There are many researchers who have examined on how tourism affects the local people in a destination. They have worked on how to assess the negative and positive impacts of tourism on society. This literature review will be based on the research of the socio-cultural impact of tourism on the local people in Mauritius. This literature review will be completed by searching for journal articles, relevant studies which have been previously done on the topic.
2.1.1 Overview of Tourism
Tourism is an active process which include direct and alternative relationship between people and originator of tourism products. The interaction between people is the is often the necessary feature which characterizes a tourism experience. Sheldon & Abenoja argued that these experiences can lead to both positive and negative impacts and this should be controlled in order to maximize the positive impacts and minimize and negative impacts. Positive and negative feature of tourism can be moved to the tourists and the host population as a tourism product can only be consumed in a destination.
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One of the most influential socially based plans refined to examine the impact of tourism has on local people and the environment in which the local people live is on the work of Doxey (1975), who was able to demonstrate the feeling that local people show as tourism extend and start to use greater area of a local economy over time. (Doxey) also argued that there are basically four levels to be considered when assessing local feelings towards the tourism industry. These are as follows:
Euphoria: This is where tourist come to a destination where they are received with little control and planning in a destination
Apathy: Tourists are accepted by the local people in a destination, commercialization takes place and there is a relationship between groups.
Annoyance: As the tourism industry is being saturated, local people tend to have uncertainty about a location of tourism. Tourism planners increase infrastructure instead of controlling the growth of tourism.
Antagonism: Local people start to become irritated and this is presented to tourists and tourism and planning is restorative.
2.1.2Resident-visitor relations: Doxey's 'Irridex
It became clear that without the support of stakeholders, tourism would not be successful in the long term. This is specifically suitable for the communities who host the visitors. Doxey (1975), Doxey suggested an easy set of stages, demonstrating a host community response to and relationship with an increasing number of visitors. He suggested that local toleration thresholds and the the resistance of the host community to the increasing number of tourism development established a fear that they might lose community identity. Moreover, Doxey's (1975) Index of Irritation (Irridex) symbolizes the ascending sensitivity of local residents as the impact that visitors cause increases.
Kreag (2001) said that the number of impacts from tourism is physically wide and it often has the authority on areas beyond those usually linked with tourism. It is difficult to measure the exact type and magnitudes of impacts of tourism as they cannot be viewed in a separate way because the effect brought by tourism alone and the effect which has been accomplished by other agents of change such as modernization, development, and the influence of media Archer & Cooper, (1994); Lickorish & Jenkin, (1997); Mathieson & Wall, (1982).
2.1.3 Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism
Oppermann & Chon, (1997), argued that the socio cultural impacts should be available in towns and it should be designed in such a way in order to achieve the ideals of sustainable development. Smith (1995) reported that the socio-cultural impacts of tourism occur when there is the interaction between the "host", or local people, and "guests", or tourists. However, Glasson, Gofrey and Goodey (1995) argued that the socio-cultural impacts are the "people impacts" of tourism and it concentrates on the day to day changes and quality of life of residents in a destination. It has been stated by Opperman and Chon (1997) that tourist and the host interactions does not have effect on the hosts and the society of the host, but also it has an effect on the tourists and the tourists' societies.
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Cooper et al., (1998); said that socio-cultural impacts have both positive and negative forms and it is the hosts and the guests who are affected, Oppermann & Chon, (1997). Moreover, Pi-Sunyer, (1973), stated that socially and culturally, tourism has often been victim of social tensions. Boissevain, (1979); Tsartas, (1992) argues it can be noted that the principal impacts affected by the tourists and host relationship are the demonstration effect, that is when the behaviour of the hosts community is developed in such a way to imitate the tourists. During their stay in a destination tourists interact with the local residents and this interaction brings an outcome such as modifications in the quality of life of the host's community, value system, labour division, family relationships, attitudes, behavioural patterns, ceremonies and creative expressions, Fox (1977); Cohen (1984); Pizam and Milman (1984).
