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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background to the study
Youth travel represents a significant market within tourism (Horak and Weber, 2000) in terms of size and growth rates (Matzler and Siller, 2003). Youth travel has also been identified as one of the largest segments of global tourism and also seen as having considerable potential for future growth as youth affluence increases (Richard and Wilson, 2004). Furthermore young tourists are often trendsetters who establish and build the attractiveness of tourist destinations (Horak and Weber, 2000).
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Economic importance and social value of youth travel has been recognized (UNWTO, 2008). Locally owned businesses and communities particularly benefit from adventurous young travelers (d’Anjou, 2004) thus reducing leakages and stimulate investment (UNWTO, 2008). Youth travel is acknowledged to be multibillion dollar business and one that provides an indicator of future travel trends (Hall, 2005).
However few countries are currently engaged in activities to promote youth travel (UNWTO, 2008). Besides, youth travel is a little researched sector of tourism market (Cooper et al., 2008). According to UNWTO (2008) only a third of countries have youth travel policy, less than a third collect statistics on the market, only a quarter have policies for product development and less than third have a marketing policy.
In developing countries and more so in Kenya youth travel is seen as an extension of the education process, familiarizing young people with their own country and has not been classified as a separate category (UNWTO, 2005). In Kenya domestic youth travel has been spearheaded by the wildlife clubs of Kenya (WCK), a non-governmental organization whose aim is to promote wildlife and Environmental Education (EE) (Sindiga, 1999). Travel by young people locally, motivated by leisure, adventure and sport activities, is a significant sector that has continued to increase in frequency, and expand widely in the country (MOT, 2010). There are efforts to reach out to growing market to draw larger numbers of young travelers to Kenya.
1.2. Problem Statement
Youth travel is a growing market which is becoming increasingly important for many countries. The youth travel has also been acknowledged to be multibillion dollar business but the question arises whether this multibillion dollar industry is fully tapped in tourism in Kenya. In spite of the size of the market and growth in youth travel, the final draft of tourism policy has no specific policy for this market. There appears to be a policy gap between the growing potential of youth travel and the lack of action on part of the government.
Youth travel has not been given its due consideration nor has it been studied in great detail. Previous studies carried out on Kenya’s tourism industry by Dieke (1994), Sindiga (1996), Ndivo (2009) among others have made few attempts to focus on addressing specific tourism market segments. This has led to having relatively little information available on the size, scope and status of the youth travel market in terms of the profile, preferred products, as well as supporting infrastructure. As result Kenya is losing out on the longer term potential of a rapidly growing market.
1.3. Purpose of the study
The study seeks to identify and analyze the youth travel behaviour in Kenya in order to establish the potential of youth travel as a market segment for the tourism industry in Kenya.
1.4. Objectives of the Study
1.4.1. General Objective
This study seeks to establish the potential of youth travel as a viable market for tourism in Kenya. The study aims at providing baseline information to support market-driven development initiative such as planning and marketing for the youth travel niche market.
1.4.2. Specific Objectives
To investigate factors that influence the travel decision making among the youth.
To explore the tourist products preferred by the youth.
To determine the travel limiting factors for the youth travel market in Kenya.
To profile the youth travel market in Kenya.
1. H01: Youth travel decision making is not significantly influenced by social-economic and behavioural factors
2. H02: Choice of tourist products is not significantly different among youth of different social-economic and demographic status.
1.6. Significance and Anticipated Output
The study seeks to establish the youth travel as potential market for tourism in Kenya. The study will seek to identify the youth travel niche market, product and infrastructure. It is considered that the findings of the study will contribute significantly to ministry of tourism as a guideline for formulating policies to enhance and promote youth travel.
The findings will also contribute towards identifying attributes which satisfy young travelers in Kenya. This will be useful to local tourism investors and will also help in opening up the less visited destinations. Comprehending what young travelers seek in Kenya may help tourist marketers and promoters in increasing the growth of tourism by enhancing their strategies for marketing youth travel.
Finally, the study will contribute to the body of knowledge in youth travel research which has been inadequately undertaken in Kenya while strengthening the existing body of knowledge in tourism in Kenya.
