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Currently, most tourism trends are considerable of green mode tourism market as seen the declined of mass-tourism line in many countries. The form of healthier tour influenced tourist who has personal interests of tour activities such as sport, recreation, adventure and nature conservation.
Worldwide acceptability as Tourism is one of many Industries which is non-polluting Industry and continue rapidly growth. Numerous countries perceive to majority income, therefore Tourism Industry generate job to the destination
At the same time, the more tourism growth is the more anxious of negative impact to the host country.
Over the past decade or so, tourism form as Mass tourism”or Traditional Tourism” which emphasize a large group of tourist several countries particular in developing country mass tourism is being extremely promoted. However, It was realized that mass tourism become the main majority social and environmental effected meanwhile, the kind of mass tourism not rather contribute a full measure of ecomomic as its convinced.
In United Nations Foundation Report 2002 stated that ¿½Resposible tourism is the job of everyone involved governments, local authorities, the tourist industry and tourisms themselves (2001, p.12)
To mend an effect from mass tourism, many research has commence as an appropriate alternative tourism model and hilight to responsible to the host country.
New form of tourism appear as Eco-toursim, Soft Tourism, Green Tourism,Responsible tourism, Motivated Tourism, Conservative Tourism etc,. entirely mean of Alternative Tourism.
Bicycle tourism proposed the possible for alternative which is can be applies to encourage destination sustainable economic development.
Although much research has been implement into application of bicycle tourism with in country, just few research in Thailand about their feasibility can be applies in big city as Bangkok Metropolis where contain of tourist attraction.
Tourism Authority Of Thailand (Marketing Plan 2009)
Currently promoting tourism as a main marketing plan in the same previous slogan of Amazing Thailand” additional of Seven Wonders of Amazing Thailand” in oversea market. One of theme call Nature The Beauty of Natural Wonders” which present green tourism mode to perceive of environmental value and enegy conservation in the forms of Seven Green” and bicycle tour is in mode of green logistices hilight on tourism activities using environment friendly transport.
According to TAT informationâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦à¸™à¸³à¸‚à¹‰à¸à¸¡à¸¹à¸¥à¸‚à¸à¸‡à¸à¸²à¸£à¸-à¹ˆà¸à¸‡à¹€à¸-à¸µà¹ˆà¸¢à¸à¹€à¸à¸µà¹ˆà¸¢à¸à¸à¸±à¸šsprot and recreation à¹ƒà¸™à¸-à¸µà¹ˆà¸•à¹ˆà¸²à¸‡à¹† à¹€à¸à¸µà¹ˆà¸¢à¸à¸à¸±à¸šà¸à¸²à¸£à¸‚à¸µà¹ˆà¸ˆà¸±à¸à¸£à¸¢à¸²à¸™It is obvious that Bicycle Tourism in Thailand have encourage just rural areas while rarely in big city as Bangkok.
In order to drive a significant of bicycle tourism to be use as an alternative and indicate or influence steakholder to better understand. This project would insist upon base on the fact of domestic cyclist and bicycle tourist demand in services providing to use as a guideline
The research was undertaken to analyses cyclist perception and motivation, developed demand model of cycling travellers in Bangkok destination. The purpose of study was to indicate the cycle tour market is significant to encourage sustainable tourism development. The key objectives of this research were:
1. To highlight cycling tour advantages when development and applies to local communities.
2. To indicate significant cycling tour for sustainable tourism.
3. To encourage and motivate to tour organization promote cycling tour as an alternative tourism.
4. To assist or guide government to implement cycling for the perfect alternative tour in Bangkok.
5. To indicate the bicycle tourism market is a potential trend to applies in order to assist green mode tourism.
6. To indicate and evaluate if the cycling tourist demand meets the services provide.
2. Literature Review
The Alternative Tourism
Alternative Tourism has widely define as : à¸«à¸²à¸„à¸³à¸ˆà¸³à¸à¸±à¸”à¸„à¸à¸²à¸¡ à¸à¹‰à¸²à¸‡2-3 à¸„à¸™
As described in Eadington & Smith (1992, p. 75), Richard (2002) presents Alternative Tourism as:
Alternative tourism define as tourism that is consistent with natural, social and community value, which allows hosts and guests to enjoy worthwhile interactions and shared experiences.
Richard S. & David T. J. 2002, Tourism Development Concept and Issue, Aspects of Tourism, Cambrian Printers Ltd., Great Britain.
Ateljecvic, I. & Doorne, S. (2000). Staying Within the Fence: Lifestyle Entrepreneurship in Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(5),pp378-92.