De Kadt (1979) have stated that the encounters of tourists and the hosts occur when tourists are buying goods and services from any host individual where there are at the same place and at the same time and where they can exchange ideas and information. Another type of encounter which occurs in tourism is where there is a failure in promoting mutual understanding among different nations and stereotypes prevail, Nettekoven (1979); Krippendorf (1987); O'Grady (1990). In addition, White (1974); Brougham and Butler (1977); Jeffs and Tavis (1989); Wallace (1997) reported that socio-cultural impacts of tourism also include change in the language that is used in a destination growth in the consumption of alcoholics, crime, prostitution and gambling Young (1973); Graburn 1983; O'Grady (1990). According to Brunt and Courtney (1999) argued that socio cultural impacts of when there is the interaction of tourists-host could be utilized to host residents and was affected by their role and their relationship within the tourism industry.
2.1.4 Communities Perspective of Tourism
Fredline, (2004) considered the attitude of local people the large range of the positive and negative impacts of tourism on the community at large and individual can be analysed. Ratz (2002) said that the lives of the host's community are changed by two major factors which are namely the tourists-host relationship and the development of the tourism industry itself. Local people and foreign companies are encouraged to invest in different types of tourist enterprises Larsen (1998) and this is looked in such a strategy to motivate economic activities to take place which will make the state become richer. In a host community, not every people perceive the impacts of tourism in the same manner. Researches say that the level of satisfaction of residents in a destination and their attitudes in relation to tourism are conditional on their perception of the impact of tourism.
Resident's reponse to tourism impacts
It is important to know the reaction of residents to tourism and the strategies that they use to minimize the negative impacts from the tourism exchange. Two theories which is the Doxey Irridex model and the tourism area life-cycle model by butler (1980) were used to to explain resident's reactions to tourism. However it has been said that these two theories are too unidirectional and monolithic, being not able to identify that different sets of strategies may be available simultaneously within a region, Dogan (1989). The theories that have been viewed in the past years as the most efficient ones, were based on the alternative of the Butler (1975) and of Dogan (1989): Butler (1975) reporting a past work by Bjorkland and Philbrick, analysed the progress that occurs when two or more cultures come into interaction and suggested this work within the resident's-tourist relationship; he stated that the resident's attitudes can be favourable and unfavourable during their communication and resident's behavioural response towards tourism could be functioning or enduring from these differences, a four-cell continuity topologies was developed.
2.1.5 Socio-Cultural sustainability
Cultural sustainability is the maintenance of local values, the way that people live in their environment and identity Heikkinen et al. (2007). According to Besculides, Lee, & McCornick, 2002; Simpson, (2008) the cultural and social as aspect of sustainability may be supported by tourism development by granting a change of declining traditional industries appealing infrastructure development promoting pride referring to culture and community, fostering cultural acceptance amongst visitors, keeping cultural heritage, fostering cross institutional acceptance and bring into existence educational favorable circumstances. However, Liu (2003); Stronza, (2007), argued that tourism can bring up new lifestyles, belief, and values to hosts, and come through changes in the living form of the communities.
2.1.6 Positive socio-cultural impact of tourism
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United Nations, (1996); Jamaica Sustainable Development Network, 2001; Tourism Product Development Company (2005); du Cros; (2001), Tourism brings into contribution of an improvement of the social infrastructure in a destination. Cultural development can be considered as a positive impact of tourism. Various situations exist where tourism is the active force behind the preservation and awareness of local culture and traditions.
2.1.7 Negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism
For some islands, there are negative social impact that are created due to tourism. An increase in the price leads to a fall in the standard of living of the local community. Fishermen are deprived from their occupation. Sometimes locals are prevented to get access to public beaches as most hotels give priority to tourists to enjoy the beaches and therefore locals are left with only part of the beaches. Moreover, there are capacity issues where the beaches are overcrowded which leads to traffic congestion and noise pollution, reverse acculturation and high crime rates also occur (United Nations, 1996; PA Consulting Group, (2007). According to Hejazeen (2007), he distinguished the socio-cultural impacts of tourism on five communities at five historical sites around Jordan. In Petra Hejazeen (2007) noticed that there were a number of negative impacts such as people starting to consume alcohol drinks, children who are not going to school, and the problem of co-modification whereby the local people imitate the tourists.
