Tourism And Economic Growth Of Sri Lanka Tourism Essay

4405 words (18 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

1. Tourism is a good business in modern world to attract foreign currencies and it gives a large number of occupations to the people. Modern tourist industry develops with various requirement or purposes of tourists like pleasure, business, education requirement, research and many some more other visit foreign countries during their vacations or winter seasons of their native countries. Because they expect to reduce their expenses and difficulties due to seasonal changes.

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Find out more

2. Thailand, Brazil, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Maldives and Indonesia are the most famous tourist destinations in modern world. Sri Lanka is also a world famous tourist destination and known as a Paradise Island in the world. Country size, geographical variation, climatic condition, cultural and heritage sites, natural environment and tourists expenses are the key facts to attract tourists to the country.

3. But this paradise Island suffered with a thirty years conflict situation and during that time tourist industry collapsed. Tourists rejected this Island with conflict environment because there have been many explosions in Colombo and suburban areas. As well most states labeled this country as non tourism destination for safer visits. As a result most tourists were attracted to other destinations like Fuket Island, Maldives and Thailand.

4. Tourist industry of Sri Lanka regenerated after the end of crisis environment of the country and started a new economic development programme since 2009. Giant infrastructure resources invested to boost the economy of the country. This miracle was started after the dawn under sustainable peace and political environment of the country. Foreign money is very important for these developments because economy development highly expects to attract foreign currencies under many ways like Foreign Direct investments, Aid, foreign occupations, tourism and loan facilities.

5. Sri Lanka is expecting to develop this country as a major tourist destination in Asia. Sri Lanka has various opportunities to achieve that goal like pleasure tourism, eco tourism, cultural and heritage sites, religious base tourism, business, education and facilitator as a centre of international transportations. But tourism sector need wide range resources and facilities to develop that as the main economic sector contributor. Present infrastructure development programme concerns to develop tourist sector requirements like international standard roads, hotels, urban areas, aviation and harbor sector developments.

6. International tourism is a giant business because it consists with large number of services and requirements. Tourists visit to take new experiences and pleasure from their visits. They do not expect complex legal procedures and restrictions from their destination places. In contrast tourist industry gains some big troubles to host country as sexually transmitted diseases, illegal drugs and social challenges. Therefore Sri Lanka needs to concern balance economic development through tourism in the future.

AIM

7. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of tourism industry and it’s contribution to develop the economy of Sri Lanka.

IMPORTANCE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

8. Tourist destination needs stronger opportunities to attract tourism easily because tourists expect different environments than their home or states. Natural splendour, scenic beauty, tropical climatic condition and historical sites increased the value of this island to tourists in all over the world. Also they can travel from different climatic conditions within 3 to 4 hours travel from any part of the country with the geographical size of the island. These factors are gaining additional value to their tours and to Sri Lanka to improvise tourism and country’s development.

NATURAL VALUES OF SRI LANKA

9. Sri Lanka is a humid tropical island lying in the South Asian region to southwest of the Indian peninsula in the Indian Ocean. When considering the geography and topography of the island three height levels or erosion levels are recognized by their height and slope features. The first level is the largest of the three and extends from sea level to 270m above mean sea level. The Uplands or the second level extends from 270m to 900m above mean sea level and the Highlands or third level at 900 to 2420m. These height levels illustrated very valuable scenic beauty and climatic difference to the country. Most tourists attract this variation and they enjoying with these values during their visits.

10. The island has also been divided into four climatic zones based on rainfall. The Dry zone occupies less 60 per cent of the total land area of the country. It’s annual rainfall is between 1250-1900 mm and its mean annual temperature ranges 27 to 30°C. It is characterized by monsoon forests and thorn scrublands. The Wet zone which covers approximately 23 per cent of the total land area, receives a rainfall of 2500-5000 mm per year. It consists of lowland evergreen forests, montane rain forests and semi evergreen rain forests.

11. The transition zone between the above two zones is known as the Intermediate zone where the annual rainfall varies between 1900-2500 mm. The two semi-arid zones in the South-east and North-west receive less than 1250 mm of rainfall per year. Climatic difference made wider environmental difference in the country. Therefore tourists can visit various natural environments with high variation of biodiversities.

12. Another most important natural value for tourism industry development is land portion of Sri Lanka because our motherland is small in size with only 65,610 square kilometers of land. It’s significant variation in climate, topography and soil properties has given rise to a striking variety of forest types. It provide habitats for a wide diversity of faunal and floral species. In fact Sri Lanka is one of the eight ‘Hottest Hotspots’ out of the 25 Biodiversity Hotspots of international significance and is ranked among the highest in Asia in terms of ‘biodiversity’ per unit area. Tourist can visit through these environments because Sri Lanka provides enough facilities to watch sanctuaries, wildlife parks and forest reservoir areas after taking appropriate permissions to visits. This is a big experience for tourists because they can take most natural experiences from this tiny island.

