The Tribal And Cultural Tourism Tourism Essay

3930 words (16 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

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Tourism is one of the worlds largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. It has a multitude of impacts, both positive and negative, on people’s lives and on the environment.

“Sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability.

Thus, sustainable tourism should:

Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.

Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.

Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.

SustainableHeader.jpg

About India:

Sustainable tourism supports travel that is ecologically maintainable in the long term, promotes indigenous cultures and works with locals to see that the tourism industry benefits their villages and towns directly. Not all tourism in India is sustainable, and certain tourist hot spots like Goa have been damaged by irresponsible tourism and development. Three ways to engage in responsible tourism in India are village home stays, wildlife ecotourism and tribal tourism.

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Village Home Stays

Staying in a local home with an Indian family assures that your accommodation money goes straight to your hosts rather than to a large corporation. Your host families not only provide you with a place to stay, they also often introduce you to other locals who can serve as guides, give you yoga lessons, teach you how to cook local cuisine or prime you on the area’s indigenous language and customs.

Wildlife Ecotourism

India is home to dozens of national parks and hundreds of wildlife and bird sanctuaries. You can promote sustainable tourism by staying in eco-friendly lodges and hiring ecotourism operators to guide you through the parks. Choose companies that hire local guides and give a percentage of proceeds back to the park or to surrounding villages. Stay at smaller, locally run lodges and guesthouses that use local produce and strive to cut down on waste and their impact on the environment.

Tribal & Cultural Tourism

Another way to practice sustainable travel is to sign up for tribal and cultural tours that have eco-friendly practices and promote local heritage. Rajasthan’s deserts, Orissa’s steamy jungles and Northeast India’s mountainous areas are all good destinations for these types of tours. Some tour companies, like Marwar Eco-Cultural Tours in Rajasthan, double as NGOs (non-governmental organizations) and promote community-development projects in the villages on their travel itineraries. Booking tours near your destination with smaller companies can give you a better chance of supporting local workers and communities with your travel money. Conversely, watching cultural shows at exclusive hotels may send only a trickle of that money back to the performers’ home villages. Sustainable Travel International (STI), a US-based organization, lists and endorses sustainable travel companies around the world. As of 2011, STI had listed 26 companies based in or working in India.

Objectives :

The Ecotourism Society of India is dedicated to the promotion of sustainable development in tourism and to responsible best practices in and among the tourism fraternity. All funds/income generated shall be utilized towards the promotion of the aims and objectives of the Society as follows:

Tabulate eco sensitive areas where tourism will have an impact on the social, cultural and natural environment.

Make strategy and efforts to ensure long-term (perpetual) sustenance of the environment.

Work with empowered bodies to establish carrying capacity and sustainable tourism practices which include conservation of nature and wildlife, and allow local communities to benefit from tourism.

Tourists and visitors numbers and tourism practices must allow nature to re-generate itself.

To work with government bodies to develop policies and code of conduct for promotion of sustainable tourism, and help implement the same.

To work towards certification of tourism service providers.

To act as watchdog for excessive consumption of natural resources and any negative impact in the tourism sector.

To support research in tourism environment related areas.

Work with Service Providers to enhance quality of their product and services to a level so they can be sustainable and eco-friendly.

Encourage use of appropriate local practices, materials, art, craft, architecture, food.

Encourage minimal conspicuous consumption and prevent excessive consumption of energy.

Encourage energy saving practices, water harvesting, use of solar and other natural energy sources.

Encourage good waste management practices especially non-bio degradable materials.

Encourage low pollution-generating practices minimize carbon footprint.

Organise training and other activities to create awareness on ecotourism, sustainable and responsible tourism.

To collaborate with like-minded bodies and implement ecotourism objectives in India and abroad.

To continually identify new ecotourism destinations, strengthen ecotourism and make India a preferred ecotourism destination.

To showcase and promote the best of authentic Indian traditions through premium hospitality destinations

Ensure holistic development by preserving cultural diversity and through eco-tourism

Harmonizing with surroundings and enhancing the quality of life by harnessing local creativity.