Alternative tourism concept would supervise for environment from stakeholders such tourists, tour agents and local host. On the other hand, these tourism form will also custody of environment, culture heritage and local livelihood in the destination.
Awang, Hassan & Zahari ‘s study(cited in Ateljevic & Doorne 2000) Most important of all, Alternative tourism is the significant form which focus on a tiny group of tourists and countryside visit more than urban.
The hilight on Alternative Tourism as the gist of how the tourist choose what they really attend whether travel places, accommodations, tour agents including every travel activities in the tourism line.
The Bicycle Tourism defined as:
Several issue of bicycle term but rarely denote bicycle as a part of tourism, however Sustrans (1999, p.1) has defined bicycle tourism as:
Recreational visits, either overnight or day visit away from home, which involve leisure cycling as a fundamental and significant part of the visit.
Wen & Li (2003) defined bicycle tourism as ‘ a positive activity, which includeds both transportation and recreation experiences.
Wen,H.C., Li,H.C.2003, A strategic study of bicycle tourism in Taiwan, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for transportation Studies, vol.5, October, pp.1675-1683.
Ritchie outlines the tourism activity using bicycle tour has more significant mode of vacation or holiday transport (1998).
Bicycling is the form of non-polluting activities and people ride bicycles for a widely purposes such as recreation, personal business or even for work.
Ritchie,B.W. (1998). Bicycle tourism in the South Island of New Zealand: Planning and management issues. Vol.19, no.6, pp.567-582
To classify the bicycle tourism Faulks, Ritchie & Fluker (2006) agreed that to identify bicycle tourism in order to present the size and scope of cycle tourism thus, the definition will base on activity and the use of a bicycle on holiday. The different sectors were Touring, Community cycling events, Competition and Mountain Biking.
Faulks P., Ritchie B. & Fluker M.(2006). Cycle Tourism in Australia: An investigation into its size and scope. Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, Australia.
Types of bicycle tourism can be classified to three main types (Sustrans 1999)as following:
A.Cycling Holidays, the definition base on the main purpose of cycling holiday visit both domestic and overseas.Cyclist may organised trip using tour operator or self-organised with short and long period(Sustrans 1999,p.1).
B. Holiday Cycling, the definition differ from above, the Holiday cycling mean of traveller selected cycling as one of travel activities on holiday(Sustrans 1999,p.1)
C.Cycling Day Visits defined as making short trip ride from one place to another as a leisure and residences were most commonly.
Therefore, Central government promoting cycling as a choice of tour activities with provides services to meet tourist demand, Stakeholders wills benefits.
The Bicycle Tourist definition
Many researchs have been defined bicycle tourist in different ways however, They has been introduced the definition by Richie(1998, pp.568-569) as:
A person who is away from their hometown or country for a period not less than 24 hours or on night, for the purpose of a vacation or holiday, and for whom using a bicycle as a mode of transport during this time away is an integral part of their holiday or vacation. This vacation may be independently organised or part of a commercial tour and may include the use of transport support services and any type of formal and/or informal accommodation.
2.2 The Development of Bicycle Tourism
2.3 The Demand For Bicycle Tourism
– Requirements of Bicycle Tourists both demestic and international
2.4 The Domestic Bicycle Tourism
Tourism Authority of Thailand presents the bicycle tourism in the mode of Eco-tourism activities and shows that bicycle tour has available in Bangkok for instance, The Grand Palace areas and provide informations of another bicycle trip in various areas .( Tourism Authority of Thailand 2010). According to informations it is obvious that bicycle tourism has set in tourism market plan and it is probable that the potentials of an alternative tourism development in Bangkok.
Tourism Authority of Thailand 2010, Colorful Thailand:Ecotourism, viewed 20 December 2010,
-Bicycle tour organisation
It is primarily found that many tour agents in Thailand but few significant with cycling tour market, furthermore,observed that bicycle tourism perform an act of charity or member club.
Bangkok Hash House Biker one of mountain biking club presents the event in occasionally and arrange trip once a month for rider.( Bangkok Hash House Biker 2009)http://www.bangkokbikehash.org/AboutUs.html
Tour de Thailand presents as a fully supported charity bike ride from North to South of Thailand http://www.bangkokbikehash.org/AboutUs.html
-Supple for bicycle tourism
2.5 The Motivation of Bicycle Tourist
As previous researched Lamont found that the attracting destination for independent bicycle tourists were the regions ability of cycling support provided such as a potential of cycling infrastructure, magnificent scenery, aiding service for industries and accessibility (Lamont 2008).