13. Fifteen floristic regions have been recognized within the country and these diverse habitats have given rise to a corresponding wide range of natural vegetations including forests like Tropical wet evergreen forests, Tropical moist semi-evergreen forests, Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests, Tropical thorn forests, Savannahs, Riverine forests, Tropical lower Montana forests and Tropical Montana or cloud forests, grasslands, Dry Montana grasslands, Lowland grasslands, Wet villu grasslands, inland wetlands and coastal and marine habitats. Such natural values enhance the value of the country and this island world famous as one of the natural treasure of the world.

HERITAGE VALUES

14. Sri Lanka is a rich country with heritage values with over 2500 years modern history and millions of year’s pre historic era. Most cultural and heritage values developed in the country with the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism. Sri Lanka consisted with big treasure of heritage sites and ancient constructions like Load Buddha’s statues, stupas, tanks, other statues, wall paintings, cave paintings, stone carvings and religious places. Sri Lanka provides facilities to visit these heritage sites and tourists can take interesting experiences from these tours.

15. Tourists can visit ancient kingdoms like Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa, Sigiriya and Kandy. As well Sri Lanka has number of colonial era constructions and architecture in various places and they can also see indigenous groups and their life styles if they travel to Dambana areas. Sri Pada or Adams peak, Anuradhapura Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi and Temple of Tooth relic are most important religious places of Sri Lanka and tourists can visits all these places with their interests.

CULTURAL AND TRADITIONAL VALUES

16. Sri Lanka is a multi ethnic country and world most popular religious groups are living in the country. Therefore they can take experiences about the cultural and traditional differences of these communities. They can take experiences about customary food of Sri Lankans like rice and curry, hoppers, milk rice, roti, string hoppers, pittu, and kottu. They can take these experiences much easily because most local restaurants, hotels and smaller hotels provide wide range food for everyone. Furthermore tourist can buy any other cuisine from most tourist restaurants and hotels with their interests.

17. Sri Lankans celebrate various religious and cultural festivals throughout the year therefore tourists can take these experiences with seasonal celebrations like Sinhala and tamil new year, Wesak, posson and Esala festival, Christmas and new year celebrations when they visit to Sri Lanka. Esala procession and various other processions can be seen in Sri Lanka and it gains good experience for tourists because they can watch these cultural and traditional events without any payments.

OTHER ENTERTAINMENTS

18. Visit to Sri Lanka provide various entertainment opportunities to tourists. They can enjoy their holidays with various attractive things like beach parties, club parties, music, bright sunshine, sea bathing and Ayurvedic treatments. Furthermore they can visit to watch whales, corals, diving events, boat trips, elephant orphanage, zoological and botanical garden. Tourist can visit to local shopping and they have opportunities to buy various attractive things like gems, handicrafts, dresses, duty free equipments and most local market items like fresh fruits, meats, fish, instant food and packet items.

TOURIST DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND

EFFECTIVENESS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH

19. Tourism industry is still developing after crisis environment. But large number of tourists attracted to this country after the crisis environment in 2009. Therefore tourist industry is boosted again with high potential in income ways and infrastructure development ways. Tourism sector development helped to develop country’s economy and economic development rate and it represents as a major foreign currency earning way of the country.

a. Earn Foreign Money. Tourism sector directly helps to flow foreign money into the country. Tourism industry is a giant foreign income way because we can earn foreign money through providing tourist sector services to the guests and sale other type of goods and services to them. Sri Lanka earned over 213 million US dollars in 2001 from direct tourist sector services and it increase as 350 million US dollars in 2009 and 575 million US dollars income in 2010 and 645 million US dollars income in 2011.

b. Develop Local Business and Tourist Sector Facilities. Tourist sector facilities also developed after the war. Large number of hotels and restaurants were closed and others depended with very low incomes during past two decades. Sri Lankan tourist sector survived in 2001 with 414 accommodations places included with 13,626 room facilities. This environment increased up to 783 accommodations with 14,714 rooms in 2010. This development helped to boost country’s economy as well we could provide food, spa services and other essential facilities to tourists through this industry and developed all these sectors during past few years.

c. Attract Foreign Direct Investments. From the end of 2008 Sri Lankan economy displayed some positive attitudes again after few years. The FDIs inflow to the country in 2010 reveals that about 59 percent came into infrastructure development projects, manufacturing sector attracted 30.9 percent, service sector attracted 8.6 percent included with 2.7 for tourist sector and agriculture sector attracted 1.3 percent. China invest a large amount of financial in Sri Lankan land in tourism sector and Sri Lanka expects US dollor1.5 billion foreign direct investments through its first tourist city project.

d. New Job Opportunities. Tourist industry consisted of wider job opportunities to Sri Lanka as direct and indirect job opportunities. This sector includes hotel field job opportunities, spa and saloon, guide and field services and transport sector job opportunities. Employment in tourist industry is represented 80,904 persons in 2001 and it increased up to 134,250 in 2011.