1.7. Limitations to the Study
The study will use purposive sampling and the sample is selected from one particular tourist destination in Nairobi which is an urban setting. This may not represent the whole youth market in Kenya. The result should be generalized with caution to other regions. This is due to difference in culture, environment and social-economic conditions which may affect the youth travel decision making.
However, care has been taken to ensure that the selected group represents the travelling youth segment noting that the city of Nairobi is the premier source of domestic tourism market in Kenya (Ndivo, 2009)
1.8. Conceptual Framework
This study on youth travel as potential market for tourism in Kenya will be based on activities based model of destination choice by Moscardo et al., (1996) figure 1 in attempt to establish factors that influence youth travel in Kenya.
Social psychological set factors:
Personal characteristics, motives
Destination characteristics derived from
Information from experience, promotional information, Information from other sources
Individual constraints: Money, time, social factors
External constraints: seasonality, accessibility, etc
Destination images and
Figure 1: A theoretical framework of travel decision making (Adapted from Moscardo et al., 1996)
According to Moscardo et al., (1996) destination activities are seen as a critical link between travel and destination choice. They argue that motives provide travelers with expectations for activities and destinations are seen offering these activities
The figure suggests that internal inputs and external output factors contribute to destination image and awareness set. Internal input refers to social psychological set of factors such as personal characteristics for example age, income, experience, lifecycle and personal motivation. The internal input factors are seen as providing the desired activities by an individual at a destination. External output refers to destination characteristics derived from information gained. These include past experience, promotional information and information from other sources. The external output factors are seen as providing information about activities available at a destination.
Destination images are seen as the result of the destination characteristic, how they are presented and how they are integrated with social psychological factors such as motives and interests. Destination image is seen to provide the initial motivation to visit the place. Awareness set includes all the travel locations which people might consider as potential destination before any decision process about their trip has been initiated.
Image of destination affects the choice of a destination. Destination choice is based on match between perceived activities offered and preferred activities. Travel constraints includes individual constraints (such as money, time and social factors such as fear and safety) and external constraints (such as seasonality accessibility and influence by significant others) are also seen to influence the actual travel to a destination.
This study will therefore attempt to find out the influence of both social-psychological set factors and destination characteristics in creating destination image and awareness among the youth in Kenya. Finally the study will explore the potential socio-economic constraints that influence actual travel.
1.9. Operational Definition of Terms
Youth-In this study youth will refer to Kenyan citizens and foreign nationals who are aged between 15-30 years.
Youth travel-refers to young Kenyan and foreign nationals aged 15-30 years who travel within Kenya for leisure, business and other purpose not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Niche market-defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying Kenyan youth travel markets needs as well as price range, production and quality.
Destination-is any place in Kenya which attracts visitors, either as tourists who stay overnight or as same-day visitors.
Domestic tourism-tourism involving Kenyan residents travelling within Kenya for the purpose of spending their leisure time.
Backpackers-a form of tourism which appears to appeal mainly to a younger market, where tourist uses a rucksack, or a backpack rather than a suitcase to carry all they need.
Tourism-refers to all activities of Kenyan visitors,(either as tourists (overnight visitors) and same day visitors) travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for leisure business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
I think you have covered your objectives well
Think about adding more space for qualitative responses
You can rearrange your questions according your specific objectives
The questionnaire is fine but not neatly formatted. Use tables for neatness and format your question numbers to give it a professional look which will make it easier for your respondents to answer
I would strongly suggest that you look at other questionnaires even from the internet to help you with point 4 above
Date of issue:
I am conducting a research on youth travel as potential market for tourism in Kenya. I will greatly appreciate your response to the questions listed below.
Please indicate your response by ticking ( ) where appropriate.
Caroline, Kindly consider having this section in a table-like format for collecting personal information and remove the question numbers 1 through 6. The reason being its standard information and it gives the respondent a feeling that they are answering too many questions yet its not like so
Qn1. Your gender
Male [ ] Female [ ]
15-19 [ ] 20-24 [ ] 25-30[ ]
(If your age is below 15 or above 30 kindly discontinue)
Qn3. What is your occupation? —————————————
Qn4. Marital status
Single [ ] married [ ] other [ ]
Qn5. What is your level of education?
