The Impact Of Deregulation Of Tourism Tourism Essay

4652 words (19 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

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National security has always been an issue dating back to as early as when man started organizing himself in society. Tourism has become a major pillar of modern-day economies and cultures. This research examines the impact of tourism deregulation or the simplification of government rules and requirements on tourism to national security.

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The study will also cover areas on importation of terrorism through tourism; compare tourism crime and other types of crime and finally investigate the changes in crime rate in countries that deregulate tourism. The resident attitudes towards the impacts of deregulation of tourism on national economy will be explored. Questionnaires and simple random sampling can be methods of data collection from the respondents. The data collected will be analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences. The findings of the study will be presented using pie charts and graphs.

Tourism and security are interrelated and inseparable. The security of the tourists is the primary concern of every host government because of it only where they feel safe that they will spend and visit again. The current economic state of most countries has presented a problem because governments have to come up with ways of raising foreign earnings to raise money to service the national debt and keep the economy afloat. One of the solutions has been to simplify government regulations for the tourism industry to attract more traffic. While this has been successful in most countries, recent evidence has raised questions of what effects lower standards for tourists have on the national security of the host country.

Tourism is a delicate and dynamic industry. Although tourists have specific countries they want to tour based on experience, recommendation or the spirit of adventure, it is worth noting that some tourists have other agendas. It is impossible to know legitimate tourists from people with hidden agendas such as terrorists without the proper legislation. At the same time tourists are usually free to travel to destinations of their choice avoiding destinations associated with risk. It has been observed that the consequences of disastrous events on tourist destinations are spontaneous and adverse. Some of the insecurity concerns include terrorism of any kind where governments issue travel advisories to their citizens to not visit the affected country. A problem presents itself when the tourism has been imported in the guise of tourism, such that terrorists disguise themselves as normal tourists to enter countries. If stringent laws for immigration were to be put in place as they were before, it would be possible to pick the wheat from the chaff.

According to (Zurick, 2006) the concept of security has changed through the decades from one of collective security and common defense to embrace notions of common and cooperative security. Despite the damage done to the concept of collective security because of the United States led invasion of Iraq, the development of common security structures through collective as well as multilateral frameworks such as the United Nations is still an important aspect for the expansion of security concerns to cover a nations environment, health and economic security threats. This research also considers that tourism organizations have little influence on peace and security agendas despite the fact that they are important for tourism. This is particularly at the micro-level whereby appropriate tourism development initiatives may serve as a means to prevent potential future conflict over resource and environmental security challenges.

1.2 Safety, security and destination image

The world has become a global village and the global relationships have become turbulent, this has therefore called for destination marketing organizations which focus their attention in demonstrating that there is safety for tourists. A tourist perception about a particular destination which may be caused by negative publicity is mostly a question of security and safety. Often, this negative publicity may be unrelated to the reality on the ground but it has more than significant effects on the tourism sector and the economy as a unit.

Tourism deregulation impacts on national security can be categorized into positive and negative category based upon economic, socio-cultural, and environmental impacts. According to (Hall, Dallen & Duval 2003), tourism is greatly affected by and affects security. The destination a tourist chooses is determined by how safe he or she knows it be, or has been advised is. Changes in the global security affect tourism greatly. The security concerns affect both tourists and the host country that has to face the fact that not all individuals visiting the country have good intentions.

Responsible tourists take time to investigate the security situation in the countries they intend to visit. Such responsible tourists should be aware of security risks and take precautions to mitigate such effects or avoid them completely. The September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Towers in the United States of America are an epitome of events that can affect the tourist traffic of any country. Terrorist attacks have an impact on travel, leisure industries and tourist destinations. As a consequence more focus and attention has been directed towards tourism safety and security issues than ever before. The impact of deregulation on tourism laws on national security is a matter that cannot be ignored. Recent research is being focused further on the analysis of not only how travel safety can be promoted but also how security concerns may be incorporated in terms of tourism marketing. The management is also being enhanced to enable the industry become more responsive to challenges of security both internal and imported.

Countries with unstable security history tend to be paranoid about security but stable and relatively safe countries have been continuously passing regulation that simplifies the process of obtaining tourist visas. The movement of the tourists is also not restricted or monitored. While this markets the country as place where the privacy of visitors is guaranteed and protected, it also attracts people of questionable character. These individuals might commit crime and abscond, or some might use the stability and anonymity to plan attacks on other countries. The latter situation can create a diplomatic spat which, unchecked, could escalate to war.

Tourism activities can be affected by either external or internal forces; such forces may include war, terrorism activities, economic recessions, disaster, and financial crisis among others. Nations and cities which have experienced terrorist attacks for example New York and Washington faced profound impact on global travel (Blackford, 2004).

