Management can be generally defined as a art and science of getting the things done from others. The previous definition explains that a manager plans and guides a particular work which is done by other people. In this assignment I will be discussing about different strategic management process. Strategic management process is one of the very important management process which are been used by different organisation’s.
Strategy :- Strategy are the resources used by the managers to achieve long term objectives. In simple term, strategies are the idea’s which are been used by the management.
Strategic management :– Strategic management is a conduct of drafting, implementing and evaluating cross functional decisions in enabling to achieve its long term objectives.
There are different types of process involved in strategic management :-
Marketing is accepted globally as a life blood of any organisation. In this analysis I felt that strategic management is at the same level as marketing which decides the future and prosperity of an organisation. Practicing the management of strategies is very crucial in the competitive world. Successful managers will have to know their business market situation and position and to implement the strategies when required. I kept these objectives in mind and invented some management qualities in myself while doing a research on this topic. I feel that I need more knowledge of the management practices. So in my research on strategic management I had a good understanding of strategic management and practices.
Basically the concept of strategic management closely resembles elements of foresights; this means planning a head is a major element in the business. Strategic management is considered as a life blood of any organisation. This assignment on strategic management covers the change and development in the organisation.
I have also understood that having a clear idea of strategic management is crucial in today’s competitive business world. Company’s now a days seek ways to achieve a competitive advantage with other players in the industry that they operate. The environment in which a company operates can provide circumstances where the outcomes may be positive or negative. Many organisational studies have presented numerous theories that help companies in taking new ways in dealing with their operations.
Strategic management is one of those important management theories and process that has been employed constantly by any business to address their management and decision making needs.
I have chosen Holiday Inn as an example to illustrate the adaptation of strategic management and its process. In this assignment I have written about how holiday inn hotels analyse and critically evaluate the organisation practice to solve the problem connected with implementing their strategies.
Main body :-
Now I will be giving a short history on Holiday Inn hotel. Kemmons Wilson initially came up with the idea after a family road trip to Washington, D.C., during which he was disappointed by the quality and consistency provided by the roadside motels of that era. The name Holiday Inn was given to the original hotel by his architect Eddie Bluestein as a joke, in reference to the Bing Crosby movie.
In 1957, Wilson franchised the chain as Holiday Inn of America and it grew dramatically, following Wilson’s original tenet that the properties should be standardized, clean, predictable, family-friendly and readily accessible to road travellers. By 1958, there were 50 locations across the country, 100 by 1959, 500 by 1964, and the 1000th Holiday Inn opened in San Antonio, Texas, in 1968. The chain dominated the motel market, leveraged its innovative Holidex reservation system, put considerable financial pressure on traditional hotels and set the standard for its competitors, like Ramada Inns, Quality Inn, Howard Johnson’s, and Best Western. By June 1972, when Wilson was featured on the cover of Time magazine, there were over 1,400 Holiday Inn hotels worldwide. Innovations like the company’s Holidome indoor pools turned many hotels into roadside resorts.
The company later branched into other related enterprises, including Medi-Center nursing homes, Continental Trailways, Delta Queen and various related enterprises. Wilson also later developed the Orange Lake Resort and Country Club near Orlando and a chain called Wilson World Hotels. The family of founder Kemmons Wilson still operates hotels as part of the Kemmons Wilson Companies of Memphis. Wilson retired from Holiday Inn in 1979.
Although still a healthy company, changing business conditions and demographics saw Holiday Inn lose its market dominance in the 1980s. Holiday Inns, Inc. was renamed “Holiday Corporation” in 1985 to reflect the growth of the company’s brands, including Harrah’s Entertainment, Embassy Suites Hotels, Crowne Plaza, Homewood Suites by Hilton and Hampton Inn. In 1988, Holiday Corporation was purchased by UK-based Bass PLC (the owners of the Bass beer brand), followed by the remaining domestic Holiday Inn hotels in 1990, when founder Wilson sold his interest, after which the hotel group was known as Holiday Inn Worldwide. The remainder of Holiday Corporation (including the Embassy Suites Hotels, Homewood Suites by Hilton and Hampton Inn brands) was spun off to shareholders as Promus Companies Incorporated. In 1991, Bass launched Holiday Inn Express, a complementary brand in the limited service segment. In 1994, Bass launched Crowne Plaza, a move into the upscale hotel market. In 1997, Bass created and launched a new hotel brand, Staybridge Suites by Holiday Inn, entering the North American upscale extended stay market. In March 1998, Bass acquired the InterContinental brand, expanding into the luxury hotel market. In 2000, Bass sold its brewing assets (and the rights to the Bass name) and changed its name to Six Continents PLC. InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) was created in 2003 after Six Continents split into two daughter companies: Mitchells & Butlers PLC to handle restaurant assets, and IHG to focus on soft drinks and hotels, including the Holiday Inn brand.