Category

2001

2010

2011

Accommodations for Tourist

414

783

824

Employment of tourist Industry

80 904

132 055

134 250

Gross Tourist receipts (US dollars Million)

213

575

645

Annual room occupation rate (per cent)

42.1

70.1

71.8

Table 1: Tourism sector development 2001 to 2011.

Source: Annual report 2011, Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AT PRESENT

20. Tourist industry has re-emerged after two decades under peaceful environment. Now most countries have removed their barriers for their citizens to visit Sri Lanka and they accept the present environment in Sri Lanka as an ideal country for tourism. Most tourist sector magazines and websites guaranteed our security environment and tourist sector services. As a result 654,476 tourists visited Sri Lanka during the year 2010 and it increased up to 855,975 arrivals in 2011. The tourist arrival has increased by 30.8 percent in 2011 than year 2010.

21. Nearly 85,874 tourists have visited in January 2012 and this trend continued until April 2012. Large numbers of tourists have arrived to Sri Lanka from European nations. They have been elected this country for their seasonal vacations after a very long time. Most of them highly appreciate about our hospitality, accommodations, our charges and new innovations in the industry. Sri Lanka could earn 830.3 million US dollar income through tourism industry in year 2012 and expect to increase tourist arrivals up to 1 million in this year.

22. Around 78.9 per cent of tourists arrived Sri Lanka to spend their holidays and most of them represent the middle income earners. Therefore, they spend little for additional purposes than their major purposes. Nearly 12.7 per cent visited Sri Lanka for business requirements and 5.4 per cent visited to met their relations and pals. Most tourists visit Sri Lanka to take more opportunities in visiting sites and engage in entertainments under effective budget. They have been attracted by our Ayurvedic treatments and spa services because they have to pay large amount in their countries for such services.

Item

2001

2005

2010

2011

Tourist arrival for pleasure

300,545

382,321

516,538

Tourist arrival for business

22, 677

92,879

83,270

Tourist arrivals for other

13,572

74,108

54,668

Total Tourist arrivals

336,794

549,308

654,476

855,975

Table2: Tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka from 2001-2011.

Source: Annual report 2011, Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

GOVERNMENT EFFORT

23. Sri Lankan government has identified the requirements of tourist sector developments and has given priority to develop this country as a tourist destination. Under this programme the government has provided various facilities to tourists, tourist sector entrepreneurs and employees. Government has given much stronger support to these programme because it can use as major income of the country.

a. Government has arranged giant hotel development programmes and attracted world largest hotel sector entrepreneurs to the country.

b. Introduced new tourist destinations like Nilaweli, Arugam bay, Mirissa and reopened Kumana and other sanctuaries to tourists.

c. Conducted international level promotion campaign to give publicity about Sri Lanka. This program conducted through diplomatic relationships. This programme was named as ‘Visit Sri Lanka’.

d. Government has launched urban development programmes to construct major cities of the country to enhance tourism. These projects enhance the infrastructure facilities, tourist information premises, standard accommodations, leisure areas and important places of the each region.

Find out how UKEssays.com can help you!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

24. Sri Lanka Tourist Board and Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority are operating under the authority of Ministry of Tourism and these organizations helped to develop tourism in the country. The Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority was formed under Section 2 of the Tourism ACT. SLTDA has provided several facilities to develop tourism in Sri Lanka. Ministry of tourism organized programmes to protect tourist industry and national values of the country with:

a. All tourist sector services registered under the Tourist board and arranged limitations and standardization methods to enhance accommodations, restaurant, transportation and tourist guide facilities of the country.

b. Manage and maintain tourist development programmes with the support of ministry of cultural and heritage.

c. Banned illegal drugs, prostitutions and some alcohols in the environment of tourism industry. Sri Lanka police provide essential service and support to this program. Sri Lanka police has established special police unit to handle tourism related cases of the country.

d. Tourist Board and Municipal Councils maintain Tourist information centers in all major cities of the island.

25. Sri Lanka expects to enhance tourism industry as the main contributor of our economy. Therefore we expect to attract 2.5 million tourists in 2016 and it will use to develop the economy of the country. Most infrastructures development projects help to enhance tourism sector of the country. Today our road network upgraded as international levels and local aviation systems also started to provide good service to tourists. Sri Lanka Air force and civil aviation authority provide good service to boost this programme.

CHALLENGES AND THREATS FOR FUTURE TOURISM

26. Tourist industry of the country is developing with a rapid growth rate at present. Most accommodation and restaurant facilities comprehensively renewed to enhance tourism of the country. But we have been faced several issues in this sector with higher tourists arrivals. Comfortable accommodations and tourist board approved restaurants are not enough to handle the capacity of tourist sector. Number of new hotels and motels are constructing in everywhere of the country but we can’t reach the goal in 2016 without expedited programmes in this sector. Our economic development goals are illustrated through these objectives, therefore we should be needed to catch these goals in correct time.

