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In this assignment I will cover what safe guarding means and what legislations have been put into place to support children young people and families. I will also discuss the different types of abuse that children can be affected by. I will also relate to different theories that are linked to child abuse. Safeguarding children legislation and procedures was put into place to avoid child abuse. .
Safeguarding is a multi-disciplinary team that work together to reduce the risk of children who don't receive basic child protection, safeguarding aims to prevent the lack of children's health and development.it also safeguards children from maltreatment and ensures children have a safe, effective environment at home.
The safeguarding legislation was bought into place in order to protect children from getting abused. The legislation protects children from the following,
Protecting children from mistreatment
Preventing impairment of children's health and development
Ensures children are growing up in conditions with provision of safe an effective care.
The following means that every child should have the above in order for them fulfil everything they want. On the other hand not all children have the opportunity as they get abused and neglected.
16% of children (1 in 6) experience serious maltreatment by parents, of whom one third experience more than one type of maltreatment. Cawson (2002). This quote shows that not all children have a good life as they are mistreated by parents. There are numerous types of child abuse physical, emotional, sexual and neglect.
Physical harm is when an adult intentionally harms a child is physical abuse. This can include hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning, and slapping. Emotional abuse takes place through verbal cruelty for example continuous verbal attacks sexual abuse is when a child is forced in sexual activity they may not want do.
"The Persistent failure to meet a child's basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child's health or development." Neglect is when the child's needs are not met for example adequate foods, water, shelter. If these needs are not persistently met children are being neglected. Abraham Maslow also states that the physiological needs to be met in order for a child to move to the next stage of the hierarchy.
Child abuse is seen differently within the broad frame work there are different types of action, or inactions that could be measured abusive in their consequences for children. What others may consider as child abuse you may not consider as abuse. Children with repeated, hard to explain, injuries can be affected very seriously. The impact it has on children can be physical, psychological, behavioural and societal consequences. For example damage to a child's growing brain, can obligate to psychological effects such as cognitive delays and emotional difficulties.
Child abuse affects a child in many ways as it has a major affect in their life and results in affecting their emotional feelings. There are many theories that link to why child abuse or neglect could take place in a child's life. One of the theories which could link to child abuse could be attachment this is where the child seeks attention from the mother the things this could involve would be crying, or any other way of attraction.
Statistics show that "Approximately 50,500 children in the UK are known to be at risk of abuse right now". This has been identified by the NSPCC. Research indicates that this is around 50,500 get neglected or abused.
After the victoria climb'e incident and baby p the government has put a lot of legislations in place in order for them to tackle child abuse, as child abuse has become very common. Below are a few of the legislations which i will look at in depth,
Safeguarding Children 2008
Children Act 2004
Every Child Matters 2003
Common Assessment Framework 2006/7
Working Together To Safeguard Children 2007
These legislations are used by all practitioners to work together and ensure every child is safe and loved for. Safeguarding has to be met by all practitioners to prevent any child from abuse or neglect. On the other hand there is a difference between safe guarding as child protection. Child protection is when multi agencies are obligatory to keep the children when they are at harm and to safeguard them.
The following people can take action school teachers, school nurse, if it is not an education setting then police, social services and other organisations such as the NSPCC can take responsibility.
Safeguarding children is very important in all settings to ensure children are in a safe environment. When working with children all staff have to undertake a CRB check to guarantee that all staff have a clear history and have no offences. If CRB checks are not carried out children could be at risk. All schools have safeguarding procedures in place in order for all the children to be in a safe environment.
The common assessment framework was introduced after Lord Laming was appointed in April 2001 to chair a self-governing constitutional Investigation into the circumstances leading to and surrounding the death of Victoria Climbié. Victoria had been physically ill-treated by her great aunt Victoria and suffered many injuries. The common assessment framework was put into place in order to assess all children and young people to support earlier intervention, to develop communication amongst practitioners. The reason why victoria's case was not dealt with appropriately was because agencies were not working together. This would not result now as all agencies work together and work as multi-disciplinary teams. This will benefit practitioner as well as keep the child. On the other hand the CAF has its positives and negatives. As they share information it is easier for practitioners to resolve the problem quickly.