What Indian government doing to sustain the tourism:

Many eco-friendly resorts (initially) spread across India to cover all tourist seasons

Focusing 4-5 day packages

Less than 100 km from prominent tourist spots, close to traditional villages

Local architecture (Mud houses etc.) with basic modern amenities and necessities (W/C, Purified Water, optional A/C, power outlets, emergency phones, discouraging mobiles & internet), no plastic zones, alternate energy, rainwater harvesting

Managers recruited centrally, local villages form the employee base

Local cuisine, entertainment, arts & crafts

Complementary nature walks and tours

Company owned sales offices, exclusive online/telephone booking, promotion through social networking sites and liaising with government

Sales personnel for corporate marketing

Offering vocational training to villagers in off-season (hospitality, horticulture, cooking, crafts etc.)

Steps to sustain tourism:

Ratification of the Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India and Indicators for tour operators and the accommodation sector by all industry associations and downstreamed by them to all categories of their membership for applicability. The Ministry’s sanction may be re-worded accordingly.

Implementation of the Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India and Indicators for tour operators and the accommodation sector may be done on voluntary basis.

Ministry of Tourism, Government of India would convene regional sensitization workshops for all industry associations and their memberships & other stakeholders for Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India and Indicators, together with State Tourism Departments, other Implementing Partners and Focal Points.

Simultaneously, the Ministry will facilitate creation of governance coefficients for effective assessment of implementation of all Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India and Indicators. Action will also be initiated to create Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India and Indicators not yet devised for sectors such as tourism transport, destination management etc.

Similarly, sustainable tourism focus would also be professionally imparted to all NGO/Implementing Partners and to all local communities/institutions as they do not have a tourism background. This is necessary to meet visitor requirements and value chain enhancement for competitive advantage. This tourism focus should be an essential component of each site’s workplan.

The tourism industry being a principal stakeholder, will be brought on board from project inception at all sites, to ensure local community and NGO/Implementing Partners’ clarity on visitor satisfaction and to professionally formulate the tourism product to reach target markets in India and overseas.

Entry point strategy for sites’ back and forward convergence as well as governance should be mandated, to take cognizance of other schemes/yojanas at each site, to avoid duplication of workplan components and to optimise fund utilisation.

Central and state tourism funds may be made conditional on workplan allocation and compliance for Waste Management, Hygiene and Sanitation as pre-requisites for local communities’ health and visitor satisfaction. Ministry’s sanction may be re-worded accordingly.

A computerised Management Information System may be developed for effective reporting and must be regularly complied with by all NGO/Implementing Partners and Focal Points.

Use of local materials, styles and skills must be adhered to through advisory support of a panel of architects specialized in the vernacular idiom.

Success benchmarks should be widely disseminated, for higher yields and to strengthen livelihoods.

Continual technological updating is necessary with budgetary allocation.

In particular, energy conservation as a catalytic intervention to address climate change concerns may be incorporated in capacity building. 16. Since the States have legislative capability for tourism, they should proceed sensitively especially with regard to the ecological footprint.

Organizations complying with Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India, may receive incentives from the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India such as eligibility under the Market Development Assistance Scheme and weightage in application for National Tourism Awards.

Sustainable Tourism Criteria uih.jpg

Revenue Estimates (INR)