27. New tourist destinations need more accommodations, sanitations and restaurant facilities. Accommodations and restaurant facilities are very poor in northern region and new constructions are going under way. Therefore foreigners still do not visit to these areas. Sri Lanka is a maritime nation and most tourists like to spend in beach areas but our lifeguard services are not enough to provide good security to tourists who use our beaches and sea areas. As well Sri Lanka has beautiful inland water reservoirs but these resources cannot be used by anyone under lack of trainee personalities around those areas.

28. Prostitution and drug usage are other key issues in Sri Lanka. As well some tourists find sexual pleasure during their tours therefore these businesses are secretly arranged in Sri Lankan environment. Gay sexual participation is higher than female prostitutions because this method can be used without major problems under present legal process. Over 40,000 prostitutes and around 150,000 secrete prostitution members engage in this business.

29. Tourism industry is widely spread in most countries and numbers of regional countries provide remarkable facilities to foreigners. Thailand, Maldives, Singapore, Vietnam and India are key competitors in this region and they provide prostitution services to tourists and they have given relatively low cost packages to visitors. But we have faced big issues in this matter because Sri Lankan law enforcement, social environment, religious environment and health environment do not allow for prostitution in this country. Especially HIV infection is widely spread with prostitution, therefore this matter is a big challenge to the Sri Lankan environment. Sexual transmitted diseases and gambling have wide spreaded in tourist destinations and it will expand with new tourist destinations too.

30. Large number of persons engage to this massive business as Tourist guides or transport agents. But most of them engage in this giant industry without any professional qualification and it affected to gain many adverse results to Sri Lanka. This industry need professional persons in many fields like multiple language users, professional chefs, waiters, tourist lecturers and musicians to develop tourism in Sri Lanka. We can earn additional income through our cultural events and Ayurvedic treatments but the problem is most of these sector professionals are very rare in modern environment.

SUMMARY

31. Sri Lanka is a great tourism destination and it is popular among Europeans since 12 Century. This industry developed in this country with three key factors like Sri Lanka is an authentic tourist destination, the country is a compact Island of 65610km and biodiversity and heritage spread is in a very widen range than other countries. As well this country is situated in a key position in international naval trade route and it can use to develop tourism industry.

32. Sri Lankan people, culture, spices food, gems, handcrafts, festival features, religious environments and adventure events increase the value for real tourism sector development. Sri Lanka is a key maritime nation and now we need to develop this country as economically developed country. Therefore we need to find suitable income ways and tourism industry is very important for that. Tourists highly interest to visit this island therefore we need to provide essential facilities and effective packages to enhance tourism industry.

33. Past dark years conflict environment adversely affected to tourism industry and it vigorously affected to decline economic development of the country. Sri Lanka survived with agriculture Corps since ancient history but now we need to develop with much stronger economic strategies. Therefore Sri Lanka needs to enhance tourism sector development with proper government mediations.

34. Over 800,000 tourist visited this country in 2011 and it continued in first quarter of 2012. In 2011 Sri Lanka earned 830.3 million US dollars through tourism and government expect to increase up to 1 million tourists visits in 2012. With the current accommodation facilities we can manage this target and now we need suitable expedited programmes to enhance tourist industry infrastructure developments in next two or three years.

RECOMMANDATIONS

35. Government should be needed to mediate to solve tourism sector issues, especially in Sri Lanka tourism sector need large number of professionals in each fields. Therefore government should be needed to implement training and development programmes or standardization method to categories tourism sector employees as standard level.

36. Tourist Board can implement training programmes for tourist guides who work as beach boys or guides at present. This programme should be included registration system and need to issue standard identity card for them. This process is helping to increase talented job opportunities and it is effective to enhance the economy of the country.

37. Sri Lanka expects to earn foreign currencies through tourism therefore we need to standardize tourism sector price ranges and service values because tourists expect effective service during their visits.

a. We can introduce proper billing method for accommodations. Under this we can implement suitable range of prices for each hotel classes.

b. We can introduce proper local taxi services and tourist transport process to enhance country’s transport facilities for tourists.

c. Ayurvedi spa services and medical facilities should be need to categories with proper ways.

38. Sri Lanka need 40,000 to 50,000 accommodation facilities to enhance tourism in next few years. Therefore government should be needed to provide additional facilities to attract new local and foreign investment to his sector.

39. Harbor and airport development programmes directly support to enhance our economy but we can earn additional foreign income with the development of tourism industry. Most international mariners and aviation industry professionals need accommodation facilities during their journeys therefore we can develop new tourism environment among these people.

40. Sri Lanka needs new law enforcement to develop tourism industry because most tourists visit this country for pleasure or joining with various entertaining events. We should be needed to provide some essential services like gambling and some alcohols to tourist under new formations.

41. Sri Lanka has a beautiful natural environment therefore we can market this resources through eco tourism development. Most foreigners are interested in spending their leisure with the natural environment.

42. Ayurvedic medicines and treatments are very important to enhance tourist attraction. Therefore we should be needed to introduce proper framework to provide correct ayurvedic treatments to tourists.