The area of security is broad and sensitive and is affected by many things. The relationship between deregulation of tourism and national security can be explored in different perspectives. For example, in examining this relationship the research will look at whether the deregulation of air transport has influenced national security and the tourist destination countries in different nations. Terrorism will also be examined to investigate whether it can be imported in the guise of tourism. It will further examine the impact of deregulation on capacity as well as fares. The study also attempts to determine the impact deregulation has caused on marketing of tourist destinations and attractions. Finally, the research will investigate the impacts of tourism deregulation on transport at the destination areas. The research will also compare tourism crime and other types of crime (Hall, Dallen & Duval 2003).

1.3 Statement of the problem

The tourism industry has grown tremendously and thus every country is trying to gain a competitive advantage in order to market tourism adequately. This has lead to deregulation of tourism to assist raise tourist traffic. This research will seek to identify these impacts in a wider perspective with respect to crimes related to tourism and also seek to explore the rate of crime in countries that deregulate tourism. With globalization becoming embraced internationally the need for national security has been an issue of concern not only in tourism but in other areas as well. This concern is fundamental if nations are to enjoy and promote tourism while protecting the national security by preventing tourism crime, terrorism and other threats to a nations security that could be as a result of tourism deregulation.

Research and experience have evidenced that tourism is a crucial factor that can contribute greatly to the development of a nations economy. It is therefore worth noting that tourism is directly associated and related with the cultural, economic as well as the intellectual potential of any nation. Currently available statistical data indicates that tourism is a leading profit earner in most developing industries in the world and thus the need to protect and uplift it as while not compromising as the national security of a country. It is expected that in the early 21st century the number of tourists will increase dramatically and consequently the revenues from tourism will increase considerably.

The evident threats to national security are not something any country passing legislation to deregulate the market can ignore. The purpose of this research is to identify this threats and the correlation it has with deregulating the tourism sector.

1.4 Research objectives

This study will be focus on achieving the following objectives:

1. To investigate whether terrorism can be imported in the guise of tourism.

2. To investigate whether countries that deregulate tourism experience high crime rate.

3. To investigate the relationship and compare tourism crime and other types of crime.

4. To identify the impacts of airlines deregulation in international areas with respect to tourism.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), tourism is one of the top five foreign exchange earners in approximately 83% of countries and the main foreign exchange earner for at least 38% of countries globally. In most of these countries foreign exchange earnings are usually used to purchase imports and augment reserves. They generate income in the particular country and can stimulate consumer spending and investment in other sectors of the economy. Tourism provides an ideal situation where there is little need to compensate from outside because it grows the local industries and resources. It has ripple effect on the rest of the economy and any country that realizes this need to come up with innovative ways to encourage tourists to visit the country. Some tourists are turned away by stringent laws of immigration or stay and it has become the norm for most countries to deregulate the market.

Tourism is an exciting and fascinating industry. The industrys contribution to the national economy is significant. The major threats to this lucrative industry are socioeconomic problems related to increased level of crime rates and the depletion of resources or sites and events that attract tourists. Similarly, due to the current rise in terrorist activity, it has become a major concern for the natives of the countries being toured. According to Williams (1997) crime is a common social issue which threatens the safety of the people, property, their sense of well being, and also causes entropy to the social order. Crime also reduces peoples quality of life because they are not psychologically at peace and are therefore not able to work as well or as much as they potentially can.(Cracraft, 2000).

In all countries of the world associated with popular destinations, crime has been a major threat to the stability of the economy. In a Newsweek research conducted by Zakaria (2002) tourism safety and security matters raised by allowing tourists in is a major headache for any government. It is evident that crime against tourists or associated with tourism is considerably high in tourist destinations. This research therefore investigates the extent to which crime has an impact in a nations security. It is of importance to analyze the impact of passing legislation that lowers the bar for tourists and whether it has become an avenue for crme and threats to national security.

2.1 Impacts of airline deregulation

According to (Fallon, 2002), nations globally have realized that liberal aviation agreements have significant impact tourism amongst signatory parties. Recently, there has been deregulation of airlines leading to the growth of low-cost carriers and overcapacity in airline industry to bolster tourist numbers. Further deregulation of international air travel has seen the tourism industry grow significantly as simplified requirements to visit countries are major attraction for potential tourists. In addition, governments are encouraging movements towards agreements with country blocks or many nations rather than individual nations to create open skies in different geographic regions. The result of this is that people are able to move across borders with minimal or no paperwork.

For nations to ensure the sustained growth and success of the international airline industry it has become important to adopt aviation policies which are conducive to open skies agreements. This has liberalized air travel beyond existing restraining bilateral among nations. This has a significant impact on tourism as well as other industries, as this facilitates the movement of people around the world. For example the signing of the open skies agreement between the United States and the Philippines deregulated tourism rules. While this is a way of growing the economy, its potential effects on national security are far-reaching. The wanton and indiscriminate hosting of people without adequate paperwork carries with it the risk of encouraging criminal activates.

