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Scope And Limitations Of Research Tourism Essay

4500 words (18 pages) Essay in Tourism

5/12/16 Tourism Reference this

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This chapter is divided into eight sections. The first section is the background of research. This section is focusing on how the environment impacts influence the domestic tourist satisfaction. The issue of problem statement related to the haze and marine pollution affects domestic tourist satisfaction in Malaysia. The objectives, hypotheses and research questions are then highlighted in the section third, fourth and fifth. The sixth section explains the significance of the study and research. Subsequently, the scope and limitations of the research explain the scope for the research area and limitations of conducting the research. In addition, some definition of terms is highlighted in section seven.

Background of research

According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism industry relied highly on healthy and quality environment (Honey and Krantz, 2007). The significance of environmental factors to the health and well-being of human populations’ is increasing dramatically (Rosenstock 2003 and World Health Organization 2010b). Environmental pollution has become aproblem worldwide and has great influences to the health of human populations (Fereidoun et al, 2007; Progressive Insurance, 2005.). Pollution reaches its maximum proportions in the densely settled urban-industrial centers of the more developed countries (Kromm, 1973). Tourist satisfaction is one of the most relevant areas of research for tourism industry ( Petrick 2003; Prebensen, 2006), most satisfied tourists tend to transmit the positive experience to third persons as well as repeat patronizing to the tourism location (Hallowell 1996; Kozak&Rimmington 2000; Pizam 1994).

Statement of problem

Since, the environmental issues such as haze pollution and marine pollution influence the domestic tourist satisfaction. Therefore, marine life destruction rate are increasing and the haze pollution affect the health for the tourist. So, it can be seen the domestic tourist choose either going to travel in domestic country or not. Thus, in this research is to investigate the environmental impact affect the domestic tourist satisfaction.

Research Objectives

This research is sought to investigation of haze and marine pollution affecting domestic tourist satisfaction in Malaysia. The main objective is:

To examine environment impact towards destination Image.

To examine environment impact toward destination loyalty.

Research Question

The objectives and direction for this study, the below are the research questions:

How to examine environment impact towards destination Image?

How to examine environment impact toward destination loyalty?

Figure 1.1

Research Hypotheses

When the air pollution from haze increases, it will reduce destination image.

When the water pollution from sea increases, it will reduce destination image.

When the air pollution from haze increases, it will reduce destination loyalty.

When the water pollution from sea increases, it will reduce destination loyalty.

Significance Research

Significance for this research done is to study the haze and marine pollution affects domestic tourist satisfaction in Perak. Also, this study also intends to know tourist perception toward pollutions affect tourism in Perak.

Scope and Limitations of Research

The scope of this research is focusing the respondent in Perak area in Malaysia. The respondents who answer this survey are student, worker and so on. The limitation of this research is the limited number of sample size which is 100 people only, also respondent of this survey is limited to tourist within Perak area, to acquire a more reliable and relevant data, more respondent should be involved into this survey as well as respondent from other area such as Kuala Lumpur and Sabah, Sarawak. Other than that, the lack of previous information on relevant topic, only a small amount of data available for reference. Also, the rarity of haze event in Malaysia also affect the data collected, some tourist never experience haze problem in tourist destination before thus is not able to provide their opinion.

Operational Definition of terms

Tourist Satisfaction

Kozak and Rimmington (2000) Yoon & Uysal(2005) San Martin et al ( 2008) define that tourist satisfaction is a good pointer of purposes to revisit and recommend to others.

Image

According to Crompton (1979) image defined as ideas and impressions that a person has of a destination.

Loyalty

Oliver (1997) defines loyalty as a promise to repeat purchases of a preferred product or service every time.

Summary

In this chapter introduce the research have been done. Write out the hypothesis and the objective. In addition, statement the problem during the research.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

The purpose of this report is to describe how the research is done, how to measure the steps forward, and what to compose the success. The research area is conduct the research design, population and sample. The research instrument used to collect data, such as approaches to maintain reliability and validity. Other than that, this report also explain the reason of selecting the organizations, data sources, research analysis, data collection and analysis, analysis summary of the expectation for research.

