The food; the original Italian cuisine, the weather, the habits, the Italian temperament of the people in Rome, represents a big part of the Italian culture. However, the city is a live market and sells from each attractions souvenirs, guided tours to the city or specific tour experiences, local products, to the airlines, the 100.000 beds ( from hostels to villas) and restaurants and bars a tourist would visit in order to feel like a local Roman. Furthermore, Rome first became a major artistic center during ancient Rome, due to the evolvement in architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Also, the city was influenced and inspired by the baroque, and Rome became the home of famous figures of the time; artists and architects, such as Bernini, Caravaggio, Carracci etc. This fact attracts people interested in art for the galleries and the museums. Metal-work, coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, and book illustrations are considered to be ‘minor’ forms of Roman artwork.
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Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios, the largest film and television production company in the Italian cinema, where a large number of the biggest Italian box office hits are filmed. Nowadays, many tourists visit the “Dolce Vita” city in order to see where some remarkably artistic “jewels” were filmed.
Tourism Development in Rome
The city’s utter aim is to conserve the right balance between development and conservation. The effect of this planning approach is that focusing on enhancing Rome’s status of by governmental action for the tourism resources only, which may lead to new imbalances in the current level and potential of development of the urban/metropolitan region of Rome. The city has always been an important destination for international cultural and religious tourist flows, and for many decades such role has been almost unintentional as did not require specific planning measures given the importance of the amenities provided.
In recent years, local government investments have promoted a tourism offer which is still strongly linked to the historical artistic value of the city center, also in the attempt to lengthen the average tourism stay. (as seen to Appendix 2)
During the last decade there is a rapid development in the city tourism with a growth rate more than double, in contrast with the mass tourism. The city-breaks trips are already a fact in the international tourism. The city-break trips consists one of the most important tourism moves of the European metropolitan destinations, especially on weekends. The noticeable increase in the city tourism is related with the changes in lifestyle. Today people work harder, with larger working mobility in contrast to the past. They have less vacation days and the demand is focusing on more and short trips. In the same time, new growth perspectives were created by the abrupt development of low-budget airlines (Easyjet, Ryanair) More than 50% of those trips are by air and the 40% with really cheap flights. Moreover, the city-breaks are not affected by seasonality, which is a major problem for tourism.
Rome was always a destination that attracted peoples’ attention. During the centuries Rome has been an Empire center, a religious focal point, a major archaeological hub and an artistic limelight. However, the popularity of the city had its shifts because of the social, financial or political circumstances. Eventually, all destinations enter the market maturity leading to a decline in tourists. The managers and the policy makers in order to prevent the tourist decline have to reposition the destination appeal. Nonetheless, Rome is not a mature destination. No matter how many shifts Rome had, it cannot be considered as a mature destination. In 2007, Rome was the 11th-most-visited city in the world, most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic center is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are amongst the world’s 50 most visited tourist destinations (the Vatican Museums receiving 4.2 million tourists every year) (see Appendix 3). In 1960 Rome hosted the Summer Olympics. The city also played host to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2004. Rome has been ranked currently by the Global Cities Index (GaWC in 2010) as a beta+ world city, with a score of 2.56 in the 28th position, falling down from its alpha- status in 2008 and being the highest-ranking city in Italy. Furthermore, Rome was in 2008, also ranked 15th out of all the cities of the world for global importance, mainly for cultural experience. Rome is also widely acknowledged as a world fashion capital. It has been ranked the world’s 4th most important center for fashion in the world (Capital, 2009) after Milan, New York and Paris. International and luxury fashion houses are headquartered or were founded in the city. However, Rome with a new branding marketing tries to be an emerging destination and to provide to the tourists something new. It is a destination widely known for its history, the culture, the cuisine and the attractions. The difference between mature and emerging tourism; is that Rome reached the peak of its status and even if there were some years that the tourism income and arrival numbers were diminished, the image policy and the brand marketing strategy made Rome competitive again to its “rivals”; Paris and London. Rome attracts more tourists than any other Italian city.
Type of Tourists
It is supported that 12 million of tourists visit Rome. The most usual type of visitors Rome has is: anyone studying art history, architecture or archaeology in Italy or member countries for city-break trips. Also, sometimes school groups, art experts and collectors and fashion icons visit the city for educational, business reasons or shopping. Rome as one of the most romantic and picturesque city worldwide, attracts many couples, too, just like the religious tourism, due to the Vatican, the Catholic Church center. It is a destination that lures people of all generations and, social levels to the world famous Rome’s attractions.