2.2 Socio-cultural impacts of tourism deregulation on national security

According to (Blackford, 2002) it is a fact that tourism has a big impact on the economy of a nation, its cultures as well as the ecosystems. Despite this it is one of the least regulated industries in globally. This has opened up destination countries further to the influx of foreign earnings and capital. This trend of deregulation favors major international hotel chains and tour operators while at the same time providing the residents of the country to earn from the resources, whether man-made or natural.

Tourism has long been viewed as the reason for the spread of the global mentality. Cultures and social practices are imported as locals learn from visitors. The lack of adequate background checks on tourists, while offering an ideal protection of the visitors privacy poses a problem. The host country is exposed to the risk of allowing individuals of questionable character into the country. Interaction of these individuals with the locals might do more harm than good.

The possible causes of some of the security situations include crime related incidents, terrorism, war, and political unrest or instability. The crime related security incidents may be in different forms such as theft, robbery, rape, murder, piracy and kidnapping. Local residents may commit crimes against residents, tourists against locals, tourist against other tourists, or may take other forms such as organized crimes against tourism enterprises.

A specific environmental issue relates to the increased number of planes traversing the skies has led to greenhouse warming. Airplane contrails generate cirrus clouds, which reflect the suns rays and warm the atmosphere (Zakaria, 2007). As this is mostly the result of new fuel-efficient aircraft, which produce less heat and a cooler mixture of exhaust air conducive to contrail formation, governments should consider the environmental impact of more commercial aircraft in the transatlantic market. This rise is directly proportional to tourist traffic because airlines will tend to increase flights to popular destinations so as to increase their turnover.

2.3 Deregulation of immigration and tourism laws.

It is prudent to note that this research does not in any way imply that attempts to deregulate the market are inn-informed. On the contrary, liberalizing the industry is a crucial step toward achieving the vision of a global village vision and making the world a better place. However, to deregulate without adequately researching on the effects and impacts on national security is ill-advised. It is no secret that every country has enemies or people who would want to cause harm to it. While most of these groups or individuals might not make their intentions known, the methods they use to deliver the punch are criminal at the least. The template is to exploit the weaknesses in the countrys laws and find the opportune moment to strike and send the chilling message.

Giving visas to all and sundry without first checking their backgrounds or requiring adequate and authentic proof of identification might be good for trade, but it is not the least conducive for the security of all affected. Tourists are not required to give detailed schedules of their stays in the countrys they visit and this is the perfect recipe for clandestine operations and activates.

2.4 Importation of terrorism through the guise of tourism

According to Cracraft (1986) tourism is an activity that is sensitive and a nation will react rapidly to crime. Acts of terrorism are always a drawback to tourist destinations because it is followed by negative publicity and a host of travel advisories. This is because terrorism acts often indicate inadequacy of security and safety controls. Recent happenings have shown a disturbing trend where terrorists sneak into countries disguised as terrorists, leave among the locals as they plan their crimes. This worrying trend has created a situation of suspicion of people from certain places perceived to breed terrorists such as Middle East. This blanket stigmatization and the blanket security regulations that follow are saddening. The security concerns and weaknesses exposed can be pre-empted by having adequate laws that tend to pick the wheat from the chaff, instead of being left behind to sort the debris.

2.5The difference between tourism crime and other types of crime

The growth of tourism has always been associated with increases in the level of certain types of crime (Goliath, 2004). The growth of tourism can also be associated with modernization and development which is a source of social instability which leads to criminal behavior. In addition, tourism crimes are often highly publicized, and the subsequent media publicity is a dent on the countrys image. Another consideration is the fact that tourism growth is mostly accompanied by growth in the resident population.

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It is important to distinguish between criminal acts directed towards the tourists and those committed by the tourists there are many factors that make tourists attractive as targets of crime which include. While crime is primarily an illegal attempt to earn a living, tourism crime is mostly premeditated and about more than just earning a days meal. It is about achieving a personal, social, religious or economic obligation either to oneself of to a group. As countries continue to pass laws that simplify the entry and stay of tourists without taking into account the dynamic nature of the human being, it becomes impossible to shield against crimes related to tourists.

Most of the tourists may be usually highly noticeable because of their race, clothing, speech, and even the tendency to carry valuable items such as cameras, backpacks which attract therein criminals.

It is often perceived that tourists are wealthy people and are more likely to be in possession of valuable items.

Tourists are mostly accompanied by tour guides and at times they may be strangers. At times in the destination few people may be aware of their specific activity pattern.