Lamont J.M.2008, ‘Wheels of change: a model of whole tourism systems for independent bicycle turism, Proceedings of Re-creating tourism: New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Hanmer Springs, New Zealand, 3-5 December, Lincoln University, Christchurch,pp.1-22.viewed 22 December 2010,< http://epubs.scu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1149&context=tourism_pubs>.
Furthermore, to originate ardor use of bicycle tourism sufficiently, the host must be supplement such a promotional, marketing and widely information and events of cycling provided (Pucher & buehler 2009)
Pucher J.& Buehler R.2009, ‘Cycling for a Few or for Everyone:The Importantce of Social Justice in Cycling Policy,Wolrd Transport Policy & Practice, vol.15, no.1, pp.57-64,viewed 22 December 2010, < http://policy.rutgers.edu/faculty/pucher/CyclingEveryoneWTPP.pdf>.
Sustainable Development definition:
The methodology for this research has been selected in order to obtain data and generalize about the development area of bicycle tourism in Bangkok Metropolis.
Type of research
The principal purpose of this study is to gain primary information about significant bicycle tourism in order to purpose guidance for bicycle tourism development more efficiently.
To investigate the main purpose of study an exploratory will be applies. McKenzie & Danforth (2009,p.43) state ‘ exploratory research, preliminary research conducted to increase understantding of concept, to clarify the exact nature of the problem to be solved or to identify important variables to be studied.
McKenzie K.& Danforth S. 2009, ‘Problem Definition, Exploratory Research, and the Research Process.A Marketing Research Proposal. St.George, viewed 22 December 2010,< http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/86/EHEP0001/EHEP000186-2.pdf>.
The quantitative and qualitative will be used to achieve the objectives of the research.
The quantitative data collection comprise with opened-ended and closed-ended questionnaire will applies into two way. Firstly, the self-completing will design for the online monkey survey will design for a people who yearn for bicycle tourists, or who have undertake cycling as a tour activities previously in order to investigate people with an interest in cycling tour more importantly, the online survey will be logical drive to obtain data both domestic and abroad. The questionnaire will be contribute towards Tourism Authority of Thailand website to assure the survey outcome realibility.
Secondly,questionnaire in the same pattern will be conducted with holiday cycling tourist in the visiting area.
The qualitative collection, interviews will carried out with Bangkok Bicycle Club member in order to investigate whether the cyclist requirement meet the demand.
3.3 Sampling Design
The sample from entire population has been selected therefore, to attain the intensity of study purpose.
Sample is a unit of target extracted from a population and aim to be representative of that population(OECD 2003).
OSCD 2003, Sample Design,Business Tendency Survey Handbook STATISTICS DIRECTORATE, viewed 23 December 2010,< http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/53/33659904.pdf>
The Quota Sampling design as Survey Monkey online questionnaire in order to gathering primary data from bicycle rider through internal and external. According to OECD:
A quota samples is one in which in which each strata identified in the target universe is represented by a specified number (a quota) of respondents. Quota samples are also described as representative samples” because the selection of a quota of respondents from each stratum is intended to guarantee that the sample represents, or mirrors”, the target universe. Quota samples are also widely used in political opinion polls and consumer opinion surveys (2003,p.2).
The Purposive Sampling will be used in order to gathering secondary data in form of cyclist perspective from Bangkok Bicycle Club.
As decriped in Teddlie & Yu(2007,p.80),Tashakkori & Teddlie(2003) presents ¿½purposive sampling techniques involve selecting certain units or cases ¿½based on a speci¬c purpose rather than randomly
Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (Eds.). (2003a). Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Teddlie C.& Yu F.2007, ‘ Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology With Examples, Mixed Methods Research, vol.1, no.77, pp.77-100, viewed 23 December 2010,< http://wtgrantmixedmethods.com/pdf_files/Teddlie%20and%20Yu_2007.pdf>
Sampling size will be composed of 100 questionnaires created for bike rider, who online search for sport activities in Thailand destination.
While interview survey technique will be conducted with the sample population among 10-15 interviwees with in Bangkok Bicycle Club representatives.
3.4 Questionnaire Survey
3.6 Interview Survey
The semi-structured interview will be use
Contribution of The Study
It is expected that the key finding of this project will be guide and evaluate significant of current bicycle tourism sector therefore, to the better understand of all steakholder to be used for as an alternative tourism development in Bangkok Metropolis.
The author would like to acknowledge the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Center(STCRC) for funding a supplementary scholarship, and the Australian Regional Tourism Research Centre for the provision of resouces used in this research. Finally, the publishers of Australian Cyclist magazine are sincerely thanked for their generous assistance.
1.Thailandtourism Sport & Recreation: Biking
2. Thailand tourism plan 2552
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