# Trends in tourism

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1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

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ELEFTHERIA GIAKOUMOGIANNAKI T230

Taking a country or region of your choice, calculate the net propensity to travel, the gross propensity to travel and the travel frequency.

Where do the people of this country or region travel to most?

Look at the patterns of demand for tourism and explain them in respect of social, technological, economic and political factors.

Germany is a country in Central Europe. The territory of Germany covers 357,021 square kilometers. Germany has a total population 82,438,000 and as the statistics says in 2010 it has the largest population among member states of the European Union. Germany is one of the main generators of international tourism at world level. The total German tourists are 57,111,000 and according to the Eurostat statistics handbook the percentage of the population who travel is 80.7%.

Net Propensity to Travel = Total number of people who travelled/ Total Population, so the net propensity of Germany is 80.7%.

The total holiday trips by resident tourists are 153,276,000. If we want to find the gross travel propensity we have to divide the total domestic abroad by the population. So, we have 153,276,000/82,438,000=185.9% ? gross travel propensity

To find the travel frequency we have to divide the gross travel propensity by the net propensity. So, 185.9%/80.7%=2.30 ?travel frequency, this shows how many times during the year they travel.

German people according to the Eurostat statistics handbook travel most to Spain, Italy and Austria and the percentage of these travels cover the 46.2% of the total holiday trips abroad.

### Social factors

The main social trends that have influenced partaking in tourism are the increase in flexible time, its altering allocation of that time and shifts in the way that society perceives this use of time. The structure that symbolizes this is the division of the day into equal portions of work, rest and leisure activity. As the working time has been reduced, people have more time for leisure activities in general and the changing distribution of this time is also important to tourism. One of the major changes was the introduction of the two-day weekend, which was involved in making stayover tourism achievable to nearby locations. Another major change was the standardization of the annual four-week holiday. The force for such reform came not only from the labor movement but also from corporations, which realized that the labor force required more unrestricted time to obtain and consume the goods and services that they were producing.

### Technological factors

The technological development in aviation industry (the introduction of new long-haul aircrafts) plays a crucial role in the diffusion of tourism. Also the development of the car industry during the twentieth century paralleled aviation in its rapid technical development and growth. Information technologies have also played a vital role in the diffusion of tourism. For example, computerized reservation systems accelerate the proceedings of travel by providing travel agencies with flexibility, incorporation with other components of the industry and enhanced cost success.

### Political factors

Tourism is dependent on the freedom of people to travel both internationally and domestically. Frequently limited for political and economic reasons in the previous growth stages, freedom of mobility is seldom an issue in Phase Four countries, where limitations are more often restricted to sensitive domestic military sites and certain forbidden countries.

### Economical factors

Affluence is the most vital economic factor related with increased tourism demand. Usually, the allocation and volume of tourism increases as a society becomes more economically developed and greater flexible household income then becomes available. In the early stages of development process, regular tourism participation is possible for the elite, as demonstrated by the history of tourism in Europe. ”Burton’s” Phase One refers to these pre-industrial, mainly agricultural and subsistence-based situations where there no mass participation in tourism. In this Phase only the elite travel to domestic and international destinations. In Phase Two, the generation of affluence increases and spreads to a wider segment of the population as a result of industrialization and the rapid growth of urban areas. At the same time an ever-increasing number of newly reach individuals are visiting an increasing selection of foreign destinations. By Phase Three, the mass of population is relatively affluent and the middle class becoming dominant, leading to further increases in mass domestic travel as well as mass international tourism to nearby countries. The elite turn towards long-haul travel. Finally Phase Four represents a fully developed country with widespread affluence and a following pattern of mass international tourism to a varied selection of short and long-haul destinations. Almost all residents participate in a variety of domestic tourism experiences that differ greatly from those in the earlier phase societies.

### References:

Eurostat statistic handbook

Tourism Management Fourth Edition-David Weaver, Laura Lawton

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