B M A N V GUNATHILAKA CR

Lieutenant

Student Officer

1. Tourism is a good business in modern world to attract foreign currencies and it gives a large number of occupations to the people. Modern tourist industry develops with various requirement or purposes of tourists like pleasure, business, education requirement, research and many some more other visit foreign countries during their vacations or winter seasons of their native countries. Because they expect to reduce their expenses and difficulties due to seasonal changes.

2. Thailand, Brazil, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Maldives and Indonesia are the most famous tourist destinations in modern world. Sri Lanka is also a world famous tourist destination and known as a Paradise Island in the world. Country size, geographical variation, climatic condition, cultural and heritage sites, natural environment and tourists expenses are the key facts to attract tourists to the country.

3. But this paradise Island suffered with a thirty years conflict situation and during that time tourist industry collapsed. Tourists rejected this Island with conflict environment because there have been many explosions in Colombo and suburban areas. As well most states labeled this country as non tourism destination for safer visits. As a result most tourists were attracted to other destinations like Fuket Island, Maldives and Thailand.

4. Tourist industry of Sri Lanka regenerated after the end of crisis environment of the country and started a new economic development programme since 2009. Giant infrastructure resources invested to boost the economy of the country. This miracle was started after the dawn under sustainable peace and political environment of the country. Foreign money is very important for these developments because economy development highly expects to attract foreign currencies under many ways like Foreign Direct investments, Aid, foreign occupations, tourism and loan facilities.

5. Sri Lanka is expecting to develop this country as a major tourist destination in Asia. Sri Lanka has various opportunities to achieve that goal like pleasure tourism, eco tourism, cultural and heritage sites, religious base tourism, business, education and facilitator as a centre of international transportations. But tourism sector need wide range resources and facilities to develop that as the main economic sector contributor. Present infrastructure development programme concerns to develop tourist sector requirements like international standard roads, hotels, urban areas, aviation and harbor sector developments.

6. International tourism is a giant business because it consists with large number of services and requirements. Tourists visit to take new experiences and pleasure from their visits. They do not expect complex legal procedures and restrictions from their destination places. In contrast tourist industry gains some big troubles to host country as sexually transmitted diseases, illegal drugs and social challenges. Therefore Sri Lanka needs to concern balance economic development through tourism in the future.

AIM

7. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of tourism industry and it’s contribution to develop the economy of Sri Lanka.

IMPORTANCE AS A TOURIST DESTINATION

8. Tourist destination needs stronger opportunities to attract tourism easily because tourists expect different environments than their home or states. Natural splendour, scenic beauty, tropical climatic condition and historical sites increased the value of this island to tourists in all over the world. Also they can travel from different climatic conditions within 3 to 4 hours travel from any part of the country with the geographical size of the island. These factors are gaining additional value to their tours and to Sri Lanka to improvise tourism and country’s development.

NATURAL VALUES OF SRI LANKA

9. Sri Lanka is a humid tropical island lying in the South Asian region to southwest of the Indian peninsula in the Indian Ocean. When considering the geography and topography of the island three height levels or erosion levels are recognized by their height and slope features. The first level is the largest of the three and extends from sea level to 270m above mean sea level. The Uplands or the second level extends from 270m to 900m above mean sea level and the Highlands or third level at 900 to 2420m. These height levels illustrated very valuable scenic beauty and climatic difference to the country. Most tourists attract this variation and they enjoying with these values during their visits.

10. The island has also been divided into four climatic zones based on rainfall. The Dry zone occupies less 60 per cent of the total land area of the country. It’s annual rainfall is between 1250-1900 mm and its mean annual temperature ranges 27 to 30°C. It is characterized by monsoon forests and thorn scrublands. The Wet zone which covers approximately 23 per cent of the total land area, receives a rainfall of 2500-5000 mm per year. It consists of lowland evergreen forests, montane rain forests and semi evergreen rain forests.

11. The transition zone between the above two zones is known as the Intermediate zone where the annual rainfall varies between 1900-2500 mm. The two semi-arid zones in the South-east and North-west receive less than 1250 mm of rainfall per year. Climatic difference made wider environmental difference in the country. Therefore tourists can visit various natural environments with high variation of biodiversities.

12. Another most important natural value for tourism industry development is land portion of Sri Lanka because our motherland is small in size with only 65,610 square kilometers of land. It’s significant variation in climate, topography and soil properties has given rise to a striking variety of forest types. It provide habitats for a wide diversity of faunal and floral species. In fact Sri Lanka is one of the eight ‘Hottest Hotspots’ out of the 25 Biodiversity Hotspots of international significance and is ranked among the highest in Asia in terms of ‘biodiversity’ per unit area. Tourist can visit through these environments because Sri Lanka provides enough facilities to watch sanctuaries, wildlife parks and forest reservoir areas after taking appropriate permissions to visits. This is a big experience for tourists because they can take most natural experiences from this tiny island.

