India is one of the most preferred destinations by international tourists. Jammu and Kashmir is northern state of India With a land mass of 222,236 sq.km. The Indian state shares its northwest border with Pakistan and northeast border with republic of china. Jammu Kashmir is referred as the “Switzerland of east” because of its famous hilly geographical area. Nature has powered the state with its best creativity with chilling snow, valleys, natural botanical flower beds, hot springs, temples, ancient valued culture and traditions. The state is divided into three sub-regions which are Jammu, Kashmir valley and ladakh. Because of its enormous beauty it’s one of the most highly attracted tourist place in the country attracting more than 13 lakh international and domestic tourist per year. Mainly adventure tourism and religious tourism takes place countering which the state has developed excellent infrastructure. Presence of Heritage and luxury hotels, five-star hotels, four-star hotels and budget hotels with traditional restaurants serving wide variety of Kashmiri cuisine giving the tourist the best memorable experience. We would discuss the various pull factors for Jammu and Kashmir tourism and assess the risk and crisis the destination is facing due to political battle, global warming and pollution caused by tourist activities.
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Devout tourism alludes to going to sacred places for accomplishing peace of intellect and soul. There are a number of Muslim, Hindu, Christian and Sikh sacrosanct places in Kashmir. Besides being spiritual and contemplation centers, the traveler goals of Kashmir are moreover a treat to the eyes. Pilgrimage tourism is picking up exceptionally much ubiquity in Kashmir. Each year, a number of lovers from different corners of the world visit Kashmir for devout purposes at Amaranth, Martand, and KheerBhawani etc.
Natural life tourism hosts travel to ranges to see the greenery and fauna in their common territory. Kashmir valley is encompassed by mountains on all sides. Here, the well known natural life attractions are Dachingam-National, Balta Natural life Asylum Gulmarg Biosphere Reserve. Numerous assortments of rare birds can be seen in Kashmir Valley. About 187 species of breeding winged creatures and 42 species of fishes are found within the Valley. The Black Necked Crane could be an uncommon species of crane found in Kashmir Valley apart from Tibet and China
Kashmir’s MICE tourism may be a culminate way of combining commerce with delight. MICE tourism presents unique opportunities for trade improvement, be it a casual discussion with ancient accomplices and meetings with imminent financial specialists, clients and providers, data trade or introduction to unused advances. The Gatherings, Motivating forces, Conferences and Presentations (MICE) industry is extensively and quickly developing and is generally related with travel for commerce purpose. Kashmir is acclaimed from each corner of the soil for its assortment of items. Apple, Dry natural product, Painstaking work and other items of Kashmir valley pulls in a tremendous number of commerce visitors over the globe annually.
The tourism of Jammu Kashmir is not growing from last few two years. There are various reasons and factors which affects the expansion, growing and improving tourism
Political and economic risk– Purge houseboats, empty lodgings and left resorts show a bleak picture of Kashmir’s tourism division which is going through one of its most exceedingly bad stages. Usually due to the winning circumstance in Kashmir after the Indian government repealed arrangements of Article 370 of the Structure and revamped the state into two Union domains. Kashmir has been confronting phenomenal limitations with government tackling the situation with armed forces as a result Nations such as the US, UK, and Australia have overhauled their travel advisories for India taking after the India-Pakistan strife and have inquired voyagers to work out a tall degree of caution. They have exhorted their citizens not to travel to Jammu & Kashmir. The struggle has extremely affected forward bookings for Jammu & Kashmir for the up and coming summer. Tourism industry is profoundly touchy to issues of law and arrange. When the law and order isn’t working, tourism is certain to be affected. The National media has been overwhelmed with stories of viciousness within the later months which isn’t conducive to tourism. Though guerilla rates have declined, there has been a spate of occurrences of road savagery, for the most part stone-pelting. Though the visit administrators and tourism authorities contend that this kind of road savagery is as well intermittent and limited to influence voyagers, the truth remains that it is closer domestic for consolation and in this way sightseers are picking to remain absent from J & K. Most of the sightseers who have cancelled their plans to visit J & K have fair one reason; they don’t need to squander the restricted occasion that they get amid a year looking over their shoulders.