Business relationship with Gulf Oil
In 1963, Holiday Inn signed a long-term deal with Gulf Oil Corporation in which the lodging chain would accept Gulf credit cards to charge food and lodging at all of its hotels (in the United States and Canada). In return, Gulf would build service stations on the premises of many Holiday Inn properties, particularly those along or near major U.S. and Interstate highways. Many older Holiday Inns locations (including some no longer part of the chain) still have the service station properties intact today, either still in operation or closed down. With the exception of a few locations in the eastern U.S., hardly any of the still-open stations are now Gulf outlets. The portion of the agreement which permitted Gulf credit cards to be used for payment of food and lodging at Holiday Inns was copied by competing lodging chains and major oil companies during the mid-to-late 1960s. Most of those agreements fizzled out with the 1973 oil crisis. The Gulf/Holiday Inn arrangement ended around 1982.
The brand name Holiday Inn is now owned by IHG, which in turn licenses the name to franchisees and third parties who operate hotels under management agreements.
In January 2002, The Wall Street Journal reported that the company, led by Ravi Saligram, was producing a new 130-room “Next Generation” prototype hotel to rebuild the brand. It would include a bistro-like restaurant and an indoor pool. The first of these prototype hotels, the Holiday Inn Gwinnett Center, was built in Duluth, Georgia, in 2003.
On 24 October 2007, IHG announced a worldwide relaunch of the Holiday Inn brand. The relaunch is “focused on delivering consistently best in class service and physical quality levels, including a redesigned welcome experience and signature bedding and bathroom products…” The first relaunched Holiday Inn is expected to open in the USA in the spring of 2008. The whole relaunch process is planned to be complete by the end of 2010.
In September 2008, IHG announced the creation of a new timeshare brand, Holiday Inn Club Vacations, a strategic alliance with The Family of Orange Lake Resorts.
As told before strategic management is a set of activities undertaken in the order of time. One of the first tasks in strategic management is environmental analysis. Environmental analysis is the study of an organisations environment to pin point the environmental factors that can significantly influence the organisational operations. It provides a frame work for understanding an organisations environment with the aim of helping to find the key issues and different ways of coping up with the complexity and change. A business organisation operates in an external and internal environment. The factors which influencing the external environment is known as PESTEL.
PESTEL stands for political factors, economical factors, social factors, technological factors, ecological factors and legal factors.
The political, economical and social context stood as a big challenge for the organisation of Holiday Inn when they entered the market. the holiday inn operations are highly influenced by the policies set by the government in which ever territory or country they operate. Most of the Holiday Inn are controlled by regulations of operations and policies of individual properties. The Holiday Inn group will also focus on concerns such as health and safety employment, laws , worker protection and environment. From my studies I think all these elements are seen in the control of government that authorises licensing of hotels in different states. Being in a business environment they have to abide by the employment procedures and tax obligations where they operate. As the company is widely expanded and well developed they must co-operate with the practices set by political body. After my research I think this company should get full co-operation from the political power to succeed in local and international market. as many private enterprise when holiday inn was opened the management had very informal sense of direction setting up a few long time goals without implementing proper strategy. How ever by implementing a new scenario in their strategy with set an international competitive advantage in hotel industry as tourist increased every where and the hotel accommodation was in demand after this the management of Holiday Inn realised the need and development of planning strategies. The management achieved a competitive advantage position and enhanced the holiday inn group’s performance in relation to its competitor. Company have taken a very good advantage of this point and served this market segment all the time. They have given market what they want according to the expectations. I think by going through company history the Holiday Inn is spread all over the world. This vast expansion is because of its good economical stability.
The company has its own concerns involving economic factors. The branches and franchise like Holiday Inn has the tendencies to experience the hard ships in instances where the economy of the respective countries is hit by inflation and changes in exchange rates. Because of the disposable income of the citizens in developed countries the holiday inn group gave prior importance in marketing their business because of the economic stability of these countries.
Holiday Inn is a world wide chain and its international functional strategies will always yield profitable returns. The potential customers are from all over the world. It is been noted that the holiday inn company has given the market such as Europe, Asia, America with regards to their social-cultural needs. Holiday Inn, like all other hotels has established a good system in determining the needs of the market. The company uses the concept of product, personality, behaviour of the customer and purchasing to its advantage.
Now I am going to talk about the technical factors influencing the company. This is because of the technical advancement due to which the company could reach in a very short span to many people about their various products and service information. Customers can contact Holiday Inn by many means such as emails, telephone, travel agents, website etc. holiday inn is providing their guests with all modern amenities and facilities to their rooms to provide the best accommodation experience. Their hotels all over are fully equipped with modern amenities and technical advancement. The above mentioned study helped me a lot to determine how much the elements of PESTEL were helpful and positive for the development of the company
After the analysis of PESTEL and depending upon that outcome I have also carried out SWOT analysis of the company Holiday Inn which gives me exact position of the company in the market.
SWOT stands for strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. These are the factors influencing the internal environment. SWOT analysis is extremely useful for understanding and decision making for all source of situation in business and organisation. It also provides a frame work for reviewing strategy position and direction of the company.
I think it is therefore important to evaluate the environment opportunities in relation to the strengths and weaknesses of the organisation resources.