13. Fifteen floristic regions have been recognized within the country and these diverse habitats have given rise to a corresponding wide range of natural vegetations including forests like Tropical wet evergreen forests, Tropical moist semi-evergreen forests, Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests, Tropical thorn forests, Savannahs, Riverine forests, Tropical lower Montana forests and Tropical Montana or cloud forests, grasslands, Dry Montana grasslands, Lowland grasslands, Wet villu grasslands, inland wetlands and coastal and marine habitats. Such natural values enhance the value of the country and this island world famous as one of the natural treasure of the world.

HERITAGE VALUES

14. Sri Lanka is a rich country with heritage values with over 2500 years modern history and millions of year’s pre historic era. Most cultural and heritage values developed in the country with the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism. Sri Lanka consisted with big treasure of heritage sites and ancient constructions like Load Buddha’s statues, stupas, tanks, other statues, wall paintings, cave paintings, stone carvings and religious places. Sri Lanka provides facilities to visit these heritage sites and tourists can take interesting experiences from these tours.

15. Tourists can visit ancient kingdoms like Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa, Sigiriya and Kandy. As well Sri Lanka has number of colonial era constructions and architecture in various places and they can also see indigenous groups and their life styles if they travel to Dambana areas. Sri Pada or Adams peak, Anuradhapura Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi and Temple of Tooth relic are most important religious places of Sri Lanka and tourists can visits all these places with their interests.

CULTURAL AND TRADITIONAL VALUES

16. Sri Lanka is a multi ethnic country and world most popular religious groups are living in the country. Therefore they can take experiences about the cultural and traditional differences of these communities. They can take experiences about customary food of Sri Lankans like rice and curry, hoppers, milk rice, roti, string hoppers, pittu, and kottu. They can take these experiences much easily because most local restaurants, hotels and smaller hotels provide wide range food for everyone. Furthermore tourist can buy any other cuisine from most tourist restaurants and hotels with their interests.

17. Sri Lankans celebrate various religious and cultural festivals throughout the year therefore tourists can take these experiences with seasonal celebrations like Sinhala and tamil new year, Wesak, posson and Esala festival, Christmas and new year celebrations when they visit to Sri Lanka. Esala procession and various other processions can be seen in Sri Lanka and it gains good experience for tourists because they can watch these cultural and traditional events without any payments.

OTHER ENTERTAINMENTS

18. Visit to Sri Lanka provide various entertainment opportunities to tourists. They can enjoy their holidays with various attractive things like beach parties, club parties, music, bright sunshine, sea bathing and Ayurvedic treatments. Furthermore they can visit to watch whales, corals, diving events, boat trips, elephant orphanage, zoological and botanical garden. Tourist can visit to local shopping and they have opportunities to buy various attractive things like gems, handicrafts, dresses, duty free equipments and most local market items like fresh fruits, meats, fish, instant food and packet items.

TOURIST DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND

EFFECTIVENESS TO ECONOMIC GROWTH

19. Tourism industry is still developing after crisis environment. But large number of tourists attracted to this country after the crisis environment in 2009. Therefore tourist industry is boosted again with high potential in income ways and infrastructure development ways. Tourism sector development helped to develop country’s economy and economic development rate and it represents as a major foreign currency earning way of the country.

a. Earn Foreign Money. Tourism sector directly helps to flow foreign money into the country. Tourism industry is a giant foreign income way because we can earn foreign money through providing tourist sector services to the guests and sale other type of goods and services to them. Sri Lanka earned over 213 million US dollars in 2001 from direct tourist sector services and it increase as 350 million US dollars in 2009 and 575 million US dollars income in 2010 and 645 million US dollars income in 2011.

b. Develop Local Business and Tourist Sector Facilities. Tourist sector facilities also developed after the war. Large number of hotels and restaurants were closed and others depended with very low incomes during past two decades. Sri Lankan tourist sector survived in 2001 with 414 accommodations places included with 13,626 room facilities. This environment increased up to 783 accommodations with 14,714 rooms in 2010. This development helped to boost country’s economy as well we could provide food, spa services and other essential facilities to tourists through this industry and developed all these sectors during past few years.

c. Attract Foreign Direct Investments. From the end of 2008 Sri Lankan economy displayed some positive attitudes again after few years. The FDIs inflow to the country in 2010 reveals that about 59 percent came into infrastructure development projects, manufacturing sector attracted 30.9 percent, service sector attracted 8.6 percent included with 2.7 for tourist sector and agriculture sector attracted 1.3 percent. China invest a large amount of financial in Sri Lankan land in tourism sector and Sri Lanka expects US dollor1.5 billion foreign direct investments through its first tourist city project.

d. New Job Opportunities. Tourist industry consisted of wider job opportunities to Sri Lanka as direct and indirect job opportunities. This sector includes hotel field job opportunities, spa and saloon, guide and field services and transport sector job opportunities. Employment in tourist industry is represented 80,904 persons in 2001 and it increased up to 134,250 in 2011.