Environmental Degradation risk – The most attractions of Jammu and Kashmir are its nature, culture and its world famous pilgrimage centers. Subsequently, J&K is one of the driving traveller goals in India and the number of traveller entries here has increased over the period of time. Which has driven to number of natural issues and issues, For case, businesses and ignorance have contaminated different lakes, waterways and other water assets, infringement and logging have crushed woodland. Shri Amaranth ji shrine and Gulmarag are the finest cases of how uncontrolled and unmanaged advancement of tourism has decimated the characteristic assets and environment. Strong Wastes and littering this is another intense issue found at all the traveller goals of J&K where tourism related exercises are exceptionally tall. The unmanaged transfer has ended up a genuine danger to the characteristic environment of waterways, streams, lakes, greenery and fauna of the area. Thousands of ton squander is delivered by the visitors and other specialists giving tourism related benefit e.g. lodgings, eateries, shops, etc. at Vaishno Devi ji, Dal Lake, Amarnath Ji, Gulmarg and other little and major visitor spots. Travelers, trekking visitors and other guests to these goals and naturally preserved centuries and lakes deliver tremendous sum of squander which is exceptionally hurtful to for their characteristic wellbeing of these areas. Littering of waste and other squander by the visitors may be an exceptionally genuine matter which is causing natural destruction. Deforestation -Plants are the premise of life on this brilliant planet Soil and all living life forms, counting human being cannot envision surviving without them. Timberlands play a crucial part in natural upkeep and harm to the woodland may corrupt a whole ecosystem. Forests, on the one hand serve as source of oxygen, wood, nourishment, home of natural life, at the same time retains toxins including CO2. The fast development of tourism is one of the most reasons behind uncontrolled destructions of woodlands, since the growing demand of tourism has driven to expanding require for building fabric viz. development of lodgings, eateries, lodges, houseboats, hotels and for other agricultural activities. The effect of climate change in J&K is exceptionally much clear, as there has been rise in temperature, sudden downpours and nearly no snow in winters. As per Worldwide Board on Climate Alter (IPCC), glacial meltdown is anticipated to extend flooding, snow avalanche fall from built up inclines, lessen water supplies to streams as ice sheets recede. In later gauges by Joined together Countries Environment Program (UNEP) and Universal Middle for Coordinates Mountain Development (ICIMOD), the temperature in Himalayan locale has risen by 1oC since 1970, as a result the snow drop has reduced over the year and this has too caused meltdown of snow and ice sheets at rate of 15m per year indeed in winter. The thinks about conducted by the National Established of Hydrology, Roorkee for final three decades uncovers that in Ladakh, Zanskar and More noteworthy Himalayan ranges of J&K the ice sheet volume has changed extending between 3.6% and 97% with the majority of icy masses appearing a degradation of 17% -25% .
Jammu Kashmir, in spite of picking up popularity as a major traveller destination, since 2016 it has ruined the smooth development of tourism industry because of the spread of the militancy, which has disheartened travellers for going by India’s most lovely visitor destination Several tourism players counting hoteliers, travel operators and houseboat proprietors said the ‘unresolved political issue of Kashmir driving to uncertainty’ and the electronic media’s scope of the improvements were harming the tourism industry. The nonstop negative scope, particularly of violence which isn’t the overpowering reality in Kashmir, has slowed down visitor inflow to Kashmir. The environmental risk in Jammu and Kashmir can result in a devastating way with complete closure in tourism industry. More of complete wipe out of infrastructure, agriculture will force human to migrate from that state. Key natural challenges that the Jammu and Kashmir is confronting relate to environmental degradation as a result of unsustainable utilize of its natural resources for economic development and improvement. J&K’s agrarian and tourism based economy is heavily dependent on its natural resources since of its huge population in provincial zones and their economic dependence on essential natural resources. The primary human activities contributing to natural degradation incorporate poverty, population development, improper innovation and utilization choices unsustainable arrive use practices, destitute soil and water administration hones, deforestation, overgrazing, and pollution. Developmental exercises such as street development, seriously agribusiness, contaminating industry, and spontaneous urbanization driving to changes in relations between individuals and environments.
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