3.2 Research Design

A quantitative research is chosen. Hoepfl (1997) define quantitative research use investigational methods and test the hypothesis. Quantitative research emphasizes the measurement and analysis of causal relationships between variables (Denzin and Lincoln, 1998).

3.3 Research Subjects

The main respondents for this research are the domestic tourist in Perak. The Population is focusing in Perak. This research is using the convenient sampling. Convenient sampling are selected because convenient accessibility. The researches are taking about 100 tourists in Perak.

Table 3 Demographics Respondent of data

Choice

Frequency

Percent

Gender

Male

54

54.0

Female

46

46.0

Total

100

100.0

Age

Below 18

9

9.0

18-22

44

44.0

22-25

40

40.0

Above 25

7

7.0

Total

100

100.0

Marital Status

Single

92

92.0

Married

8

8.0

Total

100

100.0

Education Level

Certificate

9

9.0

Diploma

38

38.0

Advanced Diploma/ Degree

52

52.0

Master/PhD

1

1.0

Total

100

100.0

3.4 Instrumentation

In this research instrumentation is design the questionnaire. This questionnaire is divided into three parts. Part 1 (environmental impact) consists of section A to examinethe environmental impact affecting the tourist satisfaction. Section B to examine the marine pollution such as littering and broken bottles, discharge wastewater flow, and untreated sewage disposal pollute sea water. Part 2 (Tourist Satisfaction) consists of Section A to collect factor are the image of tourist destination such as service quality, product, price and location. Section B to collect the factor will affect the loyalty of tourist towards the tourist destination such as repeat purchase, repeat visitation and recreation service. Part 3 is to collect the demographic profile such as age, education level, marital status and gender. Part 1 and part 2 is chosen the liker scale to measure the respondents to indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with the question. Part 3 demographic profile is to gain better understand in term of background of respondent. After design the questionnaire, questionnaire is first launch aspilot test to determine whether the questionnaire is suitable for the research and to ensure that the respondent fully understand the guideline and how to complete the questionnaire.After this give the respondent to check the question. This step is to obtain feedback from respondent and help to improve weakness in the questionnaire such as loaded question, double barreled question; typing errorand misunderstanding of question. Fixing all the error occurred and after that, upload the questionnaire using Google online survey and finally distribute the questionnaire to the respondent.

3.5 Research Procedure

This research use various way of collecting the data such as online survey, email survey and social network. The questionnaire is designed as the link to send the respondent to answer the survey. After finishing the survey, respondent will send back the result. This step need wait around three and four days to complete collect the data. When complete the data survey, the data collection and data analysis to get the result. In addition, questionnaire survey is conducted to evaluate with the hypothesis. The evaluation between the independent and dependent variable of this research is to measure the effect.

3.7 Data Collection

In this research, the questionnaire is the primary data for the researcher is using the Literature review. Literature review is collecting the Secondary data from other researcher. Data collection was done to the respondents who are the domestic tourist in Perak. 5 to 10 minutes for the respondent to fill up the questionnaire. The responses are strictly confidential and will only be used for the data collection procedure with the explaining the objective for the research. Lastly, the questionnaire will be collected and do the data analysis as well.

3.8 Data Analysis

After data was collected it was done to analyze by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The hypothesis and objective are used to test in the SPSS software.

3.9 Summary

The research used the quantitative research and Google online survey to design the survey.Therefore, this research is describing the research methodology such as population, sample, data collection and data. Research subject is to focusing the main respondent for the research. Therefore, Instrumentation is tomeasure the validity and validity of the study. Research procedure is the way to collect the data and distribute the data. After that, get the result and do the data analysis to test the hypothesis and objective.

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH FINDINGS

4.1 Introduction

The purpose of this research is testing the results that have found in the research questions. This research finding is to find out how the researches are reflects. It also to be known that the change from the current knowledge is carries out. The hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 are test by using The Pearson r correlation coefficient. Cronbach’sAlpha is test the reliable for the question.T- Test use to test the significant difference in environment impact between genders.