2.1.8 Physical influences causing social stress
The physical power that increasing tourism has on a destination can cause social stress because this encounter the local community. Cultural degeneration such as damage to cultural heritage may take place from vandalism, littering, pilferage and illegal removal of cultural heritage items or by changing the historical landscape that surrounds it. Resource use conflicts will arise because there is a competition between the host community and the tourists for making use of prime resources such as water and energy which are limited in supply. Conflicts will arise when there will be the construction of hotels in coastal areas.
2.2.8 Culture Clashes
As tourism is the movement of people to different places geographically and places of social relation between tourists and the hosts, culture clashes may come forward because of differences in their cultures, ethnic and religious groups, values, lifestyles, languages and levels of prosperity. There will be economic inequality between local people and the tourists as they spend more than they often spend in an economy.
2.2.9 Behaviour of tourists causing irritation
Tourists usually fail to respect local people and their moral values due to carelessness in a destination. They may not respect the locals traditions by taking pictures where they are not allowed to do so and they may also be not well dressed in religious places like temples, mosques, and church.
Jud (1975) stated that amount of criminal movement facing foreign tourists grows as the number of illegal chances increase. He also said that the more tourists' arrival in a destination will result in more chances for crime to take place. However, Lin and Loeb (1977) argued that there might not be a certain connection between tourists and criminal activities. Moreover, Bernasco and Luykx (2003) stated that there are three factors which pull crimes against property and these are attractiveness, opportunity and accessibility. As a result if communities do not protect themselves and imperfectly put in order by external agencies, some individuals will precise their personal temperament and devotion towards criminal behaviour. Moreover, Shaw and Mc Kay (1992) stated that a weak organizational form within a community may produce an environment more favorable for criminals against people and vice versa.
2.3.1 Job level friction
There has been a lack of professional training and low-paid tourism jobs such as waiter, cleaner gardening are offered to local people whereas the higher-paying jobs are like managerial jobs are offered to foreigners.
2.3.2 Change of local identity and values
Conventional tourism can bring impact change or loss of recognition and values and leads to influences as stated below:
2.3.3 Commercialization of local culture
Tourism can turn local culture into product and this is when religious traditions, local customs and festivals are diminished to adjust to tourist expectations and this has been called as reconstructed ethnicity.
A destination aim is to satisfy and it risk standardization, accommodation, food and drinks, etc must meet the want of the tourists in a destination
2.3.5 Adaptation to tourist demands
In destination tourists have the desire to buy souvenirs, arts, crafts, cultural manifestations. Craftsmen in many tourists' destinations have changed their products by designing new types to make them match the new customer's tastes.
2.3.6 Increase of Prostitution and sex tourism
According to the WTO (World Tourism Organisation) experts (1994) sex tourism has its principal intention that effect of a commercial sexual relationship. Sex tourism is absolutely tangible encounter in which the partner is not anymore an animated object. Many men go to Asia to choose Asian girls because no communication is possible. Sex workers can be migrant women in a destination from neighbouring countries. Moreover, sex tourism has impacted to an increase in AIDS in India. It has been discovered that upper grade hotels have their supply for sex tourism to take place. Sex tourism is also linked to drug peddlers who search for long vacation tourists at cheap destinations.
2.3.7 The economic impacts of tourism
Loomis and Walsh (1997) stated that businesses and public organizations are progressively showing interest in the economic impacts of tourism at national, state and local levels as the tourism industry contributes to the nation's balance of payment (BOP) and this provide a great supply of income, said Tatoglu, Erdal, Ozgur, & Azakli, (2000). The World Traven and Tourism Council (2012) reported that tourism can be beneficial to an economy in terms of increasing the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Moreover, Andereck Valentine, Knopf and Vogt (2005) reported that tourism industries can have a positive effect on the economy of a community by effecting diversity, and tax revenue. Furthermore tourism is taken into consideration as a determinant that provides a higher living standard and which effect to attract investors to do investments and tourists to spend which as a result creates greater benefits than costs Brida, reported Osti & Faccioli, (2011).