Apart from traditional tourism, Rome is also currently living a productive moment on the economic and social scale, and has operations that are typical of global cities, in that it can also attract tourism flows that are not essentially for holidays. According to a research (ESPON, 2006), Rome is classified as a metropolitan growth destination; a city for the mass tourism, competitive, and is connected with the ranks to the two European “competitors” of London and Paris. The Tourism Department of Rome and Lazio together with APTRL, the operating institution responsible for the actual promotion of the region, will attend the ATM with the tourist board for Italy at Arabian Travel Market.
Furthermore, in 2008 the Italian government started “The Second Tourist Centre” project, in order to revolutionize the appeal and promotion campaign of the Rome area. The Capital will be able to diversify and boost its appeal. Through its Second Centre the Capital is aiming to propel the historic core of the city and to carve out a major role also in those corners of the market which had been rarely appreciated, such as, for example, trade fairs, tourism conferences, sports and recreational activities, archaeological sites, natural reserves, ports and airports. In these areas, they are focusing on the facilities. A variety of structures (theme parks and congress halls) will improve the image of the city looking to the needs and demands of every kind of traveler, from leisure-seekers to businessmen. It is a new-look Capital, offering a much broader range of entertainment and cultural attractions.
Stakeholders and the Tourist System.
Stakeholders are essential to a tourist destination, since they can influence the growth of an area. Stakeholders can be categorized in: the public sector, the private sector, voluntary sector, community and tourists. For the case of Rome, numerous stakeholders are associated some of them forming partnerships, but all working towards the development and rehabilitation of Rome.
Tourists are the basic stakeholders of Rome and of every tourist destination, without whom there is no tourism industry and general no tourism. They expend millions of euros every year by visiting Rome and have an impact on the town, for example by reducing unemployment using the local people. Tourists’ impact to the town’s development is significant; their needs and demands can create trends and affect the international tourism market.
ENIT: National Agency of Tourism (ENIT: Agenzia Nazionale del Turismo)
Enit was established by the government and has already almost one hundred year old activity of promoting Italy as a tourist destination. ENIT has institutional autonomy with regards to management, accounting and organization, under the direction of the Minister of Tourism. ENIT is responsible for promoting Italy and each region, like Rome, as a tourist destination. It promotes the various touristic aspects of Italy as a whole and sets up the promotional strategies on a national and international level, with the aim of informing countries abroad of what Italy has to offer as a tourist destination, so motivating tourism in Italy. Enit provides consultation and assistance to the Italian State, the Italian Regions and to other public organizations with regards to tourist promotion of products, allowing them to tailor commercial strategies that allow Italy to present itself in an effective manner on the foreign markets. It organizes consultancy services, assistance and collaboration in favor of public and private bodies, by including regional offices and agencies, to promote and to better develop the hospitality sector, as well as providing information to tourists. (Turismo, 2005) Enit is an important help for Rome’s promotion, but the help would be more significant if it was specialize only in Lazio’s region.
Rome.info is an independent, non-commercial website designed to obtain visitors and new arrivals to Rome with essential information about Rome and its surroundings. (Rome.info, 2009)
Turismo Roma is Rome’s tourist portal. The Office’s responsibilities are to be responsible for the management of tourist welcome services. It organizes the promotion of events in Italy and abroad. It raises Rome’s profile in Italy and abroad. It participates in Italian and international tourist fairs and coordinates of projects aimed at increasing the arrivals of tourism during low seasons. Also, “Turismo Roma” is responsible for tourist publications to promote travelogue on the subject of the city’s historical and cultural legacy and the coordination of Second Tourist “Polo” (Centre) projects. (Roma, 2008)
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The city of Rome aspires to increase the number of travelers with a “Second District” of attractions in the “Eternal City”. These attractions are irrelevant with the churches and archeological sites in order to attract new visitors and those who have already visit Rome but would only make another visit to experience something completely new.
Mauro Cutrufo, Rome’s Vice mayor, claimed that Rome has made an increase of 1 million visits from 2009 and is expected to be doubled in 2011. Rome succeeded to attract the Chinese market by a astonishing 400. Nevertheless, Rome is not pleased with the 14 million tourists Rome had in 2010 and try to compete Paris and London’s activity and arrivals.
Besides the big targets of a Formula 1 race in Rome by 2013 and the Olympic Games of 2020, Rome aims to a recreation with green parks, new golf clubs, expanded congress and fair events, and new facilities to improve the yachting and sailing due to revive alternative tourism. Those projects are in the most advanced stage and Rome is awaiting to their results. (Rome, 2011)
Word Count 2645
This portfolio provides a designation and analysis of the current tourism development in Rome, the originating markets and type of visitors as well as the stakeholders and the way they Influence Rome’s growth. This paper approaches the subject through demonstrating and analyzing statistics and tables about the visitor flow in Rome through the years. All these can be found in the appendices.
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