For example the murder of Meredith Kerche in Perugia, Italy has had huge media attention in the United Kingdom. In addition, issues such as drug and tourism, sex tourism as well as other related crime and social disorder among holidaymakers. The high rate of exposure of tourists as targets to criminal activity in some destinations is illustrated by the findings that have seen tourists being stolen of their belongings or property (Schollmeyer, 2003).This social wrongs impact negatively on the national security because negative social behavior such as drug use and sex trade are primary causes of crime.

It has also been observed that criminal activities can as well be committed by the tourists themselves, either against the locals or other tourists. Where certain forms of tourism either foster or entail criminal activities, it is the tourist who is usually seen as the lead player in initiating or engaging in some kind of illegal activity-. The most, obvious example invokes forms of tourism, such as those involving certain types of related activity, which are defined as illegal by destination authorities. While tourism activity may be not completely illegal but a strong criminal association may exist. The best example of this indirect relationship is gambling, given the involvement of organized crime cartels in casino businesses. The influx in tourists to these places might raise the economic might of criminals, emboldening them and causing a general rise in the crime rate of the country. Finally, there are those tourist activities that can degenerate into criminal behavior because of the presence of alcohol, drugs, arguments or stereotypes

2.6 Crime rate in countries that deregulate tourism

It is evident that there is high crime rate in countries that deregulate tourism, for example sex tourism industry has increased all over South East of Asia and Burma (Kristiansen & Trion, 2005) and the crime rates in South Africa during high tourism seasons is evident. In these regions tourists are highly involved in criminal activities and are often associated with several kinds of human rights abuses, and the spread of HIV/AIDS. For example women and juveniles are often coerced to engage in the sex trade against their will. While these crimes are abetted by locals, it is the presence of tourists with ill-intentions that causes the rise.

As observed earlier the impacts of crime on the destination are diverse. Some cases involve crimes related to drug use, whereby the destinations image becomes blotted resulting in significant decline in tourist demand. On the other hand, theft may occur at tourist destinations where the tourists are at the wrong place at the wrong time. In addition, tourists may contribute to this by engaging in illegal activates or getting involved with criminals. (Magenta , 2009, pp56).

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

In order to achieve the research objectives a multi-method approach will be adopted, by use of both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Quantitative methods will focus on providing a broad statistical measure of the nature, extent and impact of deregulation of tourism on national security using a reasonable sample size. In depth and comprehensive qualitative information will be collected on the impacts of deregulation of security on national security, importation of crime through tourism, comparison between tourism crime and other types of crime.

The research will employ questionnaires to collect data from the respondents as one of the data collection tools. Interviews schedules will also be applied to interview the randomly selected sample population.

This chapter presents a description of the procedures and methods that the researcher will use in order to obtain the required data needed for the study. It comprises of research design, data collection instruments, the target population, the sampling strategy, and data analysis methods.

3.2 Research design

The researcher will employ quantitative research method. The quantitative research design to be used will be a causal comparative design. The causal comparative design will allow the researcher to collect one or more information from one participant.

A casual comparative research allows researcher to investigate the possibility of a causal relationship among variables that cannot be manipulated. This research design will be used to establish the factors that influence employee training.

3.3 Target population

The target population will involve the immigration departments, tourists and locals of the target country.

3.4 Sampling strategy

Simple random sampling techniques will be the data collection methods from the various departments. The employees will be randomly selected from each department to yield the total sample population.

Purposive sampling will be used to select employees who are trained. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique that allows a researcher to use cases that have the required information with respect to the objectives of the study.

3.5 Data collection tools and instruments.

The researcher intends to use questionnaires in this study. This is to provide high accuracy and validity of the study. The questionnaire is a convenient tool especially where there are a large number of subjects to be handled. The questionnaire facilitates easy and quick derivation of information within a short time. The information obtained will enable to investigate the impacts of deregulation of tourism on the national security.

3.6.1. T-test

T-test will be used to test whether there are significant differences between two mean derived from the samples of groups at a specified probability level.

3.6.2 Chi-square

Chi-square is a statistical technique which attempts to establish the relationship between two variables both of which are categorical in nature. The technique compares the proportion observed in each category with what would be expected under the assumptions of independence between the two variables.

CHAPTER FOUR

DISSECTION

4.1 Data analysis

The researcher will establish whether all questionnaires are all completed. Data collected from open ended and closed questions will be coded for analysis purpose.

Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used in data analysis. The data will be analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS).

The descriptive statistics which will be used in analysis includes means, frequencies, percentages and standard deviation.

The inferential statistics that will be used in data analysis will be chi-square and T-test for independent samples.

4.2 Expected results

It is expected that this research will yield results that show an upsurge in crime levels in countries that have liberalized tourism industry. In some countries with more stringent practices and therefore less tourism traffic, it is obvious that the crimes related with tourism will be less. This is a wake-up call to all legislators to take necessary precaution when passing laws that deregulate the market and give the players a free-hand to do what they want. National security should take priority over economic gain.

National security has always been an issue dating back to as early as when man started organizing himself in society. Tourism has become a major pillar of modern-day economies and cultures. This research examines the impact of tourism deregulation or the simplification of government rules and requirements on tourism to national security.

The study will also cover areas on importation of terrorism through tourism; compare tourism crime and other types of crime and finally investigate the changes in crime rate in countries that deregulate tourism. The resident attitudes towards the impacts of deregulation of tourism on national economy will be explored. Questionnaires and simple random sampling can be methods of data collection from the respondents. The data collected will be analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences. The findings of the study will be presented using pie charts and graphs.

Tourism and security are interrelated and inseparable. The security of the tourists is the primary concern of every host government because of it only where they feel safe that they will spend and visit again. The current economic state of most countries has presented a problem because governments have to come up with ways of raising foreign earnings to raise money to service the national debt and keep the economy afloat. One of the solutions has been to simplify government regulations for the tourism industry to attract more traffic. While this has been successful in most countries, recent evidence has raised questions of what effects lower standards for tourists have on the national security of the host country.

Tourism is a delicate and dynamic industry. Although tourists have specific countries they want to tour based on experience, recommendation or the spirit of adventure, it is worth noting that some tourists have other agendas. It is impossible to know legitimate tourists from people with hidden agendas such as terrorists without the proper legislation. At the same time tourists are usually free to travel to destinations of their choice avoiding destinations associated with risk. It has been observed that the consequences of disastrous events on tourist destinations are spontaneous and adverse. Some of the insecurity concerns include terrorism of any kind where governments issue travel advisories to their citizens to not visit the affected country. A problem presents itself when the tourism has been imported in the guise of tourism, such that terrorists disguise themselves as normal tourists to enter countries. If stringent laws for immigration were to be put in place as they were before, it would be possible to pick the wheat from the chaff.

According to (Zurick, 2006) the concept of security has changed through the decades from one of collective security and common defense to embrace notions of common and cooperative security. Despite the damage done to the concept of collective security because of the United States led invasion of Iraq, the development of common security structures through collective as well as multilateral frameworks such as the United Nations is still an important aspect for the expansion of security concerns to cover a nations environment, health and economic security threats. This research also considers that tourism organizations have little influence on peace and security agendas despite the fact that they are important for tourism. This is particularly at the micro-level whereby appropriate tourism development initiatives may serve as a means to prevent potential future conflict over resource and environmental security challenges.

1.2 Safety, security and destination image

The world has become a global village and the global relationships have become turbulent, this has therefore called for destination marketing organizations which focus their attention in demonstrating that there is safety for tourists. A tourist perception about a particular destination which may be caused by negative publicity is mostly a question of security and safety. Often, this negative publicity may be unrelated to the reality on the ground but it has more than significant effects on the tourism sector and the economy as a unit.

Tourism deregulation impacts on national security can be categorized into positive and negative category based upon economic, socio-cultural, and environmental impacts. According to (Hall, Dallen & Duval 2003), tourism is greatly affected by and affects security. The destination a tourist chooses is determined by how safe he or she knows it be, or has been advised is. Changes in the global security affect tourism greatly. The security concerns affect both tourists and the host country that has to face the fact that not all individuals visiting the country have good intentions.

Responsible tourists take time to investigate the security situation in the countries they intend to visit. Such responsible tourists should be aware of security risks and take precautions to mitigate such effects or avoid them completely. The September 11th terrorist attacks on the World Trade Towers in the United States of America are an epitome of events that can affect the tourist traffic of any country. Terrorist attacks have an impact on travel, leisure industries and tourist destinations. As a consequence more focus and attention has been directed towards tourism safety and security issues than ever before. The impact of deregulation on tourism laws on national security is a matter that cannot be ignored. Recent research is being focused further on the analysis of not only how travel safety can be promoted but also how security concerns may be incorporated in terms of tourism marketing. The management is also being enhanced to enable the industry become more responsive to challenges of security both internal and imported.

Countries with unstable security history tend to be paranoid about security but stable and relatively safe countries have been continuously passing regulation that simplifies the process of obtaining tourist visas. The movement of the tourists is also not restricted or monitored. While this markets the country as place where the privacy of visitors is guaranteed and protected, it also attracts people of questionable character. These individuals might commit crime and abscond, or some might use the stability and anonymity to plan attacks on other countries. The latter situation can create a diplomatic spat which, unchecked, could escalate to war.

Tourism activities can be affected by either external or internal forces; such forces may include war, terrorism activities, economic recessions, disaster, and financial crisis among others. Nations and cities which have experienced terrorist attacks for example New York and Washington faced profound impact on global travel (Blackford, 2004).