Primary [ ] High school [ ] TertiaryCollege [ ] University [ ] have option for other and explanation
Qn6.What is your nationality
Kenyan citizen [ ] Non Kenyan citizen [ ]
Qn7. If engaged in any income generating occupation, what is your level of income per month (KSh)? This could come after the personal information section. It’s a bit sensitive, and im not exactly sure how this information is going to assist you
Below 20,000 [ ]
21,000-30,000 [ ]
31,000-40,000 [ ]
41,000-50,000 [ ]
51,000-above [ ]
Qn8. What is the source of money you use for travelling to various tourist destinations in Kenya?
Personal saving [ ] travel incentives [ ] parents/family assistance [ ] others [ ]
This makes more sense to me only that you might have to explain in brackets what travel incentive means
Qn9. How would you evaluate your level of awareness, about touristic facilities and attraction in Kenya on a scale of 1-5? Where:
1- Not aware 2-aware but need more information 3-no opinion 4-aware but would not prefer visiting 5= aware but would very much wish to visit list them one by one
Regions visitedtypenumber of visits
National parks and reserves
Qn10. In making your decision to travel to your preferred tourist destination, how significant would the following source of information be to you? Where (1): totally
Insignificant; and (5): very significant.
Source of information
Travel agents/ marketers
Personal previous experience
Number of previous visits
Any other (please specify)
Qn11. In choosing tourist destinations in Kenya, how would you rate the importance of the following travel motivations on a scale of 1-5 where (1): not important and (5): very important.
To visit friends or relative
Oceans and beaches
To find thrills and excitement
Low cost of holidays
Warm friendly people
Good roads and transport
Attractive customs, life
Easier to have fun there
Religious activities/ help people in need
Class study/education with some fun activities
Travel arrangement (packaged/non-packaged)
Qn12.Below is a list of types of accommodation. On scale of 1-5 what type of accommodation would you likely prefer when on holiday vacation? Where 1-not preferred 2-least preferred (3-fairly preferred (4) preferred (5) most preferred.
Type of accommodation
Accommodation offered by friends and relatives
Any other specify
Qn.12. which one of the following statements is TRUE concerning your travel arrangement?
I prefer to travel independently [ ]
I prefer travelling in a group [ ]
Both of the above applies to me [ ] have this in table form for neatness
Qn13.If you travel in groups indicate the type of travel group.
School group [ ] have this in table form for neatness
College group [ ]
Researchers [ ]
Volunteers [ ]
Non-school youth groups [ ]
Family groups [ ]
Corporate groups [ ]
Religious groups [ ]
Cultural exchange groups [ ]
Event driven [ ]
Other and specify. Please have this in table form for neatness
Qn14.How do you make your travel arrangement?
Independently [ ] Travel agents/tour firms [ ] Online [ ] Others specify [ ]
Qn15.Below is a list of tourist products. How would you evaluate your level of preference about the touristic products available in Kenya on a scale of 1-5? Where (1): least preferred and (5): -most preferred.
1 2 3 4 5
Bird site sanctuaries
Walking and trekking
Qn16.Please indicate on a scale of 1-5 the type of transport you prefer while travelling to a tourist destination where 1-least preferred and 5-most preferred
1-not preferred 2-less preferred 3 fairly preferred 4- preferred 5 most preferred
Type of transport
1 2 3 4 5
Others (please specify)
Qn17.On a scale of 1-5 how would the following factors likely limit your travel to a tourist destination. Where 1-most unlikely and 5- most likely
1 2 3 4 5
Lack of interest
Lack of awareness
Fear and safety concerns
Qn18.On average how many nights would you spend in visiting any domestic tourist destination?
Less than 1 night [ ] 1 night [ ] 2 nights [ ] 3 nights [ ] 4 nights [ ] 5 nights [ ]. Above five [ ].
Qn19. If less than 1 night specify the reasons—————————————————–
Thank you for your co-operation in completing this questionnaire.
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