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The Traffic Conjestion Problem In Sri Lanka Tourism Essay

2467 words (10 pages) Essay in Tourism

5/12/16 Tourism Reference this

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Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean in South Asia, 65 610 square kilo meters in area, divided into nine administrative provinces where population of approximately 21 million in 2009. The country measures about 400 kilometers from North to South and 250 km from East to West. The total length of roadway in Sri Lanka is 112,603 km in 2009. The number of vehicles in Sri Lanka in 2009 is 2,245,108. By 1948, when Sri Lanka became independent, there were about 11,000 km of roads, of which about 7,000 km were paved. Sri Lanka has a road network of about 112,603km, comprising about 11,760 km of national roads; 15,743 km of provincial roads; 80,600 km of local authority roads; and 4,500 km of roads owned or controlled by irrigation, wildlife, and land development authorities. These national highways comprise roads that are categorized as Class A and B roads, the highest categories in Sri Lanka’s road hierarchy. Provincial roads are categorized as Class C, D, and E roads. While the capacity of local and rural roads has been expanded since 1948, most of the trunk roads date back to pre-independence years and their capacity has become inadequate owing in part to neglected maintenance. Road conditions are generally poor.

Roads are the spine of the transport sector in Sri Lanka. They are crucial for the movement of people and goods and play a vital role in integrating the country, facilitating economic growth, and ultimately reducing poverty. National roads are holding over 70 percent of the traffic in Sri Lanka. Roads are very important for the large majority of Sri Lanka’s people who live in the villages. They are often the only way for most rural people to reach necessary services such as hospitals, schools, markets, and banks, which are mostly situated far from their villages.

1.2 Problem Background

The facility of smooth traffic movement is an ornament as well as an asset to any city. But capital city of Sri Lanka is facing a big problem with traffic problem. Traffic problem has aggravated by the attention of all forms economic, commercial and administrative functions in the city.

The city of Colombo attracts about 1.5 Million floating population on a working day and with the addition of the resident population in the city. The total population in the city increases to more than 2 Million during the daytime. It is estimated that about 50% of the commuting population arrives in the city for employment or to connect in commercial activities and or to attend educational institutions. The rest comes to the city for various other purposes.

Commuting population are used various forms of transportation to enter the city. Both the number of vehicles and the passengers entering the City are increasing year by year. Traffic congestion is frequently increasing as more and more people buy vehicles. At the same time the residential population and the ownership of vehicles within the city limits will also experience a remarkable growth. Vehicles are entering to the City from 9 entry points on working days have been estimated to be around 275,000, and this is in addition to the contribution to the traffic floor by the use of vehicles of the residents in the city. The combination of these aspects outcome is a greater attraction of the city for people from the rest of the country thus aggravating the transport problem in the city of Colombo.

2. Reasons for traffic congestion

The number of vehicles in the city is not the only factor that contributes to congestion. There are several other reasons for this traffic congestion.

2.1 The current traffic signal network

A signal operation system is essential to road efficiency. There are so many roundabouts and crossroads where no traffic signals are installed in every place. These places are famous for traffic blocks since many motorists and pedestrians do not follow the prevalent rules. Pedestrians are crossed roads without regular intervals and using hand signals. It seems that the current traffic signal network in Colombo is insufficient to maintain massive amounts of traffic volume.

2.2 The current road system

Massive highways, many bridges, and tunnels cannot be found all over the country like South Korea. Most of the roads are small and narrow.The conditions and standards of the roads are inadequate to meet rapidly growing freight and passenger traffic.

More than 50% of the national roads have poor or very poor surface condition and many are seriously congested. The scope for widening roads on existing alignments is limited mainly because of land acquisition issues.

2.3 Inadequate investment

Despite the substantial increases in traffic volume there have been inadequate investments for construction of new highways or widening and improving existing roads. Over the past years the investment in the road sector has been mainly determined on the rehabilitation of the existing road network.

2.4 Mixed traffic system

National highways, which are generally two-lane, has been unable to carry the current volume of mixed traffic (pedestrians, bikes, buses, three-wheelers, and motor vehicles). Increasing traffic volumes and a traffic mix consisting of motorized and non-motorized traffic have resulted in low travel speeds, severe traffic congestions, and increased accident rates.

2.5 Street vendors

There are illegal constructions and street vendors are doing their businesses in roadsides. In most roads passage through roadsides is obstructed by these street vendors. Uncontrolled roadside development and businesses has reduced the capacity of the road network.

2.6 Illegal parking

Illegal parking significantly contributes to congestion and impedes the traffic flow. Cities suffer in Sri Lanka from unenforced driving and parking regulations. Although Vehicles parking in roadsides is illegal in the country most of motorists are parking their vehicles in roadsides reason for that is limitation of parking places.

2.7 Sidewalks for pedestrians

In capital city, most of roads have constructed without sidewalks for pedestrians. When pedestrians are walking side on the road the existing roads have translated to as narrow roads.

3. Data analysis

In this part has concerned about most relevant data in connection with traffic congestion. Although South Korea has provided more facilities for their transport system they also are possessed problem with congestion. In South Koreans has enjoyed with many highways, bridges, tunnels, and express ways in connection with their transport system. In considering about traffic congestion can be considered as population, no of vehicles, no of accident and no of persons killed in accident are the most important factors. In the following data has been attention about compare information with South Korea and Sri Lanka.

3.1 Population

The following table no 1 and figure no1 has included information about population in thousand in two countries.