Category

2001

2010

2011

Accommodations for Tourist

414

783

824

Employment of tourist Industry

80 904

132 055

134 250

Gross Tourist receipts (US dollars Million)

213

575

645

Annual room occupation rate (per cent)

42.1

70.1

71.8

Table 1: Tourism sector development 2001 to 2011.

Source: Annual report 2011, Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AT PRESENT

20. Tourist industry has re-emerged after two decades under peaceful environment. Now most countries have removed their barriers for their citizens to visit Sri Lanka and they accept the present environment in Sri Lanka as an ideal country for tourism. Most tourist sector magazines and websites guaranteed our security environment and tourist sector services. As a result 654,476 tourists visited Sri Lanka during the year 2010 and it increased up to 855,975 arrivals in 2011. The tourist arrival has increased by 30.8 percent in 2011 than year 2010.

21. Nearly 85,874 tourists have visited in January 2012 and this trend continued until April 2012. Large numbers of tourists have arrived to Sri Lanka from European nations. They have been elected this country for their seasonal vacations after a very long time. Most of them highly appreciate about our hospitality, accommodations, our charges and new innovations in the industry. Sri Lanka could earn 830.3 million US dollar income through tourism industry in year 2012 and expect to increase tourist arrivals up to 1 million in this year.

22. Around 78.9 per cent of tourists arrived Sri Lanka to spend their holidays and most of them represent the middle income earners. Therefore, they spend little for additional purposes than their major purposes. Nearly 12.7 per cent visited Sri Lanka for business requirements and 5.4 per cent visited to met their relations and pals. Most tourists visit Sri Lanka to take more opportunities in visiting sites and engage in entertainments under effective budget. They have been attracted by our Ayurvedic treatments and spa services because they have to pay large amount in their countries for such services.

Item

2001

2005

2010

2011

Tourist arrival for pleasure

300,545

382,321

516,538

Tourist arrival for business

22, 677

92,879

83,270

Tourist arrivals for other

13,572

74,108

54,668

Total Tourist arrivals

336,794

549,308

654,476

855,975

Table2: Tourist arrivals to Sri Lanka from 2001-2011.

Source: Annual report 2011, Central Bank of Sri Lanka.

GOVERNMENT EFFORT

23. Sri Lankan government has identified the requirements of tourist sector developments and has given priority to develop this country as a tourist destination. Under this programme the government has provided various facilities to tourists, tourist sector entrepreneurs and employees. Government has given much stronger support to these programme because it can use as major income of the country.

a. Government has arranged giant hotel development programmes and attracted world largest hotel sector entrepreneurs to the country.

b. Introduced new tourist destinations like Nilaweli, Arugam bay, Mirissa and reopened Kumana and other sanctuaries to tourists.

c. Conducted international level promotion campaign to give publicity about Sri Lanka. This program conducted through diplomatic relationships. This programme was named as ‘Visit Sri Lanka’.

d. Government has launched urban development programmes to construct major cities of the country to enhance tourism. These projects enhance the infrastructure facilities, tourist information premises, standard accommodations, leisure areas and important places of the each region.

24. Sri Lanka Tourist Board and Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority are operating under the authority of Ministry of Tourism and these organizations helped to develop tourism in the country. The Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority was formed under Section 2 of the Tourism ACT. SLTDA has provided several facilities to develop tourism in Sri Lanka. Ministry of tourism organized programmes to protect tourist industry and national values of the country with:

a. All tourist sector services registered under the Tourist board and arranged limitations and standardization methods to enhance accommodations, restaurant, transportation and tourist guide facilities of the country.

b. Manage and maintain tourist development programmes with the support of ministry of cultural and heritage.

c. Banned illegal drugs, prostitutions and some alcohols in the environment of tourism industry. Sri Lanka police provide essential service and support to this program. Sri Lanka police has established special police unit to handle tourism related cases of the country.

d. Tourist Board and Municipal Councils maintain Tourist information centers in all major cities of the island.

25. Sri Lanka expects to enhance tourism industry as the main contributor of our economy. Therefore we expect to attract 2.5 million tourists in 2016 and it will use to develop the economy of the country. Most infrastructures development projects help to enhance tourism sector of the country. Today our road network upgraded as international levels and local aviation systems also started to provide good service to tourists. Sri Lanka Air force and civil aviation authority provide good service to boost this programme.

CHALLENGES AND THREATS FOR FUTURE TOURISM

26. Tourist industry of the country is developing with a rapid growth rate at present. Most accommodation and restaurant facilities comprehensively renewed to enhance tourism of the country. But we have been faced several issues in this sector with higher tourists arrivals. Comfortable accommodations and tourist board approved restaurants are not enough to handle the capacity of tourist sector. Number of new hotels and motels are constructing in everywhere of the country but we can’t reach the goal in 2016 without expedited programmes in this sector. Our economic development goals are illustrated through these objectives, therefore we should be needed to catch these goals in correct time.

