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Ecotourism was first put forward by the special adviser of IUCN, H · Ceballos Lascurain in1983. It was not only refers to all the natural scenery of the journey, but also emphasized that the scenery should not be lost. Ecotourism, as a new type of tourism has become a hot topic for debate. To understand nature, enjoy nature, protect nature and not destroy the ecological balance is very important. Tourists in natural, authentic, perfect scenery can edify and purify the mind. There are many different benefits and impacts from ecotourism if people use it as a tool to make money or do other things. Because of this, people should raise of public awareness to protect it.
Further more, there are many programs aimed at promoting it, including world organizations and local organizations. “Ecotourism, responsible tourism, jungle tourism and sustainable development have become prevalent concepts since the late 1980s, and ecotourism has experienced arguably the fastest growth of all sub-sectors in the tourism industry. The popularity represents a change in tourist perceptions, increased environmental awareness, and a desire to explore natural environment ( Randall, A. 1987, 55)”
The area this report will focus on is Malaysia, which is one of the countries in Southeast Asia. ”Malaysia’s natural landscape lends itself quite naturally to eco-tourism. Visitors are able to immerse themselves in the many rainforest reserves and well-sign aged parks throughout the country. There is really no better place in the world to experience exotic flora and fauna in their pristine tropical environment, so up close and personal!”(About-Malaysia, n. d)Nearly 75% of Malaysia’s land area is still forest, and about 60% of it that is origin rainforest. In one meeting, Malaysia promised to keep more than 50% rainforests in the world. As one of the diverse countries in the world, Malaysia has at least 15000 species of flowers and 286 species of mammals, etc. In recent years, many developing countries have used the foreign earnings from the ecotourism to protect the rainforest.
Ecotourism is becoming the second important industry for the Malaysian economy. It has been said that Malaysia gains RM655 million per year from ecotourism. Even so, there is still more to be done. People need to know its pros and cons, at the same time; people should have greater awareness of it.
There are so many parks for people to have outdoor activities in rainforest. Main parks are: Gunung Kinabalu, Kuala Selangor Nature Park, Taman Negara Pahang , Endau-Rompin Gunung, Mulu National Park.
Ecotourism is caused by the worsening of environment and the environmental movement development. It also needs public awareness to keep the nature balance. The rainforest in Malaysia is the oldest forest in the world so that need more careless and more notice. More people have no education, which causes them has no consciousness that protect the rainforest. It is reported that “the level of youth awareness based on their educational background and knowledge” (wcyf2009, n.d). As humans, everybody should have the duty to study well and value the ecology. “Malaysia has decided to focus on ecotourism as the future direction in tourism development in order to create greater awareness among the world community on the importance of conserving the natural and cultural heritage, Tourism Minister Leo Michael Toyad said in his written speech in the final day of the International Media and Environment Summit (IMES). (Redorbit, Saturday, 3 December 2005, 09:00 CST) ” which is claimed that government has already paid attention to the ecotourism that is containing rainforest.
Rainforest belongs to everyone, but more and more rainforest are being destroyed by the people who are selfish. According to the survey, 80% of the rainforests belong to the public, but community, personal and corporate owner ship and management in increasing. Therefore, they treat the rainforest random so that there are many rainforest fade away. On the other hand, some rainforest also under the influence of natural forces, such as fire, drought and storm. Even so, it can usually through the ecological system of residual life and rapid resume, which is different place with man-made destruction. To sum up, everyone should gain more awareness about rainforest and make nature more beautiful.
The rainforest in Malaysia is advancing society, economy and environmental issues. It also provides many new chances for the investment and employment so that more people have their own salary and more companies have been run. Furthermore, the development of rainforest keeps the nature balance. Rainforest would gain visitors interesting and enjoyable experiences as well as the opportunity to appreciate the natural environment and watching birds. The natural is very beautiful and pleasant to people’s eyes. People will feel relaxed when they hear the birds singing and see the natural scenery. It not only helps to soil and biological growth, also has the function of regulating climate. Rainforest helps Malaysia develop the economy and raise funds. It appealed to more people’s attention and travel to there to see the natural. (See table 2)Compare with 1986 to 1990, the programs of allocation has a significant increase from 1991 to 1995, which is also a reason for why so many visitors go to Malaysia. Rainforest is good for people healthy and can save more wildlife. “it offers tourists a range of activities in which they may engage to experience and fully appreciate the ecotourism experience such as caving, hiking, jungle trekking, white water rafting, rock climbing, bird watching, diving and river cruising.” (tourism, n. d)Rainforest is a good place for cultivating people’s moral character.
The table ¼ˆ1¼‰is about the development allocation for tourism
Under 50 and 60 Malaysia plans
Preservation of national/historical heritage
Beautification and environmental protection
Cultural product development
Facilities and infrastructure
(www.unescap.org.2010, Mohd Nawayai Yasak, n.d, 85)
Although rainforest has large returns for Malaysia, it still facing many negative impacts—including the people was enforced to leave their homes and their rights are violated. It also causes many environmental hazards. Anything about ecotourism may affect the sustainable development of society. The system of it has financial and political influence. “there is a tension in this relationship because eco-tourism often causes conflict and changes in land-use rights, fails to deliver promises of community-level benefits, damages environments, and has plenty of other social impacts.”(no date, wikipedia)Ecotourism sometimes fail to get the goal of environment protection. Although it survives for small groups, it also causes many pressures on the local environment and need another investment for the base installation. If it has weak infrastructure, the water pollution and air pollution will no ways to solve so that ecotourism also leaves behind rubbish and pollution,
Through the sustainable development of agriculture save rainforest which is becoming a major issue in this world. As people increased awareness, more and more people arrival to Malaysia for a better life. Visitor’s arrivals have steadily increased from 1987 to 2007. (See table 2) “While promoting the natural attractions in the country to tourists, the Malaysian Government also realizes the importance of sustainable tourism and of balancing conservation and development. As such, the Ministry of Tourism, Malaysia, has adopted the National Ecotourism Plan (NEP) to provide policies and guidelines for the conscientious development of ecotourism. ” (tourism, 200810.)In Malaysia, both local and government can put the technology to the local people’s agricultural projects to promoting the sustainable of rainforest. Through the agriculture can avoid completely destroy rainforest, the system of agriculture and forestry can maintain rainforest system, soil and biological diversity to a higher level of ordinary agricultural technology. The agriculture technology can be applied to larger rainforest and years of plants in annually, at the same time, the management and cost may increase, the negative factors may offset the income of diversification and keep the function of rainforest.
The table¼ˆ2¼‰ is about International Arrivals in Malaysia
(Tourism Malaysia website.2010)
In sum up, rainforest in Malaysia is good for the environment, culture, economy and people’s healthy. “Rainforests represent a store of living and breathing renewable natural resources that for eons, by virtue of their richness in both animal and plant species, have contributed a wealth of resources for the survival and well-being of humankind.( rain-tree, 2010/03/20)” Therefore people need more public awareness to protect it and think out more ways to solve the problems about nature balance. Ecotourism is most important part in people’s livelihood. In order to stop pollution, people should deal with it more careful.
(The main parks in Malaysia)
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