2.3.8 The benefits that tourism bring in an economy
Rithie, 2000; Carolson & Millan, (2002); Getz, (2005) said that the events in a destination tend to improve the infrastructure and development capacity. Westerbeek et al. (2005, p. 133) reported that when infrastructure is well articulated consisting of physical venues, accommodation and facilities such as transport can lead a an even to success and reducing costs, ameliorating the convenience of spectator, as well as the athlete and long term benefits for the local community when the event ends.
2.3.9 Multiplier effect
Tourism as a supply of income is difficult to measure, this is because it creates multiplier effect Clarke et al, (2009); Brida et al, (2010); Rastegar, (2010). Multiplier effect is the abundance of money which is generated due to tourist spending in an economy it increases as it passes through different areas of the economy reported Dritsakis, (2008); Boopen, (2006). Tourism does not only lead to employment opportunities but also motivates growth in the primary and secondary sectors of the industry.
Primary tourism sectors namely, lodging, dining, transportation, amusements and retail trade are influenced directly and most of the other sectors are have impacts of the secondary effects.
2.4 Direct effect in the economy
These are production changes which are linked with the actual effects of changes in tourism expenditures. An increase in the number of tourists staying in a hotel would lead to an increase in profits due to sales in the hotel sector. Direct effects of tourists spending also include hotel payments for wages and salaries, taxes, and supplies and services.
2.4.1 Indirect effect in the economy
This is the re spending of the hotel industry's revenues in other behind industries. For example industries which supplies products and services to hotels. Modification in sales, jobs, and income in the linen supply industry shows another area of indirect effects after all connecting hotels to various degrees to multiple other economic sectors in the region.
2.4.2 Induced effect in the economy
Induced effect is the household income earned directly or indirectly by tourism spending. For example employees from the hotel and employees from the linen supply are supported directly and indirectly by tourism, they spend their money in the local region expenses of housing, food, transportation and spending of added wage, salary, or owners income are considered as induced effect.
2.4.3 Indirect effects of tourism on GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
Tourism is a big constituent of the services economy, representing 30% of international trade in services. Taking into account of the revenue, the T20 countries generate nearly 70% of global tourist activity. In addition, the contribution that tourism can make to the growth of the economy is found in its indirect impacts, which in the T20 countries showing over 45% of tourism's total contributions to the GDP. These indirect impacts which are linked both to goods and services bought by the tourism sector and to investment and public spending multiplied by tourism are an important factor of economic growth.
2.4.4 The exchange rate effect of tourism
Tourism is a major foreign currency earner as it supplies the market with foreign currency and this market would not exist if tourism would not be so large. This diminishes the cost of foreign currency below what it would otherwise be.
2.4.5 Creation of employment
According to Bridenhann and Wickens, (2004), tourism is an industries among many other industries which has the highest power to contribute towards job creation and economic development, especially in rural areas.
2.4.6 Environmental impact of tourism
Negative environmental impacts takes place when the level of visitors in a country exceeds the carrying capacity of an environment or use greater space that is required for an environment. When it is uncontrolled, it brings threats to many natural areas around the world.
The environment quality, natural and man-made is of great importance to tourism. However, the relationship with the environment is intricate. The environmental impact is related with the construction of the general infrastructure in a destination such as roads and airports, and of the facilities of tourism, such as resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses. As the negative impacts of tourism can destroy the environment in the long-term, and these impacts should be minimized. Further literature of the negative environmental impact of tourism is as follows:
2.4.7 Land Degradation
The important resources of land are fertile soil, forests, wetlands and wildlife. Due to an increase in the construction of tourism facilities there has been pressure on these resources. Direct impact can be caused by providing tourists with the facilities needed such as accommodation and other infrastructure needed on the environment. Moreover, when there is deforestation, forest often suffers from this disaster.
2.4.8 Air and noise pollution
Pollution is something harmful that begins into the environment and these harmful materials are called pollutants. It can be natural such as volcanic ash. Pollution can be also produced by human activity for example trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water and land.
There are various things that are useful to people create pollution. Cars eject pollutants from their exhaust pipes. Burning coal to produce electricity pollutes the air. Industries and homes spread garbage and sewage that can pollute the land and water.
2.4.9 Impacts on Biodiversity
Tourism can cause loss of biodiversity in various ways for example by competing the wildlife for habitat and natural resources. Negative impact on biodiversity can be caused by trampling, stress in animals, import of invading species, destruction of habitats, marine habitat deterioration.
2.5 Strain on water resources
Water is one of the important resource that is needed to survive and for a business to continue to operate water is need in the everyday operation of the business. Hotels use water in swimming pools, golf courses and also water is used by the tourists for personal use. Therefore there is a tendency for shortage of water and generating a greater volume of wastewater.
2.5.1 Energy Utilisation
Hotels use huge volume of water. Tourists staying in a hotel use on average 1/3 more water per day than a local inhabitant. The consumption of energy per m2 per year by one star hotel is 157kwh (380 KWh in a four star hotel) (EEA, 2003). However, the infrastructure is not suitable as it has been designed to cope with peak periods.
2.5.2 The role of the UNWTO, (United Nations World Tourism Organisation) towards the environment
In order to prevent the unfavorable impacts of climate change, the IPCC reports 2007 need 25-40% emission reduction sphere for the Annex 1 Parties (industrialized countries) by 2020, compared to the basis year 1995.
2.5.3 Natural resource depletion
Natural resource depletion, the usage of land change, pollution and the degradation of the environment are the dominant impacts on the environment because of the quick expansion of tourism in many destinations and without appropriate strategies to protect natural-cultural resources from the pressure of tourism Bramwell and Lane, (2010); Davenport and Davenport, (2006); Gössling, (2002); Favro et al., (2010); Kuvan, (2005); Madan and Rawat, (2000). According to Welford et al., (1999) said that sustainable tourism has been fighting with uncontrolled and unplanned tourism and this includes measures to diminish the negative impacts that mass tourism causes such as the destruction of fragile ecosystem and local culture and also the depletion of natural resources.
Society (Ties) which is an ecotourism society argued that ecotourism is people travelling responsibly to areas of nature and they keep the environment clean by being conscious about their act towards the environment and ameliorate the well-being of the local people. With the activity of ecotourism, most of the profits remain in the local economy and it is of a smaller proportion and having low import leakage.
2.5.5 The destination lifecycle
Almost all destinations have a lifecycle. According to the butler model, the basic idea of 1980 is that a destination starts approximately unknown and there is also a limited number of visitors as due to lack of access, facilities, and local knowledge which is labeled as the exploration stage Miller and Gallucci, (2004).
Butler's Tourism Area Lifecycle Model
2.5.6 The 7 stages of tourist development
Exploration: The exploration stage is when only a small number of tourists visit a destination. At this stage, the area remains unspoilt since there are few tourists and the availability of facilities is limited. The destination is deserted and has a sleepy appearance with little or there might be no development. At this stage, a limited number of businesses exist and the provided facilities are owned by the local people.
Involvement: The involvement stage includes local people that start to provide facilities to tourists within the destination and it becomes to be recognized as a tourist destination. In the involvement stage, there is an interaction between the locals and the visitors and this will remain high. Tooman (1996), said that the involvement stage is where tourism does not affect the economy, it can create desirable effects and the benefits goes to the local people be producing linkages, economic diversity, and more time to establish the account to control growth of the tourism sector.
Development: The development stage takes place when the host country starts to make people aware about the destination through advertising and the area starts to be recognized as a tourist destination. At this stage the local people tend to support the effect that tourism bring to their country because it contributes economically, Bramwell (2003).
Consolidation: This is where the destination continues to attract the number of tourists. The growth of tourists' numbers may not be fast as in the other stages as there exists some tensions between the host community and the tourist.
Stagnation: The stagnation stage takes place when the facilities that are provided to tourists start to become old as tourists are bored with the facilities which has been provided long ago. At this stage, the number of tourists in a destination may lead to a decline.
Rejuvenation: Rejuvenation occurs when there is the need for improvement. At this stage, investment and modernization may occur and may result to an increase in visitors' numbers.
Decline: The decline stage occurs when the rejuvenation (stage) has not taken place yet. As a result, people working in the tourism industry lose their jobs and the image of the destination also suffers.
2..5.7 What is culture?
Culture has a specific role in the reconstitution of an urban economy and identity, an expanding literature appears on culture-led regeneration in the cities of the improved world. Regeneration is the complete change of a place that is showing proof of physical, social and economic decline, said Evan (2005). However, culture is said to be an incentive for the regeneration development, although the evaluator articulate the main clashes. Jensen (2007) reported that while culture-led regeneration work try to re-build the urban economy and image, they often offer concern to development goals such as economic, property development and urban entrepreneurialism rather than the kind of life objectives, the safety of local existences, social justice. Hofstede, (2001); Reschner, (1969) reported that culture can progress slowly over time or may modify completely in a short time period due to a fluctuation in technology, modification in values, inclusion by another more commanding culture and calamity of large-scale and area as wars affliction and natural man-made disasters.
Moreover, Richards and Wilson, (2006); Zukin, (1995) reported that cultural heritage is the principal attraction of cities, cultural heritage preserves the cultural values of the place and links people to their assembled memories, they also said that cities have now made a business of culture and cultural places in most cases become more market-oriented because of decreases in the level of public funding, reported Richard, (1996). However, while culture remain an important element for tourism and urban economy, the signification of culture becomes more uncertain. Jensen (2007) defines culture as a way of life, while cultural assets becomes the creation of a place that includes both tangible and intangible qualities. Hence cultural tourism is no more slightly the imaged diminution of high culture artworks such as galleries, theaters and architecture, but is growing for the inclusion of giving visitors the opportunity of drenching off the atmosphere, Galdini, 2007; Richards, 1996).
Reisinger &Turner, (1999) stated that while there is no universally agreed definition of culture, there is no transcultural variable by which culture can completely differentiated and successfully compared. In researching in the image of a destination, nationality is likely to be the key inquiring variable to understand differences in perception among visitors having various cultures, Beerli & Martin, (2004);Â Campo & Garau, 2008;Â Joppe et al., (2001);Â MacKay & Fesenmaier, (1997);Â Mayo & Jarvis, (1981);Â Prayag & Ryan, (2011);Â Ryan & Cave, (2005).Â
Dann (1993, pp 108-109) argued as "tourism is a global phenomenon'' societies in a destination are not anymore in an orderly way and this does not make sense to take into consideration national identification within many societies as many tourist have different nationalities and the country where they have taken birth may not be the same as the country of their nationality. Moreover, culture and identity issues must be taken into account as these are a challenge in offering sustainability in tourism, as regards assuring sustainability in tourism, preserving real culture and identity of people who are living and working at tourism destinations. Additionally, tourism will lead to a disappearance of local identity and values Griswold, (2004);Â Hitchcock, (1999);Â Santos & Buzinde, (2007).
2.5.8 Social Exchange Theory
Blau (1964, p.91) stated that (SET) refers to social exchange as "voluntary actions of individuals that are inspirited by what they expect in returns to bring and usually perform in fact bring from others. (SET) makes partners in a relationship more attached and organizes mutual trust, Moore and Cunningham III, (1999). According to Long, Perdue and Allen (1990) reported that there has been a favorable attitude toward tourism was directly linked to support for growth of the tourist base. SET consists of a psychological and sociological perspective that demonstrates the change and stability as a method of discussed exchanges between people in society. In taking into account of the human social interactions, social exchange theory operates on the belief that individuals are in most cases rational and get into calculations of costs and benefits in social exchanges. This exchange of benefits is also encase in the cultural concept of "guanxi" or relationships among the Chinese people which have affected business relationship for centuries in Asia. Moreover, (SET) forecasts social relationships to be established on each partner's motivational contribution and foreseen earnings. (SET) also says that customers involve themselves in a relationship because they want to achieve something that by themselves they cannot successively achieve. Customers will also affirm whether they want to keep the relationship or to end it.