The area of security is broad and sensitive and is affected by many things. The relationship between deregulation of tourism and national security can be explored in different perspectives. For example, in examining this relationship the research will look at whether the deregulation of air transport has influenced national security and the tourist destination countries in different nations. Terrorism will also be examined to investigate whether it can be imported in the guise of tourism. It will further examine the impact of deregulation on capacity as well as fares. The study also attempts to determine the impact deregulation has caused on marketing of tourist destinations and attractions. Finally, the research will investigate the impacts of tourism deregulation on transport at the destination areas. The research will also compare tourism crime and other types of crime (Hall, Dallen & Duval 2003).

1.3 Statement of the problem

The tourism industry has grown tremendously and thus every country is trying to gain a competitive advantage in order to market tourism adequately. This has lead to deregulation of tourism to assist raise tourist traffic. This research will seek to identify these impacts in a wider perspective with respect to crimes related to tourism and also seek to explore the rate of crime in countries that deregulate tourism. With globalization becoming embraced internationally the need for national security has been an issue of concern not only in tourism but in other areas as well. This concern is fundamental if nations are to enjoy and promote tourism while protecting the national security by preventing tourism crime, terrorism and other threats to a nations security that could be as a result of tourism deregulation.

Research and experience have evidenced that tourism is a crucial factor that can contribute greatly to the development of a nations economy. It is therefore worth noting that tourism is directly associated and related with the cultural, economic as well as the intellectual potential of any nation. Currently available statistical data indicates that tourism is a leading profit earner in most developing industries in the world and thus the need to protect and uplift it as while not compromising as the national security of a country. It is expected that in the early 21st century the number of tourists will increase dramatically and consequently the revenues from tourism will increase considerably.

The evident threats to national security are not something any country passing legislation to deregulate the market can ignore. The purpose of this research is to identify this threats and the correlation it has with deregulating the tourism sector.

1.4 Research objectives

This study will be focus on achieving the following objectives:

1. To investigate whether terrorism can be imported in the guise of tourism.

2. To investigate whether countries that deregulate tourism experience high crime rate.

3. To investigate the relationship and compare tourism crime and other types of crime.

4. To identify the impacts of airlines deregulation in international areas with respect to tourism.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), tourism is one of the top five foreign exchange earners in approximately 83% of countries and the main foreign exchange earner for at least 38% of countries globally. In most of these countries foreign exchange earnings are usually used to purchase imports and augment reserves. They generate income in the particular country and can stimulate consumer spending and investment in other sectors of the economy. Tourism provides an ideal situation where there is little need to compensate from outside because it grows the local industries and resources. It has ripple effect on the rest of the economy and any country that realizes this need to come up with innovative ways to encourage tourists to visit the country. Some tourists are turned away by stringent laws of immigration or stay and it has become the norm for most countries to deregulate the market.

Tourism is an exciting and fascinating industry. The industrys contribution to the national economy is significant. The major threats to this lucrative industry are socioeconomic problems related to increased level of crime rates and the depletion of resources or sites and events that attract tourists. Similarly, due to the current rise in terrorist activity, it has become a major concern for the natives of the countries being toured. According to Williams (1997) crime is a common social issue which threatens the safety of the people, property, their sense of well being, and also causes entropy to the social order. Crime also reduces peoples quality of life because they are not psychologically at peace and are therefore not able to work as well or as much as they potentially can.(Cracraft, 2000).

In all countries of the world associated with popular destinations, crime has been a major threat to the stability of the economy. In a Newsweek research conducted by Zakaria (2002) tourism safety and security matters raised by allowing tourists in is a major headache for any government. It is evident that crime against tourists or associated with tourism is considerably high in tourist destinations. This research therefore investigates the extent to which crime has an impact in a nations security. It is of importance to analyze the impact of passing legislation that lowers the bar for tourists and whether it has become an avenue for crme and threats to national security.

2.1 Impacts of airline deregulation

According to (Fallon, 2002), nations globally have realized that liberal aviation agreements have significant impact tourism amongst signatory parties. Recently, there has been deregulation of airlines leading to the growth of low-cost carriers and overcapacity in airline industry to bolster tourist numbers. Further deregulation of international air travel has seen the tourism industry grow significantly as simplified requirements to visit countries are major attraction for potential tourists. In addition, governments are encouraging movements towards agreements with country blocks or many nations rather than individual nations to create open skies in different geographic regions. The result of this is that people are able to move across borders with minimal or no paperwork.

For nations to ensure the sustained growth and success of the international airline industry it has become important to adopt aviation policies which are conducive to open skies agreements. This has liberalized air travel beyond existing restraining bilateral among nations. This has a significant impact on tourism as well as other industries, as this facilitates the movement of people around the world. For example the signing of the open skies agreement between the United States and the Philippines deregulated tourism rules. While this is a way of growing the economy, its potential effects on national security are far-reaching. The wanton and indiscriminate hosting of people without adequate paperwork carries with it the risk of encouraging criminal activates.

2.2 Socio-cultural impacts of tourism deregulation on national security

According to (Blackford, 2002) it is a fact that tourism has a big impact on the economy of a nation, its cultures as well as the ecosystems. Despite this it is one of the least regulated industries in globally. This has opened up destination countries further to the influx of foreign earnings and capital. This trend of deregulation favors major international hotel chains and tour operators while at the same time providing the residents of the country to earn from the resources, whether man-made or natural.

Tourism has long been viewed as the reason for the spread of the global mentality. Cultures and social practices are imported as locals learn from visitors. The lack of adequate background checks on tourists, while offering an ideal protection of the visitors privacy poses a problem. The host country is exposed to the risk of allowing individuals of questionable character into the country. Interaction of these individuals with the locals might do more harm than good.

The possible causes of some of the security situations include crime related incidents, terrorism, war, and political unrest or instability. The crime related security incidents may be in different forms such as theft, robbery, rape, murder, piracy and kidnapping. Local residents may commit crimes against residents, tourists against locals, tourist against other tourists, or may take other forms such as organized crimes against tourism enterprises.

A specific environmental issue relates to the increased number of planes traversing the skies has led to greenhouse warming. Airplane contrails generate cirrus clouds, which reflect the suns rays and warm the atmosphere (Zakaria, 2007). As this is mostly the result of new fuel-efficient aircraft, which produce less heat and a cooler mixture of exhaust air conducive to contrail formation, governments should consider the environmental impact of more commercial aircraft in the transatlantic market. This rise is directly proportional to tourist traffic because airlines will tend to increase flights to popular destinations so as to increase their turnover.

2.3 Deregulation of immigration and tourism laws.

It is prudent to note that this research does not in any way imply that attempts to deregulate the market are inn-informed. On the contrary, liberalizing the industry is a crucial step toward achieving the vision of a global village vision and making the world a better place. However, to deregulate without adequately researching on the effects and impacts on national security is ill-advised. It is no secret that every country has enemies or people who would want to cause harm to it. While most of these groups or individuals might not make their intentions known, the methods they use to deliver the punch are criminal at the least. The template is to exploit the weaknesses in the countrys laws and find the opportune moment to strike and send the chilling message.

Giving visas to all and sundry without first checking their backgrounds or requiring adequate and authentic proof of identification might be good for trade, but it is not the least conducive for the security of all affected. Tourists are not required to give detailed schedules of their stays in the countrys they visit and this is the perfect recipe for clandestine operations and activates.

2.4 Importation of terrorism through the guise of tourism

According to Cracraft (1986) tourism is an activity that is sensitive and a nation will react rapidly to crime. Acts of terrorism are always a drawback to tourist destinations because it is followed by negative publicity and a host of travel advisories. This is because terrorism acts often indicate inadequacy of security and safety controls. Recent happenings have shown a disturbing trend where terrorists sneak into countries disguised as terrorists, leave among the locals as they plan their crimes. This worrying trend has created a situation of suspicion of people from certain places perceived to breed terrorists such as Middle East. This blanket stigmatization and the blanket security regulations that follow are saddening. The security concerns and weaknesses exposed can be pre-empted by having adequate laws that tend to pick the wheat from the chaff, instead of being left behind to sort the debris.

2.5The difference between tourism crime and other types of crime

The growth of tourism has always been associated with increases in the level of certain types of crime (Goliath, 2004). The growth of tourism can also be associated with modernization and development which is a source of social instability which leads to criminal behavior. In addition, tourism crimes are often highly publicized, and the subsequent media publicity is a dent on the countrys image. Another consideration is the fact that tourism growth is mostly accompanied by growth in the resident population.

It is important to distinguish between criminal acts directed towards the tourists and those committed by the tourists there are many factors that make tourists attractive as targets of crime which include. While crime is primarily an illegal attempt to earn a living, tourism crime is mostly premeditated and about more than just earning a days meal. It is about achieving a personal, social, religious or economic obligation either to oneself of to a group. As countries continue to pass laws that simplify the entry and stay of tourists without taking into account the dynamic nature of the human being, it becomes impossible to shield against crimes related to tourists.

Most of the tourists may be usually highly noticeable because of their race, clothing, speech, and even the tendency to carry valuable items such as cameras, backpacks which attract therein criminals.

It is often perceived that tourists are wealthy people and are more likely to be in possession of valuable items.

Tourists are mostly accompanied by tour guides and at times they may be strangers. At times in the destination few people may be aware of their specific activity pattern.