27. New tourist destinations need more accommodations, sanitations and restaurant facilities. Accommodations and restaurant facilities are very poor in northern region and new constructions are going under way. Therefore foreigners still do not visit to these areas. Sri Lanka is a maritime nation and most tourists like to spend in beach areas but our lifeguard services are not enough to provide good security to tourists who use our beaches and sea areas. As well Sri Lanka has beautiful inland water reservoirs but these resources cannot be used by anyone under lack of trainee personalities around those areas.

28. Prostitution and drug usage are other key issues in Sri Lanka. As well some tourists find sexual pleasure during their tours therefore these businesses are secretly arranged in Sri Lankan environment. Gay sexual participation is higher than female prostitutions because this method can be used without major problems under present legal process. Over 40,000 prostitutes and around 150,000 secrete prostitution members engage in this business.

29. Tourism industry is widely spread in most countries and numbers of regional countries provide remarkable facilities to foreigners. Thailand, Maldives, Singapore, Vietnam and India are key competitors in this region and they provide prostitution services to tourists and they have given relatively low cost packages to visitors. But we have faced big issues in this matter because Sri Lankan law enforcement, social environment, religious environment and health environment do not allow for prostitution in this country. Especially HIV infection is widely spread with prostitution, therefore this matter is a big challenge to the Sri Lankan environment. Sexual transmitted diseases and gambling have wide spreaded in tourist destinations and it will expand with new tourist destinations too.

30. Large number of persons engage to this massive business as Tourist guides or transport agents. But most of them engage in this giant industry without any professional qualification and it affected to gain many adverse results to Sri Lanka. This industry need professional persons in many fields like multiple language users, professional chefs, waiters, tourist lecturers and musicians to develop tourism in Sri Lanka. We can earn additional income through our cultural events and Ayurvedic treatments but the problem is most of these sector professionals are very rare in modern environment.

SUMMARY

31. Sri Lanka is a great tourism destination and it is popular among Europeans since 12 Century. This industry developed in this country with three key factors like Sri Lanka is an authentic tourist destination, the country is a compact Island of 65610km and biodiversity and heritage spread is in a very widen range than other countries. As well this country is situated in a key position in international naval trade route and it can use to develop tourism industry.

32. Sri Lankan people, culture, spices food, gems, handcrafts, festival features, religious environments and adventure events increase the value for real tourism sector development. Sri Lanka is a key maritime nation and now we need to develop this country as economically developed country. Therefore we need to find suitable income ways and tourism industry is very important for that. Tourists highly interest to visit this island therefore we need to provide essential facilities and effective packages to enhance tourism industry.

33. Past dark years conflict environment adversely affected to tourism industry and it vigorously affected to decline economic development of the country. Sri Lanka survived with agriculture Corps since ancient history but now we need to develop with much stronger economic strategies. Therefore Sri Lanka needs to enhance tourism sector development with proper government mediations.

34. Over 800,000 tourist visited this country in 2011 and it continued in first quarter of 2012. In 2011 Sri Lanka earned 830.3 million US dollars through tourism and government expect to increase up to 1 million tourists visits in 2012. With the current accommodation facilities we can manage this target and now we need suitable expedited programmes to enhance tourist industry infrastructure developments in next two or three years.

RECOMMANDATIONS

35. Government should be needed to mediate to solve tourism sector issues, especially in Sri Lanka tourism sector need large number of professionals in each fields. Therefore government should be needed to implement training and development programmes or standardization method to categories tourism sector employees as standard level.

36. Tourist Board can implement training programmes for tourist guides who work as beach boys or guides at present. This programme should be included registration system and need to issue standard identity card for them. This process is helping to increase talented job opportunities and it is effective to enhance the economy of the country.

37. Sri Lanka expects to earn foreign currencies through tourism therefore we need to standardize tourism sector price ranges and service values because tourists expect effective service during their visits.

a. We can introduce proper billing method for accommodations. Under this we can implement suitable range of prices for each hotel classes.

b. We can introduce proper local taxi services and tourist transport process to enhance country’s transport facilities for tourists.

c. Ayurvedi spa services and medical facilities should be need to categories with proper ways.

38. Sri Lanka need 40,000 to 50,000 accommodation facilities to enhance tourism in next few years. Therefore government should be needed to provide additional facilities to attract new local and foreign investment to his sector.

39. Harbor and airport development programmes directly support to enhance our economy but we can earn additional foreign income with the development of tourism industry. Most international mariners and aviation industry professionals need accommodation facilities during their journeys therefore we can develop new tourism environment among these people.

40. Sri Lanka needs new law enforcement to develop tourism industry because most tourists visit this country for pleasure or joining with various entertaining events. We should be needed to provide some essential services like gambling and some alcohols to tourist under new formations.

41. Sri Lanka has a beautiful natural environment therefore we can market this resources through eco tourism development. Most foreigners are interested in spending their leisure with the natural environment.

42. Ayurvedic medicines and treatments are very important to enhance tourist attraction. Therefore we should be needed to introduce proper framework to provide correct ayurvedic treatments to tourists.

B M A N V GUNATHILAKA CR

Lieutenant

Student Officer

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on the UKDiss.com website then please: