The Use Of Leadership And Motivation In Management Tourism Essay

5246 words (21 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

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This report is basically based on the study of the use of Leadership and Motivation in Management within a culturally diverse business Environment with special consideration to the selected case study is NOVOTEL Hotels in UK.

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As hospitality industry it self engaging with different people in different culture it should clearly understand how to manage this diversity in hospitality industry. It can be manage in different ways. From these paths employee motivation and the leadership is an effective approach which is needed to be studied.

In this study first consideration was given to clearly identify the literature background of the three concepts as leadership, motivation and cultural diversity through the study of theories, concepts b y reviewing articles, journals, web articles, books and so on.

Then after that the consideration was given to the case study including identify the organization and its situation and how the organization manages the cultural diversity by using the leadership and the motivation. Then based on the case study, analysis and findings were identified.

As an overall this study is focused on studying the importance of cultural diversity as an instrument for improved organizational development without considering it as an administrative dilemma and it can be the path to expand competitive periphery and success, if it successfully handled.

About the Organization

Novotel is one of the hotel brands of the Accor group which operates in mid scale headquartered in France. Novotel is Europe’s largest hotel chain and one of 12 internationally-renowned hotel brands owned by Accor, the French hotel group.

Currently they are having 400 hotels and resorts in 60 countries, situated in the centre of major international cities from business districts to tourist destinations. Form those hotels there are 266 hotels in 23 countries within Europe.

So here the special consideration was given to NOVOTEL hotels in United Kingdom. The ground level study was done in NOVOTEL London West.

Literature Review

The literature review of this study was mainly focused on three main areas. i.e Leadership, Employee Motivation and cultural diversity.

Leadership

Leadership means the ability and willingness to lead and motivate a group of people. It includes improving team performance and effectiveness as well as articulating vision for business improvement. Leaders should play three important roles in the organization namely interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. These roles require a number of skills such as developing peer relationships, carrying out negotiations, motivating subordinates, resolving conflicts, establishing information networks, making decisions with little information and allocating resources.

There are two distinctly different types of leaders – one who works with and through others, such as those who head organizations, associations and the like, whilst the others are path leaders/visionaries such as heads of state, military commanders etc. Among the many definitions of leadership, two can be considered the best – (a) the ability to get extraordinary performance from ordinary people, and (b) the ability to get follower.

Basically the styles of leadership can be identified as follows:

1. Autocratic style

2. Democratic style

3. Free Rein

4. Charismatic

5. Situational

Source: Study Material. [1997]. Organizational Behaviour. Indian Institute of Management and Technology, Chennai

Autocratic Style

It may be called as authoritative or directive style too. In this style of leadership the leader centralized the power and decision making in him and exercise complete control over the subordinates. He sets the group goals and structures and procedures for work. Through the autocratic style of control, the group decision is relegated in a tight situation and evolves quick decision making process. Most often this type of leadership develops dissatisfaction among members. But speed and efficiency are required when working in a group, the autocratic style of leadership yield good results.

Democratic Style

This is a contrast style of leadership compared to autocratic leadership. Person opting for this style is like a theory ” Y ” leader which invites decision sharing. Here the authority is decentralized. The decisions are arrived after consultation with the members. He is a participative type of leader, attaches more importance to people and work. This style of leadership improves the morale and satisfaction of employees. It also avoids conflicts in the group process. The democratic style sometimes creates lethargy and laziness among members and develops spirit of non-corporative often.

Free Rein

It is a complete delegation of authority to the subordinates, so that they must plan, motivate and control and otherwise be responsible for their own action. The free rein style leader avoids power and relinquishes the leadership position. More specifically the leader may lack self confidence, fear or failure etc. The main problem in this particular style of leadership is that it tends to permit various units of an organization to proceed. When working in a group if they work as a team, if the team itself very effective then this free rein style may successful, as they can work without any kind of interference.

Charismatic

This type of management is more dominant and perhaps an aggregate of other management styles. This style generates strong enthusiasm and might have as its objectives. The development of a ‘common vision’ – valued shared by organizational members. The discovery or creation of value related opportunities and activities within the framework of the mission and goals of the organization and the emergence in members of strength and greater control of their own destinies, both individually and collectively.

Situational

This management style which changes their style depending on the person or the group they are working with and on the situation. Situational style is important because people and tasks have to be handled differently, depending on the situation and their level of development.

There are many key attributes of good leadership such as being innovative, entrepreneurial and visionary. Leaders need to be courageous, bold and willing to decisive. Among other attributes is the ability to think strategically, identify the big picture and have fall back plans. Some of the most important or key attributes of the leader are to inspire and motivate, be committed and encourage those around with empowerment.

Good clear communications, verbally and by body language are inherent qualities of good leadership. Effective leader must explain clearly what they want, what they wish to achieve and how. The ability to make one’s people feel important and feel that what they do have great value are great virtues of good leadership.

Strong, positive leadership cannot be achieved without good teams. A good leader must have the ability to pick the right people and providing coaching/training and ensure that they carryout tasks that they can do best.

If we consider about the leadership in hospitality industry with relation with this particular study, the need for high-quality leaders in the hospitality industry has been willingly recognised and is seen as significant to the long-term safety of the industry. In recent years, the industry has undergone something of a sea change in its gender composition, with increasing numbers of females graduating from hospitality and tourism administration courses. This proposes that the gender composition of managerial position is possible to modify in the medium term, with simultaneous changes in the typical leadership style valued in the industry.

Motivation

Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. These inner conditions such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behaviour. It means it is an inner state of mind, which channels or directs behaviour towards the achievement of pre-determined goals. So this part is basically considering about this of study.

If we take hierarchy of needs theory by Abram Maslow, he suggested that needs exists at a number of different levels, from basic physiological needs as hunger, and then safety needs like shelter, after word social needs like love and affectionate and then esteem needs like recognition and finally self esteem like power. When achieving basic needs of employee which is the physiological needs, the effect of rewards are less because in this stage salary is the most important thing for physiological and safety needs. But when it comes to the esteem and social needs the effect of rewards and recognitions are high. Reward can be a award which gives at a stage, or it can be a tea with CEO or it can be a 1000 $ cheque for an employee which gives for and achievement. But again when it comes to the self actualization stage the need people need more power as he has already accomplished the other stages of needs in Maslow theory.

And again if we take another motivational theory which is the two factor theory by Fredrick Herzberg, he took the view at two levels, physical level and psychological level. Accordingly satisfiers are called as motivators and dissatisfies are called as hygiene factors. Accordingly motivational factors of an employee in an organization can be identified as achievement, recognition, responsibility, personal growth and for some employees work itself a motivator. And at the same time Hygiene factors can be identified as working conditions, company policies & administration, salary, other benefits & job security, interpersonal relationships, and quality of supervision.

Another theory of motivation is the expectancy theory which says that an employee will be motivated to exert to high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a appraisal lead to organizational rewards such as bonus, salary increase or a promotion; and that the reward will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.

There are many benefits that an organization can achieve through the employee motivation. Following are some of the factors that we can commonly identify.

Motivation ensures better utilization of resources and reduces wastage.

Motivation will bridge the gap between “capacity to work and the willingness to work”

Reduces problems like labour turnover, absenteeism, indiscipline & grievances

Improves productivity

Improves cooperation and team spirit

Improves knowledge and skills among employees

Acceptance of organizational change

Reduces conflicts and misunderstanding between the employer and the employees

Cultural Diversity

What is Cultural Diversity? We cannot find a universal definition on cultural diversity, but according to the charted management institute definition in 2008suggests the cultural diversity means “valuing the differences between people and the ways in which those differences can contribute to a richer, more creative and more productive environment.”

It doesn’t means only the race which the contemporary world identifies, but also the diversity can be identify as race, age, gender, sexual orientation, disability and religious/belief. Gröschl and Doherty (1999) mentioned that “the basic concept of managing diversity accepts that the labour force consists of diverse inhabitants of people”. One of the key aspects of cultural diversity is that paying concentration to varied dynamics is not just an ethical responsibility, it’s a business imperative.

In an organization the need of dealing with a diverse workforce will be needed the ‘diversity competence’. From these competencies effective cross communication is the most important factor when dealing with the cultural diversity. The qualities needed for effective cross-communication can be identified as follows.

• The capacity to accept the relativity of others own knowledge and perceptions

• The capacity to be non-judgemental

• A tolerance for uncertainty

• The capacity to appreciate and communicate respect for other people’s ways, backgrounds, values and beliefs

• The capacity to reveal understanding

• The capacity to be flexible

• A willingness to attain new patterns of behaviour and belief

• The humbleness to recognize what one does not know

Apart from the above competencies organizations should be educated through the cultural diversity awareness education and training. It will lead to counteract of the beliefs of employees and they will feel that they are benefiting from having a diverse workforce may help incorporation in the place of work.

Modern world has recognized that the cultural diversity within an organization is not a negative aspect. This diversity may be in the organizational staff or it may be the customers. However managing this diversity is not a easy task.

As above mentioned this diversity more or less can be managed by the use of effective communication. From the literatures we can find three ways to manage cultural diversity as follows.

Communicating – constructing responsiveness amongst every employees on diverse ethics of peers from first to last communication

Cultivating – facilitating acknowledgement, maintain and support of every member of staff victory by every other workforce

Capitalizing – linking diversity to every business procedure and plan such as series planning, reengineering, employee enlargement, performance management and review, and reward systems

Many organizations use different methods to manage the diversity. As an example Tabra Incorporation, a miniature producer of costume jewellery and trimmings in California consisted of self-effacing workforce. Mainly this workforce was comprised with immigrants from many third world countries like Laos, Mexico, India, Vietnam, Tibet, Cambodia, and so on. So the method that used by the organization to give the recognition for the importance of their cultural association, is that as slightest 10 to 12 diverse flags for all time hanged up from the ceiling of their major production service which symbolizes the nations of derivation of the workforce.

The proprietor of the organization view it as ‘I would love for this to be a miniature United Nations where everyone attainment next to and welcoming each other’s customs as an alternative of just endure it’.

Some of the authors say that the cultural diversity is a benefit fir organizational success, if it can be managed successfully. According to Cox and Balke (1991) main benefits of multi-culturalism that can use for organizational success as;

Achieve cost effective competitive edge through the effective management of multi culture companies

Helps to promote minority friendly reputation among potential employees

Ability to attract better customers which has a variety of cultural backgrounds

Various collection of workforce are apparent to be more imaginative and competent in crisis resolving as contrasted to homogenous cluster

Capability to supervise cultural variety enlarges flexibility and suppleness of an organization to ecological transformations

Several managerial paradigms can be identified as follows;

e.g. Hotel Nikko in Sydney Australia has exclusive border that employees of the staff in straight visitor contact areas which differentiation in converse with thirty four diverse languages.

Similarly Qantas Flight food preparation has 66 ethnic groups on staff, by means of a variety of overseas-born cooks. So enthusiastic varied ‘cultural’ kitchens provide Qantas a enormous competitive advantage by offering food foundations on clients cultural taste and needs.

Case Study: NOVOTEL Hotel

Here the selected organization for the study is NOVOTEL hotels. Novotel is one of the hotel brands of the Accor group which operates in mid scale headquartered in France. Currently they have 400 hotels and resorts in 60 countries, situated in the centre of major international cities from business districts to tourist destinations. Form those hotels there are 266 hotels in 23 countries within Europe.

As of 2009, there are 395 Novotel hotels in 60 countries with 71 872 rooms and employs over 30,000 employees:

Europe : 266 hotels in 23 countries

Asia : 51 hotels in 11 countries

Pacific : 34 hotels in 5 countries

North America : 7 hotels in 2 countries

South America : 19 hotels in 6 countries

Africa : 13 hotels in 10 countries

Middle East : 5 hotels in 3 countries

Novotel is Europe’s largest hotel chain and one of 12 internationally-renowned hotel brands owned by Accor, the French hotel group.

In a bid to create a more distinctive offering to customers, Novotel is actively opening ‘new generation’ hotels. These provide the similar levels of service as standard Novotels but characteristic a stylish and modern design.

Four of new hotels – Novotel London City South, Novotel London Greenwich, Novotel Edinburgh Centre and Novotel London ExCeL – have used a drama-based approach as part of customer service training prior to opening.

Novotel hotels are involved in the worldwide environmental and societal certification programme ‘Green Globe’. Under this programme 124 hotels are committed and 50 hotels are certified as of 31 December 2009.

As an leader within the hotel business, Novotel’s approach has anticipated its clients’ prospect of environmental matters and corporate social responsibility.

In 2007, within the scope of Accor’s Earth Guest In 2007, within the scope of Accor’s Earth Guest programme of sustainable development, Novotel dedicated to an international programme of environmental and social certification: Green Globe. This guarantee was selected for its autonomy and focus on the challenges of global tourism.

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The key aim of this section is to discover the practical data available on the study. Basically in this study the secondary data will be highly required from NOVOTEL hotels group. The annual reports, monthly reports, reports done by several departments of the organization, previous researches on NOVOTEL hotels group will be the highly important literature in this survey.

Apart from that study, reports, Theories, abstracts etc will also be required in this study, this will be required to identify and define the employee motivation strategies to compare with the leadership done by the NOVOTEL hotels. Study what are the approaches that they are using will be discussed under the analysis and findings.

Before doing the analysis and findings the consideration was given to develop PEST analysis on the organization in order to identify the macro environment of the organization. And it will help to make a better analysis through this comprehensive understanding.

Political Factors

Stable Political environment of U.K.

Growing awareness of the environmental consideration, U.K Government is planning actions to ensure aviation reflects its environmental impacts.

Tax on aviation fuel and VAT on air tickets. Government’s taxation policies and decision about the increasing the petrol prices have affected the buying power of the individuals in U.K.

Economic Factors

U.K economy is benefiting form gradual low inflation rate.

In U.K, unemployment is low. According to labour market statistics in Average percentage is 4.8 per cent. When unemployment is low, Job confidence is high and it will lead to the confidence spending by consumer is also high.

The UK’s shortage on trade in goods and services stood at £3.2 billion -compared with the revised deficit for January of £4.4 billion.

Exchange rates are favourable for UK residents for travelling abroad due to strong position of British Pound against the other foreign currencies. “Euro” used as a single currency in many European countries, is also stable against the other foreign currencies.

The drawback is that disparities between the wealthier parts of the country, not all in the south east of England, and pockets of deficiency, will get wider, with implications for travel demand. These are likely to influence the growth of the UK resident travel market.

Social Factors

A great trend has been seen in U.K population about diet and health issues in the recent years. This trend leads towards the need of more fitness clubs and organic food for the people from U.K Changes in the structure of the population because of the immigrants from Europe, Asia and Africa etc. This will directly effect for food habits and focus is needed from hospitality industry

Continued concerns over safety and security while travelling are found in the U.K residents.

Lifestyle changes have also been affecting the U.K travel market for a number of years. Delaying the start of the family and an increase in the number of households consisting of couples with two revenues are the main trends of the changing life style. Changing fashions also have an affect on the market, but those are difficult to predict.

Technological Factors

The rapid development of technology is affecting the businesses in UK and all over the world. Changes in the technology will effect to change the way businesses operate i.e. Internet booking for tickets and holidays.

Faster changing development in technology creates a need to react quickly for different businesses in order they want to maintain the competitive environment by providing the same innovative services such as meditation in hospitality industry, which their competitors are offering.

Analysis & Findings

This section of the study is mainly focusing on the subject area that The use of Leadership and Motivation in Management within a culturally diverse business Environment in NOVOTEL hotels. Accordingly analysis was done by analysing how the leadership and motivation concepts have been used in NOVOTEL hotels in UK within a culturally diverse business Environment.

Organization offers Leadership Training

NOVOTEL hotel groups offer leadership training programmes for the staff. Providing leadership for the staff will lead for positive result as they learn hoe to achieve goals and objectives as they will implement the knowledge for the working environment. Leaders accept accountability and responsibility. Put them in a position where they can show this. Let them achieve strategic objectives. When we consider the leadership of the NOVOTEL hotel groups we can identify following characters.

1. Leaders come in different flavours.

There are different types of leaders and you will probably encounter more than one type. Both formal and informal leaders practice a mixture of leadership styles.

2. Leadership is a process of becoming.

Knowledge on leadership theories and skills may be formally gained by enrolling in leadership seminars, workshops, and conferences by the staff. Daily interactions with people provide the prospect to observe and practice leadership theories. Together, formal and informal learning will help to gain leadership approaches, gain leadership handy.

3. Leadership is shared.

Leadership in NOVOTEL is not the individual responsibility of one person, but rather a shared responsibility amongst members of an emerging team. A leader belongs to a group. Each member has responsibilities to fulfil.

Official leadership positions are merely additional responsibilities apart from their responsibilities as members of the team. Effective leadership requires members to achieve their shared tasks. Starting as a group of individuals, members and leaders work in the direction of the formation of a successful team. In this light, social interaction plays a major role in leadership.

4. Leadership styles depend on the situation.

Leadership is not depending on only one style as we studied at the literature review. It will depend on the situation it means mostly situational leadership is there where the management style which changes their style depending on the person or the group they are working with and on the situation.

Two types of Leaders

There are arguments that Leadership exposed and cherished in the hospitality industry, that there were two types of leaders: “those in the hotel business and those in the business of hotels”. Mostly leaders in the hotel industry focus on the needs of employees and the provision of a high-quality service to guests. These leaders are also identified as charismatic. In comparison, leaders in the business of hotels such as leaders of hotel real-estate savings trusts were found to possess exceptional financial skills.

However in the case study main identification was done that to win in the hospitality industry the main need is for combine strong interpersonal skills with sound business knowledge and hotel functioning skills-in effect, arguing that a mix of transactional and transformational leadership skills are needed to succeed in the hospitality field.

Cultural Difference

As NOVOTEL hotels are medium scale hotel group they are dealing with many types of culturally diversified customers. These cultural differences may presence in different attributes such as language, dress and traditions, there are also significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they interact with their environment and so on. Cultural diversity is complicated to enumerate, but a good suggestion is consideration to be calculate of the number of languages spoken in a region or in the world as a whole.

Managing Cultural Diversity

They provide training to ensuring the managing of cultural diversity. Practitioners need to remove barriers to the successful incorporation of international staff into the workplace and society even as benefiting all staff, their organisations and the Irish tourism product. Training programmes could focus on training goals, which are realistic and job-specific. Training goals including growing employee collaboration among culturally diverse employees and improving cross-cultural skills are a part of the training goals to encourage employee participation and eventually help in making possible the gratitude of cultural disparities. Training programmes includes.

Orientation programmes are developed for recently-arrived international workers and it includes

• Opportunities for career development;

• English language

• Skills training manuals could be developed into different languages,

for example, French, German, Spanish, Irish, Polish and Russian;

• Ensure that service superiority programmes are translate into several languages and distributed among all employees; and

• develop and pilot an introductory “Welcome Workshop” open to all international

Prior to opening three flagship hotels, Novotel conducted an exhaustive two-day training programme for front-of-house staff, featuring an interactive workshop on customer service. Delivered by Steps Drama, the intensive course brought to life issues around dealing with customers, handling complaints and the importance of professional behaviour and appearance.

This will lead people to adopt to the new environment.

Employee Motivation

As any other organization motivation is a key factor that influences the daily operations of the hotel industry. It is the key issue which pressures an employee to go over and beyond the call of duty. NOVOTEL hotel group believe that employee motivation plays an integral role in their success. Accordingly organization offers number of benefits to the hotel staff which can be identified as motivational factor.

• Uniforms: provided and maintained on the premises.

• One meal a day in employee dining room at no cost.

• Health, dental and life insurance.

• Employees of the month/year Manager of the quarter/year.

• Paid time off program – used for sick pay, day off, vacation.

• Departmental incentives for safety/revenue generation/expense savings.

• Higher pay than the other hotels: Salary increases will occur on a schedule for Union employees, or annually for non- union employees.

• Promote within the staff whenever possible. However, this can be frustrating because often employees assume they are entitled to promotion based on seniority. Sometimes attendance/performance issues preclude allowing transfers or promotions. Sometimes lack of required experience interferes. NOVOTEL Hotel trains many individuals in their jobs, even if they have had no experience; assured jobs require a certain level of proficiency that must be developed into.

Conclusion

As hospitality industry it self engaging with different people in different culture it should clearly understand how to manage this diversity in hospitality industry. It can be manage in different ways. From these paths employee motivation and the leadership is an effective approach which is needed to be studied.

In an organization the need of dealing with a diverse workforce will be needed the ‘diversity competence’. From these competence factors two factors are studied in this study as leadership and motivation through the case study of NOVOTEL hotel groups.

Leadership in NOVOTEL is not the individual responsibility of one person, but rather a shared responsibility amongst members of an emerging team. A leader belongs to a group. Each member has responsibilities to fulfil.

Prior to opening three flagship hotels, Novotel conducted an exhaustive two-day training programme for front-of-house staff, featuring an interactive workshop on customer service.

Hotel group believe that employee motivation plays an integral role in their success. Accordingly they offer many benefits such as Uniforms which suites with the cultural diversity and also the hotel identity: provided and maintained on the premises, one meal a day in employee dining room at no cost, Health, dental and life insurance

So as an overall view of the study it can be proposed that it is very important to realize that cultural diversity as an instrument for improved organizational development without considering it as an administrative dilemma and it can be the path to expand competitive periphery and success, if it successfully handled.

This report is basically based on the study of the use of Leadership and Motivation in Management within a culturally diverse business Environment with special consideration to the selected case study is NOVOTEL Hotels in UK.

As hospitality industry it self engaging with different people in different culture it should clearly understand how to manage this diversity in hospitality industry. It can be manage in different ways. From these paths employee motivation and the leadership is an effective approach which is needed to be studied.

In this study first consideration was given to clearly identify the literature background of the three concepts as leadership, motivation and cultural diversity through the study of theories, concepts b y reviewing articles, journals, web articles, books and so on.

Then after that the consideration was given to the case study including identify the organization and its situation and how the organization manages the cultural diversity by using the leadership and the motivation. Then based on the case study, analysis and findings were identified.

As an overall this study is focused on studying the importance of cultural diversity as an instrument for improved organizational development without considering it as an administrative dilemma and it can be the path to expand competitive periphery and success, if it successfully handled.

About the Organization

Novotel is one of the hotel brands of the Accor group which operates in mid scale headquartered in France. Novotel is Europe’s largest hotel chain and one of 12 internationally-renowned hotel brands owned by Accor, the French hotel group.

Currently they are having 400 hotels and resorts in 60 countries, situated in the centre of major international cities from business districts to tourist destinations. Form those hotels there are 266 hotels in 23 countries within Europe.

So here the special consideration was given to NOVOTEL hotels in United Kingdom. The ground level study was done in NOVOTEL London West.

Literature Review

The literature review of this study was mainly focused on three main areas. i.e Leadership, Employee Motivation and cultural diversity.

Leadership

Leadership means the ability and willingness to lead and motivate a group of people. It includes improving team performance and effectiveness as well as articulating vision for business improvement. Leaders should play three important roles in the organization namely interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. These roles require a number of skills such as developing peer relationships, carrying out negotiations, motivating subordinates, resolving conflicts, establishing information networks, making decisions with little information and allocating resources.

There are two distinctly different types of leaders – one who works with and through others, such as those who head organizations, associations and the like, whilst the others are path leaders/visionaries such as heads of state, military commanders etc. Among the many definitions of leadership, two can be considered the best – (a) the ability to get extraordinary performance from ordinary people, and (b) the ability to get follower.

Basically the styles of leadership can be identified as follows:

1. Autocratic style

2. Democratic style

3. Free Rein

4. Charismatic

5. Situational

Source: Study Material. [1997]. Organizational Behaviour. Indian Institute of Management and Technology, Chennai

Autocratic Style

It may be called as authoritative or directive style too. In this style of leadership the leader centralized the power and decision making in him and exercise complete control over the subordinates. He sets the group goals and structures and procedures for work. Through the autocratic style of control, the group decision is relegated in a tight situation and evolves quick decision making process. Most often this type of leadership develops dissatisfaction among members. But speed and efficiency are required when working in a group, the autocratic style of leadership yield good results.

Democratic Style

This is a contrast style of leadership compared to autocratic leadership. Person opting for this style is like a theory ” Y ” leader which invites decision sharing. Here the authority is decentralized. The decisions are arrived after consultation with the members. He is a participative type of leader, attaches more importance to people and work. This style of leadership improves the morale and satisfaction of employees. It also avoids conflicts in the group process. The democratic style sometimes creates lethargy and laziness among members and develops spirit of non-corporative often.

Free Rein

It is a complete delegation of authority to the subordinates, so that they must plan, motivate and control and otherwise be responsible for their own action. The free rein style leader avoids power and relinquishes the leadership position. More specifically the leader may lack self confidence, fear or failure etc. The main problem in this particular style of leadership is that it tends to permit various units of an organization to proceed. When working in a group if they work as a team, if the team itself very effective then this free rein style may successful, as they can work without any kind of interference.

Charismatic

This type of management is more dominant and perhaps an aggregate of other management styles. This style generates strong enthusiasm and might have as its objectives. The development of a ‘common vision’ – valued shared by organizational members. The discovery or creation of value related opportunities and activities within the framework of the mission and goals of the organization and the emergence in members of strength and greater control of their own destinies, both individually and collectively.

Situational

This management style which changes their style depending on the person or the group they are working with and on the situation. Situational style is important because people and tasks have to be handled differently, depending on the situation and their level of development.

There are many key attributes of good leadership such as being innovative, entrepreneurial and visionary. Leaders need to be courageous, bold and willing to decisive. Among other attributes is the ability to think strategically, identify the big picture and have fall back plans. Some of the most important or key attributes of the leader are to inspire and motivate, be committed and encourage those around with empowerment.

Good clear communications, verbally and by body language are inherent qualities of good leadership. Effective leader must explain clearly what they want, what they wish to achieve and how. The ability to make one’s people feel important and feel that what they do have great value are great virtues of good leadership.

Strong, positive leadership cannot be achieved without good teams. A good leader must have the ability to pick the right people and providing coaching/training and ensure that they carryout tasks that they can do best.

If we consider about the leadership in hospitality industry with relation with this particular study, the need for high-quality leaders in the hospitality industry has been willingly recognised and is seen as significant to the long-term safety of the industry. In recent years, the industry has undergone something of a sea change in its gender composition, with increasing numbers of females graduating from hospitality and tourism administration courses. This proposes that the gender composition of managerial position is possible to modify in the medium term, with simultaneous changes in the typical leadership style valued in the industry.

Motivation

Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. These inner conditions such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behaviour. It means it is an inner state of mind, which channels or directs behaviour towards the achievement of pre-determined goals. So this part is basically considering about this of study.

If we take hierarchy of needs theory by Abram Maslow, he suggested that needs exists at a number of different levels, from basic physiological needs as hunger, and then safety needs like shelter, after word social needs like love and affectionate and then esteem needs like recognition and finally self esteem like power. When achieving basic needs of employee which is the physiological needs, the effect of rewards are less because in this stage salary is the most important thing for physiological and safety needs. But when it comes to the esteem and social needs the effect of rewards and recognitions are high. Reward can be a award which gives at a stage, or it can be a tea with CEO or it can be a 1000 $ cheque for an employee which gives for and achievement. But again when it comes to the self actualization stage the need people need more power as he has already accomplished the other stages of needs in Maslow theory.

And again if we take another motivational theory which is the two factor theory by Fredrick Herzberg, he took the view at two levels, physical level and psychological level. Accordingly satisfiers are called as motivators and dissatisfies are called as hygiene factors. Accordingly motivational factors of an employee in an organization can be identified as achievement, recognition, responsibility, personal growth and for some employees work itself a motivator. And at the same time Hygiene factors can be identified as working conditions, company policies & administration, salary, other benefits & job security, interpersonal relationships, and quality of supervision.

Another theory of motivation is the expectancy theory which says that an employee will be motivated to exert to high level of effort when he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a appraisal lead to organizational rewards such as bonus, salary increase or a promotion; and that the reward will satisfy the employee’s personal goals.

There are many benefits that an organization can achieve through the employee motivation. Following are some of the factors that we can commonly identify.

Motivation ensures better utilization of resources and reduces wastage.

Motivation will bridge the gap between “capacity to work and the willingness to work”

Reduces problems like labour turnover, absenteeism, indiscipline & grievances

Improves productivity

Improves cooperation and team spirit

Improves knowledge and skills among employees

Acceptance of organizational change

Reduces conflicts and misunderstanding between the employer and the employees

Cultural Diversity

What is Cultural Diversity? We cannot find a universal definition on cultural diversity, but according to the charted management institute definition in 2008suggests the cultural diversity means “valuing the differences between people and the ways in which those differences can contribute to a richer, more creative and more productive environment.”

It doesn’t means only the race which the contemporary world identifies, but also the diversity can be identify as race, age, gender, sexual orientation, disability and religious/belief. Gröschl and Doherty (1999) mentioned that “the basic concept of managing diversity accepts that the labour force consists of diverse inhabitants of people”. One of the key aspects of cultural diversity is that paying concentration to varied dynamics is not just an ethical responsibility, it’s a business imperative.

In an organization the need of dealing with a diverse workforce will be needed the ‘diversity competence’. From these competencies effective cross communication is the most important factor when dealing with the cultural diversity. The qualities needed for effective cross-communication can be identified as follows.

• The capacity to accept the relativity of others own knowledge and perceptions

• The capacity to be non-judgemental

• A tolerance for uncertainty

• The capacity to appreciate and communicate respect for other people’s ways, backgrounds, values and beliefs

• The capacity to reveal understanding

• The capacity to be flexible

• A willingness to attain new patterns of behaviour and belief

• The humbleness to recognize what one does not know

Apart from the above competencies organizations should be educated through the cultural diversity awareness education and training. It will lead to counteract of the beliefs of employees and they will feel that they are benefiting from having a diverse workforce may help incorporation in the place of work.

Modern world has recognized that the cultural diversity within an organization is not a negative aspect. This diversity may be in the organizational staff or it may be the customers. However managing this diversity is not a easy task.

As above mentioned this diversity more or less can be managed by the use of effective communication. From the literatures we can find three ways to manage cultural diversity as follows.

Communicating – constructing responsiveness amongst every employees on diverse ethics of peers from first to last communication

Cultivating – facilitating acknowledgement, maintain and support of every member of staff victory by every other workforce

Capitalizing – linking diversity to every business procedure and plan such as series planning, reengineering, employee enlargement, performance management and review, and reward systems

Many organizations use different methods to manage the diversity. As an example Tabra Incorporation, a miniature producer of costume jewellery and trimmings in California consisted of self-effacing workforce. Mainly this workforce was comprised with immigrants from many third world countries like Laos, Mexico, India, Vietnam, Tibet, Cambodia, and so on. So the method that used by the organization to give the recognition for the importance of their cultural association, is that as slightest 10 to 12 diverse flags for all time hanged up from the ceiling of their major production service which symbolizes the nations of derivation of the workforce.

The proprietor of the organization view it as ‘I would love for this to be a miniature United Nations where everyone attainment next to and welcoming each other’s customs as an alternative of just endure it’.

Some of the authors say that the cultural diversity is a benefit fir organizational success, if it can be managed successfully. According to Cox and Balke (1991) main benefits of multi-culturalism that can use for organizational success as;

Achieve cost effective competitive edge through the effective management of multi culture companies

Helps to promote minority friendly reputation among potential employees

Ability to attract better customers which has a variety of cultural backgrounds

Various collection of workforce are apparent to be more imaginative and competent in crisis resolving as contrasted to homogenous cluster

Capability to supervise cultural variety enlarges flexibility and suppleness of an organization to ecological transformations

Several managerial paradigms can be identified as follows;

e.g. Hotel Nikko in Sydney Australia has exclusive border that employees of the staff in straight visitor contact areas which differentiation in converse with thirty four diverse languages.

Similarly Qantas Flight food preparation has 66 ethnic groups on staff, by means of a variety of overseas-born cooks. So enthusiastic varied ‘cultural’ kitchens provide Qantas a enormous competitive advantage by offering food foundations on clients cultural taste and needs.

Case Study: NOVOTEL Hotel

Here the selected organization for the study is NOVOTEL hotels. Novotel is one of the hotel brands of the Accor group which operates in mid scale headquartered in France. Currently they have 400 hotels and resorts in 60 countries, situated in the centre of major international cities from business districts to tourist destinations. Form those hotels there are 266 hotels in 23 countries within Europe.

As of 2009, there are 395 Novotel hotels in 60 countries with 71 872 rooms and employs over 30,000 employees:

Europe : 266 hotels in 23 countries

Asia : 51 hotels in 11 countries

Pacific : 34 hotels in 5 countries

North America : 7 hotels in 2 countries

South America : 19 hotels in 6 countries

Africa : 13 hotels in 10 countries

Middle East : 5 hotels in 3 countries

Novotel is Europe’s largest hotel chain and one of 12 internationally-renowned hotel brands owned by Accor, the French hotel group.

In a bid to create a more distinctive offering to customers, Novotel is actively opening ‘new generation’ hotels. These provide the similar levels of service as standard Novotels but characteristic a stylish and modern design.

Four of new hotels – Novotel London City South, Novotel London Greenwich, Novotel Edinburgh Centre and Novotel London ExCeL – have used a drama-based approach as part of customer service training prior to opening.

Novotel hotels are involved in the worldwide environmental and societal certification programme ‘Green Globe’. Under this programme 124 hotels are committed and 50 hotels are certified as of 31 December 2009.

As an leader within the hotel business, Novotel’s approach has anticipated its clients’ prospect of environmental matters and corporate social responsibility.

In 2007, within the scope of Accor’s Earth Guest In 2007, within the scope of Accor’s Earth Guest programme of sustainable development, Novotel dedicated to an international programme of environmental and social certification: Green Globe. This guarantee was selected for its autonomy and focus on the challenges of global tourism.

The key aim of this section is to discover the practical data available on the study. Basically in this study the secondary data will be highly required from NOVOTEL hotels group. The annual reports, monthly reports, reports done by several departments of the organization, previous researches on NOVOTEL hotels group will be the highly important literature in this survey.

Apart from that study, reports, Theories, abstracts etc will also be required in this study, this will be required to identify and define the employee motivation strategies to compare with the leadership done by the NOVOTEL hotels. Study what are the approaches that they are using will be discussed under the analysis and findings.

Before doing the analysis and findings the consideration was given to develop PEST analysis on the organization in order to identify the macro environment of the organization. And it will help to make a better analysis through this comprehensive understanding.

Political Factors

Stable Political environment of U.K.

Growing awareness of the environmental consideration, U.K Government is planning actions to ensure aviation reflects its environmental impacts.

Tax on aviation fuel and VAT on air tickets. Government’s taxation policies and decision about the increasing the petrol prices have affected the buying power of the individuals in U.K.

Economic Factors

U.K economy is benefiting form gradual low inflation rate.

In U.K, unemployment is low. According to labour market statistics in Average percentage is 4.8 per cent. When unemployment is low, Job confidence is high and it will lead to the confidence spending by consumer is also high.

The UK’s shortage on trade in goods and services stood at £3.2 billion -compared with the revised deficit for January of £4.4 billion.

Exchange rates are favourable for UK residents for travelling abroad due to strong position of British Pound against the other foreign currencies. “Euro” used as a single currency in many European countries, is also stable against the other foreign currencies.

The drawback is that disparities between the wealthier parts of the country, not all in the south east of England, and pockets of deficiency, will get wider, with implications for travel demand. These are likely to influence the growth of the UK resident travel market.

Social Factors

A great trend has been seen in U.K population about diet and health issues in the recent years. This trend leads towards the need of more fitness clubs and organic food for the people from U.K Changes in the structure of the population because of the immigrants from Europe, Asia and Africa etc. This will directly effect for food habits and focus is needed from hospitality industry

Continued concerns over safety and security while travelling are found in the U.K residents.

Lifestyle changes have also been affecting the U.K travel market for a number of years. Delaying the start of the family and an increase in the number of households consisting of couples with two revenues are the main trends of the changing life style. Changing fashions also have an affect on the market, but those are difficult to predict.

Technological Factors

The rapid development of technology is affecting the businesses in UK and all over the world. Changes in the technology will effect to change the way businesses operate i.e. Internet booking for tickets and holidays.

Faster changing development in technology creates a need to react quickly for different businesses in order they want to maintain the competitive environment by providing the same innovative services such as meditation in hospitality industry, which their competitors are offering.

Analysis & Findings

This section of the study is mainly focusing on the subject area that The use of Leadership and Motivation in Management within a culturally diverse business Environment in NOVOTEL hotels. Accordingly analysis was done by analysing how the leadership and motivation concepts have been used in NOVOTEL hotels in UK within a culturally diverse business Environment.

Organization offers Leadership Training

NOVOTEL hotel groups offer leadership training programmes for the staff. Providing leadership for the staff will lead for positive result as they learn hoe to achieve goals and objectives as they will implement the knowledge for the working environment. Leaders accept accountability and responsibility. Put them in a position where they can show this. Let them achieve strategic objectives. When we consider the leadership of the NOVOTEL hotel groups we can identify following characters.

1. Leaders come in different flavours.

There are different types of leaders and you will probably encounter more than one type. Both formal and informal leaders practice a mixture of leadership styles.

2. Leadership is a process of becoming.

Knowledge on leadership theories and skills may be formally gained by enrolling in leadership seminars, workshops, and conferences by the staff. Daily interactions with people provide the prospect to observe and practice leadership theories. Together, formal and informal learning will help to gain leadership approaches, gain leadership handy.

3. Leadership is shared.

Leadership in NOVOTEL is not the individual responsibility of one person, but rather a shared responsibility amongst members of an emerging team. A leader belongs to a group. Each member has responsibilities to fulfil.

Official leadership positions are merely additional responsibilities apart from their responsibilities as members of the team. Effective leadership requires members to achieve their shared tasks. Starting as a group of individuals, members and leaders work in the direction of the formation of a successful team. In this light, social interaction plays a major role in leadership.

4. Leadership styles depend on the situation.

Leadership is not depending on only one style as we studied at the literature review. It will depend on the situation it means mostly situational leadership is there where the management style which changes their style depending on the person or the group they are working with and on the situation.

Two types of Leaders

There are arguments that Leadership exposed and cherished in the hospitality industry, that there were two types of leaders: “those in the hotel business and those in the business of hotels”. Mostly leaders in the hotel industry focus on the needs of employees and the provision of a high-quality service to guests. These leaders are also identified as charismatic. In comparison, leaders in the business of hotels such as leaders of hotel real-estate savings trusts were found to possess exceptional financial skills.

However in the case study main identification was done that to win in the hospitality industry the main need is for combine strong interpersonal skills with sound business knowledge and hotel functioning skills-in effect, arguing that a mix of transactional and transformational leadership skills are needed to succeed in the hospitality field.

Cultural Difference

As NOVOTEL hotels are medium scale hotel group they are dealing with many types of culturally diversified customers. These cultural differences may presence in different attributes such as language, dress and traditions, there are also significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they interact with their environment and so on. Cultural diversity is complicated to enumerate, but a good suggestion is consideration to be calculate of the number of languages spoken in a region or in the world as a whole.

Managing Cultural Diversity

They provide training to ensuring the managing of cultural diversity. Practitioners need to remove barriers to the successful incorporation of international staff into the workplace and society even as benefiting all staff, their organisations and the Irish tourism product. Training programmes could focus on training goals, which are realistic and job-specific. Training goals including growing employee collaboration among culturally diverse employees and improving cross-cultural skills are a part of the training goals to encourage employee participation and eventually help in making possible the gratitude of cultural disparities. Training programmes includes.

Orientation programmes are developed for recently-arrived international workers and it includes

• Opportunities for career development;

• English language

• Skills training manuals could be developed into different languages,

for example, French, German, Spanish, Irish, Polish and Russian;

• Ensure that service superiority programmes are translate into several languages and distributed among all employees; and

• develop and pilot an introductory “Welcome Workshop” open to all international

Prior to opening three flagship hotels, Novotel conducted an exhaustive two-day training programme for front-of-house staff, featuring an interactive workshop on customer service. Delivered by Steps Drama, the intensive course brought to life issues around dealing with customers, handling complaints and the importance of professional behaviour and appearance.

This will lead people to adopt to the new environment.

Employee Motivation

As any other organization motivation is a key factor that influences the daily operations of the hotel industry. It is the key issue which pressures an employee to go over and beyond the call of duty. NOVOTEL hotel group believe that employee motivation plays an integral role in their success. Accordingly organization offers number of benefits to the hotel staff which can be identified as motivational factor.

• Uniforms: provided and maintained on the premises.

• One meal a day in employee dining room at no cost.

• Health, dental and life insurance.

• Employees of the month/year Manager of the quarter/year.

• Paid time off program – used for sick pay, day off, vacation.

• Departmental incentives for safety/revenue generation/expense savings.

• Higher pay than the other hotels: Salary increases will occur on a schedule for Union employees, or annually for non- union employees.

• Promote within the staff whenever possible. However, this can be frustrating because often employees assume they are entitled to promotion based on seniority. Sometimes attendance/performance issues preclude allowing transfers or promotions. Sometimes lack of required experience interferes. NOVOTEL Hotel trains many individuals in their jobs, even if they have had no experience; assured jobs require a certain level of proficiency that must be developed into.

Conclusion

As hospitality industry it self engaging with different people in different culture it should clearly understand how to manage this diversity in hospitality industry. It can be manage in different ways. From these paths employee motivation and the leadership is an effective approach which is needed to be studied.

In an organization the need of dealing with a diverse workforce will be needed the ‘diversity competence’. From these competence factors two factors are studied in this study as leadership and motivation through the case study of NOVOTEL hotel groups.

Leadership in NOVOTEL is not the individual responsibility of one person, but rather a shared responsibility amongst members of an emerging team. A leader belongs to a group. Each member has responsibilities to fulfil.

Prior to opening three flagship hotels, Novotel conducted an exhaustive two-day training programme for front-of-house staff, featuring an interactive workshop on customer service.

Hotel group believe that employee motivation plays an integral role in their success. Accordingly they offer many benefits such as Uniforms which suites with the cultural diversity and also the hotel identity: provided and maintained on the premises, one meal a day in employee dining room at no cost, Health, dental and life insurance

So as an overall view of the study it can be proposed that it is very important to realize that cultural diversity as an instrument for improved organizational development without considering it as an administrative dilemma and it can be the path to expand competitive periphery and success, if it successfully handled.

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