For example the murder of Meredith Kerche in Perugia, Italy has had huge media attention in the United Kingdom. In addition, issues such as drug and tourism, sex tourism as well as other related crime and social disorder among holidaymakers. The high rate of exposure of tourists as targets to criminal activity in some destinations is illustrated by the findings that have seen tourists being stolen of their belongings or property (Schollmeyer, 2003).This social wrongs impact negatively on the national security because negative social behavior such as drug use and sex trade are primary causes of crime.

It has also been observed that criminal activities can as well be committed by the tourists themselves, either against the locals or other tourists. Where certain forms of tourism either foster or entail criminal activities, it is the tourist who is usually seen as the lead player in initiating or engaging in some kind of illegal activity-. The most, obvious example invokes forms of tourism, such as those involving certain types of related activity, which are defined as illegal by destination authorities. While tourism activity may be not completely illegal but a strong criminal association may exist. The best example of this indirect relationship is gambling, given the involvement of organized crime cartels in casino businesses. The influx in tourists to these places might raise the economic might of criminals, emboldening them and causing a general rise in the crime rate of the country. Finally, there are those tourist activities that can degenerate into criminal behavior because of the presence of alcohol, drugs, arguments or stereotypes

2.6 Crime rate in countries that deregulate tourism

It is evident that there is high crime rate in countries that deregulate tourism, for example sex tourism industry has increased all over South East of Asia and Burma (Kristiansen & Trion, 2005) and the crime rates in South Africa during high tourism seasons is evident. In these regions tourists are highly involved in criminal activities and are often associated with several kinds of human rights abuses, and the spread of HIV/AIDS. For example women and juveniles are often coerced to engage in the sex trade against their will. While these crimes are abetted by locals, it is the presence of tourists with ill-intentions that causes the rise.

As observed earlier the impacts of crime on the destination are diverse. Some cases involve crimes related to drug use, whereby the destinations image becomes blotted resulting in significant decline in tourist demand. On the other hand, theft may occur at tourist destinations where the tourists are at the wrong place at the wrong time. In addition, tourists may contribute to this by engaging in illegal activates or getting involved with criminals. (Magenta , 2009, pp56).

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

In order to achieve the research objectives a multi-method approach will be adopted, by use of both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Quantitative methods will focus on providing a broad statistical measure of the nature, extent and impact of deregulation of tourism on national security using a reasonable sample size. In depth and comprehensive qualitative information will be collected on the impacts of deregulation of security on national security, importation of crime through tourism, comparison between tourism crime and other types of crime.

The research will employ questionnaires to collect data from the respondents as one of the data collection tools. Interviews schedules will also be applied to interview the randomly selected sample population.

This chapter presents a description of the procedures and methods that the researcher will use in order to obtain the required data needed for the study. It comprises of research design, data collection instruments, the target population, the sampling strategy, and data analysis methods.

3.2 Research design

The researcher will employ quantitative research method. The quantitative research design to be used will be a causal comparative design. The causal comparative design will allow the researcher to collect one or more information from one participant.

A casual comparative research allows researcher to investigate the possibility of a causal relationship among variables that cannot be manipulated. This research design will be used to establish the factors that influence employee training.

3.3 Target population

The target population will involve the immigration departments, tourists and locals of the target country.

3.4 Sampling strategy

Simple random sampling techniques will be the data collection methods from the various departments. The employees will be randomly selected from each department to yield the total sample population.

Purposive sampling will be used to select employees who are trained. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique that allows a researcher to use cases that have the required information with respect to the objectives of the study.

3.5 Data collection tools and instruments.

The researcher intends to use questionnaires in this study. This is to provide high accuracy and validity of the study. The questionnaire is a convenient tool especially where there are a large number of subjects to be handled. The questionnaire facilitates easy and quick derivation of information within a short time. The information obtained will enable to investigate the impacts of deregulation of tourism on the national security.

3.6.1. T-test

T-test will be used to test whether there are significant differences between two mean derived from the samples of groups at a specified probability level.

3.6.2 Chi-square

Chi-square is a statistical technique which attempts to establish the relationship between two variables both of which are categorical in nature. The technique compares the proportion observed in each category with what would be expected under the assumptions of independence between the two variables.

CHAPTER FOUR

DISSECTION

4.1 Data analysis

The researcher will establish whether all questionnaires are all completed. Data collected from open ended and closed questions will be coded for analysis purpose.

Descriptive and inferential statistics will be used in data analysis. The data will be analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS).

The descriptive statistics which will be used in analysis includes means, frequencies, percentages and standard deviation.

The inferential statistics that will be used in data analysis will be chi-square and T-test for independent samples.

4.2 Expected results

It is expected that this research will yield results that show an upsurge in crime levels in countries that have liberalized tourism industry. In some countries with more stringent practices and therefore less tourism traffic, it is obvious that the crimes related with tourism will be less. This is a wake-up call to all legislators to take necessary precaution when passing laws that deregulate the market and give the players a free-hand to do what they want. National security should take priority over economic gain.

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