4.2 Research Findings

The purpose for the study to do the test is to measure the elements of the question in Part 1 (environmental impact) consists of section A (Haze pollution) and B (Marine pollution). Part 2 (tourist Satisfaction) consists of section A (Quality) and Section B (Loyalty) which is correlated to environment impact affect the domestic tourist in Perak (Refer to table 4.1). The result show Cronbach’s Alpha is 0.913, which is acceptable from 14 items (Refer to table4. 2). This means the data collection is reliable. The mean for each items is range from 1.36-2.17 and standard deviation for each items is range from 0.692-1.107 (Refer to table 4.3). The total mean is 26.89 and standard deviation is 8.618 (Refer to table 4.4).

Table4.1

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted

Visibility of attraction is very low

25.53

70.456

.287

.917

Climate change

24.91

66.349

.562

.909

Haze affect the health

25.06

65.180

.613

.907

Emotional problem

24.72

63.389

.661

.905

There are littering and broken bottles. Such as tin cans

25.01

64.969

.555

.909

There are discharge wastewater flow into the sea

24.99

65.275

.556

.909

Untreated sewage disposal pollute sea water

24.87

61.666

.757

.901

Service quality

25.02

63.979

.679

.905

Product quality

25.08

65.157

.690

.905

Price

24.91

62.206

.789

.900

Location

24.76

61.594

.729

.902

Repeat purchase

25.01

66.092

.491

.912

Repeat visitation

24.93

63.760

.653

.906

Recreation service

24.77

62.405

.677

.905

Table4. 2

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha

N of Items

.913

14

Table4. 3

Item Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Visibility of attraction is very low

1.36

.692

99

Climate change

1.98

.795

99

Haze affect the health

1.83

.846

99

Emotional problem

2.17

.948

99

There are littering and broken bottles. Such as tin cans

1.88

.940

99

There are discharge wastewater flow into the sea

1.90

.909

99

Untreated sewage disposal pollute sea water

2.02

.979

99

Service quality

1.87

.877

99

Product quality

1.81

.765

99

Price

1.98

.903

99

Location

2.13

1.017

99

Repeat purchase

1.88

.918

99

Repeat visitation

1.96

.925

99

Recreation service

2.12

1.013

99

Table 4.4

Scale Statistics

Mean

Variance

Std. Deviation

N of Items

26.89

74.263

8.618

14

For the independent sample T-test was test to use the independent and dependent between the genders and to find out the standard deviation and mean in table 4.5. The total number of 100 respondents answers the survey. 54 people are Male and 46 people are female.

First independent variable is Haze pollution. The result shows that the mean for male is 1.83 and female 1.84. Therefore, male has lower mean on haze pollution mean. Besides, the standard deviation for male is 0.761 and female is 0.422.

Second independent variable is marine pollution. The result shows that the mean for male is 1.88 and female 1.99. Hence, male has lower mean on marine pollution mean. In addition, the standard deviation for male is 0.93 and female is 0.734.

The Third dependent variable is image. The result shows that the mean for male is 1.921 and female are 2.0. Thus, male has lower mean on marine pollution mean. Additionally, the standard deviation for male is 0.854 and female is 0.696.

The last dependent variable is loyalty. The result shows that the mean for male is 1.957 and female are 2.021. Thus, male has lower mean on marine pollution mean. Moreover, the standard deviation for male is 0.880 and female is 0.802.