Year

Planned Capacity

Occupancy

Number Occupancy

Average cost per room night

Price of a Package

Package Demand

Sale of Handicrafts

Total Revenue

In-season

120 days

Off-season

240 Days

In-season

Off-season

In season

Off Season

Average price per person day

In Season

Off Season

2010-11

400

25%

20%

12000

19200

6000

4000

1000

4800

7680

400000

161,680,000

2011-12

400

30%

20%

14400

19200

6000

4000

1000

5760

7680

400000

177,040,000

2012-13

600

30%

20%

21600

28800

6000

4000

1500

8640

11520

600000

275,640,000

2013-14

600

40%

30%

28800

43200

8000

6000

1500

17280

25920

960000

555,360,000

2014-15

600

50%

35%

36000

50400

8000

6000

1500

21600

30240

960000

669,120,000

Costs & Profit Estimates

Year

Land

Construction

Depreciation

Employees

Raw material

Handicrafts

Utilities

2009-10

60,000,000

40,000,000

2010-11

10,000,000

10,000,000

25,920,000

200,000

15,552,000

2011-12

20,000,000

10,000,000

11,500,000

25,920,000

200,000

15,552,000

2012-13

12,000,000

13,225,000

38,880,000

300,000

23,328,000

2013-14

12,000,000

15,208,750

51,840,000

480,000

31,104,000

2014-15

12,000,000

17,490,063

51,840,000

480,000

31,104,000

Profit Estimates

Year

Maintenance

+ Renovation

Promotion

Vocational Training

Total Cost

Operating profit

Cost of Capital

Profit Before Tax

2009-10

10,000,000

(10,000,000)

2010-11

5,184,000

1,000,000

250,000

68,106,000

93,574,000

10,000,000

83,574,000

2011-12

5,184,000

1,000,000

250,000

69,606,000

107,434,000

12,000,000

95,434,000

2012-13

9,331,200

1,000,000

250,000

98,314,200

177,325,800

12,000,000

165,325,800

2013-14

12,441,600

700,000

250,000

124,024,350

431,335,650

12,000,000

419,335,650

2014-15

12,441,600

700,000

250,000

126,305,663

542,814,338

12,000,000

530,814,338

Methodology:

The present study is fundamental in purpose and adopts a descriptive-analytic method. Documentation and questionnaire method have been used in order to formulate the indicators. The documentation method concerns reviewing the documents related to indicators of tourism sustainable development and analyzing their content. In order to formulate and operationalize the indicators and indices, the experts and public’s opinions were used in the questionnaire method.

The methodology of my assignment was purely based on personal observation.

Nature Of Data : Questionnaire method

1. How often do you travel outstation?

a. Once in a Year

b. Once in 6Months

c. Once in 3Months

d. Every Month

e. Every Week

Tabular answer:

1

A

40%

B

30%

C

15%

D

10%

E

5%

2. How do you Plan your Trip?

By yourself .

Through a Travel Agent.

Tabular answer:

2

A

25%

B

75%

3. Do you believe you understand the concept of sustainable tourism?

very familiar

somewhat familiar

unfamiliar

Tabular answer:

3)

A

25%

B

40%

C

35%

4. Do you believe natural resource protection and tourism can be compatible?

strongly agree

agree

don’t know

disagree

strongly disagree

Tabular answer:

4

A

45%

B

35%

C

12%

D

8%

E

0%

5. Do you believe protection of local heritage and tourism can be compatible?

strongly agree

agree

don’t know

disagree

strongly disagree

Tabular answer:

5

A

55%

B

40%

C

5%

D

0%

E

0%

6. Do you believe that well-managed attractions and destinations for tourist , maintained in their natural state, are important to attracting tourism?

strongly agree

agree

don’t know

disagree

strongly disagree

Tabular answer:

6

A

50%

B

40%

C

7%

D

0%

E

3%

7. Do you believe the community would benefit from developing a sustainable tourism framework?

strongly agree

agree

don’t know

disagree

strongly disagree

Tabular answer:

7

A

35%

B

35%

C

15%

D

8%

E

7%

8. Do you believe there is a demand for sustainable tourism in and around India?

strongly agree

agree

don’t know

disagree

strongly disagree

Tabular answer:

8

A

25%

B

30%

C

10%

D

25%

E

10%

9. If you disagree with #8, do you believe a demand for sustainable tourism could be developed in future of our India?

strongly agree

agree

don’t know

disagree

strongly disagree

Tabular answer:

9

A

55%

B

35%

C

10%

D

0%

E

0%

Analyzing and Interpreting Data:

Data analysis and interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to the collected information and determining the conclusions, significance, and implications of the findings. The steps involved in data analysis are a function of the type of information collected, however, returning to the purpose of the assessment and the assessment questions will provide a structure for the organization of the data and a focus for the analysis.

