motivated to try out new skills than the children that may be depressed and lacking in confidence.
Culture can effect a child’s development because there are many different ways they bring up children depending on their culture. In some cultures they believe boys should have a different up bringing to girls and in extreme cases this effects their development. They may also be strict on their freedom and independence which also effects their development.
Influences on development
Why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern.
(CYPW, Tassoni P, 2010, p73)
3.3 Disability may prevent a child from developing in one or more areas but if detected in the early years if could help reduce the effect on their future development by having the right equipment’s and support for their needs. If a child did not have full mobility of their hands without an alternative such as a computer to type on, they may lack in their development in language, written communication and English subject. If they had the equipment they need from an early age they will not be affected as much by this because they may be able to type even if it is by one finger.
3.4 How different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern
Social worker works to help support vulnerable children and young people and the families. They can give advice about counselling, transport and home help. They also include children with disabilities as well as those who are on the protection register. Social works are employed by local authority’s normally local councils or are voluntary organisations.
Health visitor comes to support mum’s to be, new mums, new born babies and parents with very young children. They are trained nurses or midwifes with additional training and visit people at home to give extra support, advice and practical assistance in caring for very young children. Some are specially trained to give extra support to families with young disabled children.
Speech and language therapist help children with difficulties in communicating they give them additional support. They also give training to professionals working with children that have communication problems.
Paediatrician is a doctor that specialises in treating babies and children. They are one of the first people call when there is a child that has an impairment or medical condition. They can also guide families to give their children a healthier life and balanced diet.
SENCO is a person in an education setting who has the responsibility for organising identification and support for children with special needs education.
Youth justice teams oversees the youth justice system in England and Wales a helps to stop offending and reoffending children and young people under the age of eighteen. This may include probation officers that work alongside social workers to make sure they are safe and secure.
4.1 An analysis that shows the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition
If you identify speech, language or communication delay early it is important for a child or young person’s wellbeing. All practitioners have a responsibility to decide children’s needs and give appropriate support that they need , to help children achieve the ambitions of ‘Every Child Matters’ and progress to their Early Learning Ambitions. It is importance to find any early language and communication skills, regarding children’s later achievements and to make sure it is documented and that we provide support for children when it is in the early stage so that they can then achieve their full potential. This suggests recognising a child’s issues as early as you can in their life and getting the support needed as soon as possible after the issues become apparent is vital. Early intervention means making a prompt intervention to support the child and their family. It is important how the child or young person in addition to their families start decisions about their support. If a child or young person receives the correct help early, they have an even better chance of taking on problems, communicating properly and making progress. If we did not recognise this early on and they did not get the help and support needed it can have a dramatic effect on their future development and they will lack socially and knowledgably.
4.2 How multi-agency’s work together to support speech, language and communication
By working together as a team they can help the child to reach their full potential. These teams may include speech and language therapist, educational, psychologist, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, Health visitor and specialist teachers for learning Support. They work together they can meet up and talk through what help and support that the child, family and setting needs. It helps because they can all set a goal or target together and focus on the main issues, in their meetings they can discuss who is going help the child and families and the when and where’s. This can also give some people who are working with the child knowledge of who they can contact if more support is needed. Making sure everyone involved are being kept up to date on the progress of the child and the main key is for this is for them all to communicate with each other.
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