Table4.5

Group Statistics

Gender

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

Haze Pollution

Male

54

1.8287

.76143

.10362

Female

46

1.8424

.42282

.06234

Marine Pollution

Male

54

1.8765

.93004

.12656

Female

46

1.9855

.73352

.10815

Image

Male

54

1.9213

.85344

.11614

Female

46

2.0072

.69563

.10256

Loyalty

Male

54

1.9568

.88084

.11987

Female

46

2.0217

.80247

.11832

Table4.6

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

HazePollution

Equal variances assumed

7.327

.008

-.108

98

.914

-.01369

.12620

-.26414

.23676

Equal variances not assumed

-.113

85.170

.910

-.01369

.12093

-.25411

.22674

MarinePollution

Equal variances assumed

.288

.593

-.642

98

.522

-.10896

.16964

-.44561

.22769

Equal variances not assumed

-.655

97.459

.514

-.10896

.16648

-.43936

.22143

Image

Equal variances assumed

2.520

.116

-.546

98

.586

-.08595

.15749

-.39848

.22658

Equal variances not assumed

-.555

97.826

.580

-.08595

.15494

-.39344

.22154

Loyalty

Equal variances assumed

1.081

.301

-.383

98

.703

-.06495

.16970

-.40170

.27181

Equal variances not assumed

-.386

97.538

.701

-.06495

.16843

-.39920

.26931

4.3 Hypothesis Testing

H1 When the air pollution from haze increases, it will reduce destination image.

The correlations table4.7 revealed that the correlations between haze pollution and destination image is 0.567 with a corresponding p- value of 0.000 based on 100 respondents. The p-value of 0.000 is less than 0.01, there is a significant positive relationship between haze pollution and destination image. There is a relationship between haze pollution and destination image, r (0.567) at p is less than 0.05. Hence, there is a relationship which affirms that the two variables are positively related to population. The coefficient of determination: r the correlation between haze pollutionand destination image of the respondent = 0.567 and r² = the coefficient of determination = (0.567)² = 0.3214. As a result 32.14% of the variance in haze pollution can be explained by destination image of the respondent.

Table 4.7

Correlations

Part1AMean

Part2AMean

Part1AMean

Pearson Correlation

1

.567**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

Part2AMean

Pearson Correlation

.567**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

H2 When the water pollution from sea increases, it will reduce destination image

The correlations table4.7 revealed that the correlations between water pollution and destination image is 0.573 with a corresponding p- value of 0.000 based on 100 respondents. The p-value of 0.000 is less than 0.01, there is a significant positive relationship between water pollution and destination image. There is a relationship between water pollution and destination image, r (0.573) at p is less than 0.05. Hence, there is a relationship which affirms that the two variables are positively related to population. The coefficient of determination: r the correlation between water pollution and destination image of the respondent = 0.573 and r² = the coefficient of determination = (0.573)² = 0.3283. As a result 32.83% of the variance in water pollution can be explained by destination image of the respondent.

Table 4.8

Correlations

Part1BMean

Part2AMean

Part1BMean

Pearson Correlation

1

.573**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

Part2AMean

Pearson Correlation

.573**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

H3 When the air pollution from haze increases, it will reduce destination loyalty.

The correlations table4.9 revealed that the correlations between air pollution and destination loyalty is 0.469 with a corresponding p- value of 0.000 based on 100 respondents. The p-value of 0.000 is less than 0.01, there is a significant positive relationship between air pollution and destination loyalty. There is a relationship between air pollution and destination loyalty, r (0.469) at p is less than 0.05. Hence, there is a relationship which affirms that the two variables are positively related to population. The coefficient of determination: r the correlation between air pollution and destination loyalty of the respondent = 0.469 and r² = the coefficient of determination = (0.469)² = 0.2199. As a result21.99% of the variance in air pollution can be explained by destination loyalty of the respondent.

Table4.9

Correlations

Part1AMean

Part2BMean

Part1AMean

Pearson Correlation

1

.469**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

Part2BMean

Pearson Correlation

.469**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

H4 When the water pollution from sea increases, it will reduce destination loyalty.

The correlations table4.10 revealed that the correlations between water pollution and destination loyalty is 0.354 with a corresponding p- value of 0.000 based on 100 respondents. The p-value of 0.000 is less than 0.01, there is a significant positive relationship between water pollution and destination loyalty. There is a relationship between water pollution and destination loyalty, r (0.354) at p is less than 0.05. Hence, there is a relationship which affirms that the two variables are positively related to population. The coefficient of determination: r the correlation between waterpollution and destination loyalty of the respondent = 0.354 and r² = the coefficient of determination = (0.354)² = 0.1253. As a result 12.53% of the variance in water pollution can be explained by destination loyalty of the respondent.