Approach to problem solving:

The implementation of Sustainable Tourism Criteria for India (STCI will progress on the basis of:

Workshops to advocate sustainability by the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India for all stakeholders across the regions of the country.

Extensive range of incentives for establishments complying with STCI, specially focusing on international market access through the Ministry’s Market Development Assistance scheme and also operational advantage concerning energy, water and other input requirements as feasible.

Ministry of Tourism, Government of India support to proposals from all tourism sector associations for skill development as in ‘Hunar Se Rozgar’ for unskilled, low-skilled and, semi-skilled and craftsperson categories.

MSME tourism service providers to be specially supported after meeting eligibility and STCI compliance conditions.

Certification through innovative use of existing mechanisms, there being to need for appointing consultants or a project monitoring unit.

Training of Trainers for Sustainable Tourism through institutional arrangements.

School and college curricula to incorporate sustainable tourism.

Advance calendar of participatory activities displayed on the Ministry’s website.

Capacity building in industry and the Government by identifying institutions for developing a pool of trainers, training of trainers, etc.

Evolving governance coefficients, using contemporary technology, for incorporation in the rating / approval mechanism to enable realistic monitoring and evaluation of sustainable tourism implementation by all tourism industry constituents.

Research study:

Tourism is an increasingly important area of economic activity in all countries, and as such, should have a commensurate level of statistical development. However, there is more work to be done in the area of compilation of basic tourism statistics to better serve the needs of economic policy makers in governments, industry managers and business community and, at the same time provide a solid foundation for the nation accounts in general and for Tourist Satellite Accounting (TSA) in particular.

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The challenge of any research in sustainable tourism is not only how to measure or assess the achievement of sustainability, but also how to implement such. A current trend in both practice and research is to consider the conduct of ecotourism as a means to achieve the concepts of sustainable tourism and the principles of sustainability. This thesis proposes that one of the avenues that ecotourism may contribute to the principles of sustainability is through the interpretation delivered as an integral component of this type of tourism. An inductive qualitative methodological approach is presented and a model of effective interpretation has been developed.

Effective destination management and strategic planning needs to be based on relevant and up-to-date data and information. Destination managers need access to data and information on visitor markets, environmental trends, product supply and availability, resources, opportunities and challenges and potential risks. Destinations that have established research and data collection systems to support decision-making are better able to plan effectively and adapt to changing market conditions.

Recommendation and suggestion:

Should contribute to a balanced and healthy economy by generating tourism-related jobs, revenues, and taxes . . .

Should protect and enhance a destination’s socio-cultural, historical, natural and built resources . . .

Should enhance the enjoyment and well-being of both residents and visitors.

destn2_environ.jpg

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Conclusion:

I began with a reference to the need to develop specific recommendations for the continuation and development of the sustainable tourism program. I hope that my remarks have suggested to you some ideas in this regard both with regard to sustainable cultural tourism development and with regard to the promotion of effective local community management of cultural resources. I cannot presume to advise you on the future of sustainable tourism, but I can suggest three general areas of action that might be appropriate in regard to sustainable tourism development.

There is a need to elaborate regional, national and local guidelines for undertaking cultural impact assessments; such assessments should be required by law prior to the approval of each (tourism) development activity.

There is a need to undertake national inventories, including surveys and maps, of all immovable physical cultural heritage and sites-and to determine their visitor carrying capacity-with a view to their long-term protection within the framework of the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention, and other appropriate international, national, local and customary conservation instruments.

There is a need to develop, where they do not already exist, instructional modules for teaching regional, national and, especially, local heritage in the formal school system. With special reference to tourism development, there is a need for teaching school-leavers in non-formal situations with the particular aim of training and licensing local heritage expert guides and resource persons.

There are substantial opportunities for the promotion of sustainable tourism in India. However, the national and respective state policy and planning frameworks need to be aligned for this.

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