Strengths: – as mentioned in the history of the company it clearly states that the Holiday Inn Corporation is a well established organisation and industry leader in hospitality. Holiday Inn is well diversified hotels in the high end, business and mid priced classes in their product mix. Holiday Inn also poses a solid integration features such as owning the companies that manufacture its furniture and has invested in online reservation travel enterprises. It also has easy access to all its customers to get information and also has a excellent reservation system.
Weaknesses: – according to my research Holiday Inn may be narrowly focused making it susceptible to the down turn in the global economy and other world wide catastrophes that could limit global travel. Holiday inn hotels may also be venerable to employee’s strikes and crack down on undocumented workers. I think the aggressive expansion policies may put the company in trouble during the global down turn. Some of the branches or franchises do not follow the holiday inn set standards, recruitment process efficient accounting systems.
Opportunities:- Holiday Inn corporation is a global pioneer in hospitality industry. Their position is strong financially and they are widely expanding all over the world. They offer an array of distinctive and specialised services to their guests. They also have an opportunity to expand or acquire a cruise line company. The holiday inn corporation should take advantage of emerging markets especially with business clients and mid priced markets. The holiday inn corporation has a strong affiliation with REIT (real estate investment trust) or similar organisation that provides a strong back up for hotels. It has a strong skilled work force all over.
Threats: – Like all other business, the major threat for holiday inn will be an emergence of a new competitor. The competitors will be more active in promoting the concept of global brand name. Holiday Inn has its own resources to sustain their global brand name. In general the hotel industry faces a threat from internet reservation channels which represents a growing share of hotel room booking. To overcome these threats Holiday Inn has its own centralised reservations system.
Looking at strategic direction of the company the mission statement says GREAT HOTELS GUEST LOVE shows that holiday inn makes all efforts to exceed their customer expectation. This statement covers all aspects on hospitality firm in a brief manner. The vision statement and the values of the company states that year after year holiday inn (IHG) and the management will be regarded as the best and most sought hospitality group. From my personal experience while working with holiday inn group I can say that they are following their vision and mission statements.
By observing their strategic formulation they have adopted cost leadership strategies. They are one of the lowest cost providers for their product. This makes many customers to become potential and loyal. They have targeted very broad market from high and society to middle and the lower one. While offering this wide variety of offers to the customers they have developed and achieved best value strategy. During my analysis on holiday inn I discovered the difficulties faced by them or in other words we can say their weakness. They faced great difficulties while entering the Asian markets. The reason behind this was they were not familiar with Asian market. To overcome this problem they had to take a strong action plan by signing a joint partnership with Asian hotel firms. This provided them a base to learn about the Asian environment and their establishment. Holiday Inns vision for the future was a property that delivers new levels of customer convenience by extending hotel systems for guest and employee access using the hotels wireless infrastructure.
From my analysis since holiday inn is expanding it is wise to deal with proper authorities in the respective markets where they intend to operate. The company has to accomplish and satisfy all the prerequisites for doing business. The company should also carry out a well conducted market research before penetrating the new segments of market. the company should always obtain relevant information from the target market in addition to the individual customers of organisation. A comprehensive market research is a must before granting a franchise. I think similar research should be made in areas like consumer behaviour and purchasing patterns of the market. Holiday Inn Corporation has to re-evaluate its internal environmental factors like Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and threats to overcome with a strategic direction adjusting its mission and vision and at the same time maintaining its values. These are the few strategies that holiday inn must adopt to attract more diversified clientele. Therefore in order to survive and maintain the brand name holiday inn corporation should be consistent with their excellent service being always innovative. They should also create the role of middle managers and let them to be more innovative.
I think the biggest challenge for Holiday Inn is expansion and franchises. The main features of Holiday Inn Corporation should be put as a standard one for the franchisers to follow. Will the franchisers really set the standards followed by Holiday Inn Corporation? What are the efforts that are to be put for the franchisers to follow the standards set by Holiday Inn Corporation?
Holiday Inn is also using its technology to its advantage. The interactivity and the real time effects of communication is a good way to find suppliers.
Successful strategies always demand a company to choose the market in which their unique capabilities will gain competitive advantage. However the adoptive and incremental context of strategic management means that the company starting point leads the firm to a stable position. Corporate strategies of Holiday Inn have been able to use strategic management to stay in the competition in the global market. I believe that the strategies as well as the leadership styles used by the management of Holiday inn have been the major cause of their competitive position in the hotel market.
Though Holiday Inn is considered as a leader in hospitality sector there is a need of flexibility. Slight changes in the market can effect their operations of the business. They should not rely on their past success but instead they should innovative and ready for any future uncertainties.
Holiday Inn Corporation focuses on services rather than accommodation itself. I truly agree that the true asset of the organisation is the staff. The staff are the one who represent Holiday Inn hotels through their excellent services. So there is a need to make sure that the staff is always happy with the behavioural integrity of work place. The corporate strategy of Holiday Inn has been able to guide the company from challengers and opportunities that appears in the market environment in order to sustain the competitive advantage. Therefore I think the leaders of the company should continue their style to motivate their employees and become a major asset for the success of the company.
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