Table 4.10

Correlations

Part1BMean

Part2BMean

Part1BMean

Pearson Correlation

1

.354**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

Part2BMean

Pearson Correlation

.354**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

100

100

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

4.4 Summary

In this chapter, the research finding is to test the elements of the question. Cronbach’s Alpha is to measure the question is reliable. Besides, Pearson r correlation coefficient is test the hypothesis and also the t-test is calculated to test the independent and dependent between the genders.

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Introduction

In this chapter is discuss a summary related the findings to the previous research, discussions, theoretical implications and practical implications. Besides that, recommend the suggestions and conclusion for the research.

5.2 Discussions

This research is to measure and test the environment impact affect the domestic tourist satisfaction. The genders will not affect the environment impact of domestic tourist satisfaction. From this research, haze pollution and marine pollution will affect the destination image and loyalty. When the air pollution from haze increase the will affect destination image decrease. Koe et al. (2001) haze pollution caused the visibility of attraction to be low, so destination image will reduce. Shima et al. (2002) stated that haze will bring the unpleasant to the healthy traveler and become a serious problem for asthma sufferers. Therefore, tourist will not be loyal anymore. In addition, when the water pollution from sea increases it will reduce destination image. (Burak et al., 2004) declared that the wastewater generated by tourism facilities also is the reason to reduce the destination image. Water pollution will hazard the health for the tourist and directly reduce the destination loyalty.

5.3 Theoretical Implications

In this research in order to help the tourism industry in Malaysia based on the theory in the previous research. Environmental impact is the serious problem happen in Malaysia. Increased sea-water, sewage waste water, air and litter pollution are the negative impacts of tourism on the environment natural and built (Altinay & Kashif, 2005). The environment impact will affect the tourist satisfaction. For example, Murray Mas (2000) study the environmental impact of tourist activities in Balears, Spain, in an attempt to construct a time sequence for local ecological footprint. In the case of Port Dickson beaches, there are eighty two wastewater pipe lines discharge wastewater including sewage from hotels and houses directly into the sea (Kadaruddin 1997). Wastewaters that are produce and dispersed to the sea by factory had been contributed to the pollution and destroy the scenic views that discourage the tourist to visit the destination again.

Koe et al. (2001) noted that reduced visibility in Malaysia during the 1997 haze episode was because of the long range transport of smoke from Sumatra. Besides decreasing visibility, other potential problems come with haze are impacts on human health (Vedal 1997). Haze will influence the human health such as asthma sufferers. As haze mild affect the health of the tourist which would lead to decrease the tourist loyalty.

5.4 Practical Implications

From the research findings, the result show that the environment impact will influence the domestic tourist satisfaction. Through the study, tourist industry, travel agent, business travel, the society of government by ministry of tourism culture and environment in Malaysia must take action to develop and decide the problem such as local government must implementation of extra public transportation and prohibit open burning an able to reduce haze pollution. In the research show that marine pollution comes from the land. So one of the way to reduce marine pollution is the hotel industry can organize a beach clean-up to reduce the amount of rubbish and the factory and the hotel beside the sea must filter the wastage before flow into the sea. This can help reduce the marine pollution. The tourist industry and travel agent organize the event about the environmental impact such as go green campaign and no plastic bag campaign. Concurrently, this research also will help the hotel industry and tourism industry to enhance the economy in Malaysia.

5.5 Suggestions

Conservation areas should crack under the jurisdiction of littering or destruction of nature. Such as fines, serious will be subject to legal sanctions. In addition, the government should not be stressed that everyone must responsibility to protecting the environment. Tourism and the hotel will also clean cooperation to protect the environment in order to help increase the tourist satisfaction. Moreover, marine and haze pollution decrease it will raise the tourist satisfaction.

5.6 Conclusion

Finally, through this research tested the haze and marine pollution will influence the domestic tourist satisfaction. Domestic tourist will choose the good environment to travel as well.

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