The CAF is to be used for children who have additional needs in one or more of three areas:
Their development and growth
Extra learning requirements
Family and environmental problems and any precise needs of the parent/ carer.
Working together to safeguard children was also put in place after the death of victoria Climbié. This legislation focuses on all settings to work together to safeguard children. It also allows families and children to access services that are available to them if they need any help or support.
ECM stands for Every Child Matters. It's a green paper which means that it is not yet legislation and hasn't become a white paper. The reason for ECM is to get rid of inequality and improve the life of children that aren't well off. This green paper is a follow on from the paper that Laming produced after Victoria Climbie's death. Cheminais (2008) writes that there are five outcomes for Every Child Matters. These are be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic wellbeing. By being healthy the child should be physically, emotionally and mentally well. They should have a healthy was of living. An example of this would be eating healthy and exercising. It is not only the child's responsibility to keep themselves healthy but also their parents and anyone that works with them. Staying safe is about being safe from bullying or any harm and injury. This also means having a steady home environment. To enjoy and achieve is to have fun whilst learning and not be doing something that makes them feel uncomfortable, rather be doing something that makes them happy. Making a positive contribution is to be supportive of others but also to have your own opinions. To have confidence and have a positive attitude on the outlook of life. Economics is to do with finance and money. The child should be supported by parents and their home should not have a low income. The child should also be able to have access to good materials and be prepared to work and go in to higher education if they want. Throughout all these five outcomes the child should be supported and guided with the help of parents and other people that care for the child. However this puts more pressure on teachers as they have to take more responsibility. Some teachers do say that their job is to teach the children and not be another parent type figure to them.
The role of the teacher is to realise when a child is uncomfortable and to find out why. To notice any abuse or neglect. Practitioners should work with other agencies and share information so that the issue at hand can be dealt with. Teachers must observe the way children play. Smith (2008, p50) writes about the signs of recognising child abuse and neglect. The signs can be the child using toys to act out sexual experiences, drawings of abuse, being afraid of a person or not wanting to go home. The child might develop aggressive behaviour or the opposite, hostile, withdrawn behaviour. They also might have bruising or unexplained injuries and when asked, the child might give a shaky answer or tell a lie. The parent may also lie when brought in to discuss the child. Disguised compliance is another way the parents might make the services and teachers think that things are getting better or are resolved. They will go along with what the authorities say and after a while return to how it was before. The parent or parents only do this as a way of putting up and act.
There are techniques in which disclosures of abuse must be dealt with and responded to. Dare and O'Donovan (2000) write that when a child discloses in you, you must be calm about it. You shouldn't be shocked or keep asking the child what happened. This will only make them not want to say anything. You must reassure them but also let them know that what they have told you can't be kept confidential. The named member of staff must be told about what has been disclosed in you. The practitioner must know how to record information and where it is kept. The practitioner must also keep in control of their emotions. They will have to deal with parents and the child. Kids First (2009, online) describe how to make a report when calling the social services. Basic details must be given such as the name, age and address of the child as well as their parent or guardians name. The state of the child, for example if any abuse has taken place and if there are injuries. Where the child is being kept while the report is being made and if possible say if any harmful substances or objects are being kept at the child's home or anything that could put the child at risk.
The points that were in the introduction have been discusses as well as being expanded on. There have been references throughout from both books and online to support the points that were made in this assignment.
parliament.uk. 2003. House of Commons. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmhealth/570/570.pdf. [Accessed 10 November 12].
Medical news today. 2012. What Is Child Abuse? What Is Child Neglect?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/241532.php. [Accessed 11 November 12].
Melinda Smith and Jeanne Segal,. 2012. HelpGuide. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm. [Accessed 07 November 12].
Damien Fitzgerald, (2007). Working Together in Children's Services. 1 Edition. Routledge
Jennie Lindon, (2003). Child Protection.2nd Edition. Hodder Education.
Barbara Lindon, (2003). Contemporary Child Care Policy and Practice. Edition. Palgrave