Table no 1.Population in two countries

Year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Sri Lanka Population(1000)

18,713

18,797

18,921

19,173

19,462

19,668

19,886

20,010

20,156

20,303

South Korea population(1000)

47,008

47,357

47,622

47,859

48,039

48,138

48,297

48,456

48,607

48,747

Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka

www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10

Figure no 1.Population in two countries

Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka

www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10

When considering about this information South Korea population is higher than Sri Lanka reason for that Sri Lanka is a small country than South Korea.

3.2 No of registered vehicles

Other most important factor is no of registered vehicles in these two countries. In table no 2 and 3 are provided total no of vehicles in two countries.

Table no 2. No of registered vehicle in South Korea

Year

Registered Vehicle(1000)

Increasing Rate(%)

2001

12,910

7.1

2002

13,950

8

2003

14,590

4.6

2004

14,930

2.4

2005

15,400

3.1

2006

15,900

3.2

2007

16,430

3.4

2008

16,790

2.2

Source:www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10

Table no 3. No of registered vehicle in Sri Lanka

Year

Registered Vehicle(1000)

Increasing Rate

(%)

2001

1,779

2002

1,892

6.3

2003

2,074

9.7

2004

2,298

10.8

2005

2,527

10

2006

2,828

12

2007

3,126

10.5

2008

3,391

8.5

Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka

Figure no 2.Registered vehicles in South Korea

Source:www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10

Figure no 3.Registered vehicles in Sri Lanka

Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka

In comparison with 2001 the no of vehicles has increased in 30% year 2008 in South Korea. There are 91% significant increment in Sri Lanka compare with 2001 and 2008. Although level of increased of total no of vehicles in both countries has decreased it is very significant in 2004 in South Korea.

3.3 Traffic Accident in South Korea

In the following tables and figures have been discussed about traffic accident volume and how many people killed by road accident in both countries.

Table no 4.Traffic Accident in South Korea

Year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Traffic Accidents

Volume

290,481

260,579

230,953

240,832

220,755

214,171

213,745

211,662

251,822

Person

Killed

10,236

8,097

7,090

7,212

6,563

6,376

6,327

6,166

5,870

Source:www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10

Table no 5.Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka

Year

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Traffic Accidents Volume

54,250

52,092

55,031

59,494

53,458

42,537

35,763

33,993

31,872

Person Killed

1992

1952

2029

1933

2116

2236

2238

2402

2328

Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka

Figure no 4. Traffic Accident in South Korea

Source:www.iatss.or.jp/pdf/research/32/32-2-10

Figure no 5. Traffic Accident in Sri Lanka

Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka

Although traffic accident volume has been decreased up to 2007 there is a considerable increment in 2008 in South Korea. In comparison with 2007, the traffic volume has been increased in 19% in the year 2008. In considering about Sri Lanka information the highest accident volume has been reported in year 2003.The amount is 59,494 accidents. After 2003, there are notable decreased in the traffic volume of Sri Lanka.

When concerned about no of killed person in accident there are big different with two country. Although in South Korea the no of killed person in accident has been decreased year by year the Sri Lanka situation is different. There has been reported a significant increment about no of person killed in accident.

4. Solutions for problems

4.1 Traffic signal network

To respond traffic congestion in capital city must be established new traffic signals in every roundabout, cross road and necessary places. It will be appreciable affected to reduce traffic congestion. The traffic signal network is established in 100% in the developed countries and many of other countries.

4.2 Improve road infrastructure.

It is necessary to construct a modern road network, and upgrade existing roads to meet the country’s economic and social development needs. In addition to the need for improving and rehabilitating deteriorated roads, there is an urgent need to embark on a program for the construction of new intercity highways. In considering about road infrastructure should concern about sidewalks and illegal constructions. It will be helped to facilitate more road space to the motorist on the road.

4.3 Private sector investment

The Government has limited capacity to finance public investments. Innovative financing strategies especially private sector investment will be needed to mobilize sufficient funding for such highways. Using these funds can be improved road maintenance and construction and make road development sustainable. The government should promote private sector participation in road infrastructure improvement.

4.4 Transport Planning and Coordination.

Transport sector responsibilities in Sri Lanka have been widen over a multitude of ministries and agencies, leading to a highly fragmented structure of decision-making. At present there are nine ministries with a direct responsibility for transport infrastructure. When taking decisions regarding road infrastructure it have been affected for all these authorities. In the past decades, many decisions have not match and there are also big argument about these decisions.

The Sri Lankan government should take necessary steps to establish one institution from gathering these all relevant institutions to provide a better transport services.

5. Policy implementation

5.1 A national policy regarding traffic signal

The traffic signals will helps to improve traffic flow on roads. These steps would ensure less traffic congestion and traffic accidents compare with previous situation.

5.2 Private investment

According to current situation in the country, government should think a national policy regarding private investment on the road infrastructure. Lack of finance situation in the government, this step will be helped to government to improve the road infrastructure in the country.

5.3 Reduce responsible institutions

In present there are several institutions in regarding road transport. It would not be good to taking the decisions. In considering that, can be arrange these all institutions under one policy regarding the road transportation.

6. Conclusion

The efficiency of Sri Lanka’s transport sector has blocked by a variety of constraints. Sri Lanka depends on foreign trade and it can be increased by efficient transport network in the country. Globalization of trade has risen not only from the liberalization of trade, but also from major advances in communications, transport, and storage technologies. On time delivery of products and passengers has become a result of good transportation network. For travel of people and transportation of factors of production, semi-finished goods, and manufactured products will require efficient transport services. After following effective and efficient policies regarding transportation network can be achieved a better transport network in the country.

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