Event spectators are the main key area for the success of event. The 2012 London Olympics will be the major sporting event in country in the next two years. The strategies of encouraging the event spectators have been put on and try by the government. According to Woodward (1990) notes that without visitors support many leisure developments are simply not viable. There are some studies have been carried out by academic including Zyl and Botha (2004) states it is crucial to understand what motivates people to attend and participate in the event.
This piece of research proposal will be focus on the factors that encourage or discourage potential spectators from attending the major sporting events. There have been some research studies about the event attendees but this research purposely designed for young adults in the age of 18-25 years old. Other than that, it includes also the attraction part of the event toward the spectators and drivers that limited or encourages the factors on attending the event especially on age 18-25years old potential attendees. Recommendations can be made throughout the research for better improvement. Therefore it is an extending area of research.
The purpose of this study is to concentrate on the motivation of attending major sporting events for young adults (18-25 years old). It is important for event organizer to understand their spectators especially in the age of 18-25 years old. According to an expert author Sihera states (2007) “This period is closely allied to the future, with the acknowledgement that a lot of life is yet to be lived”. It means that a supreme event experience could inspire the young adults that attend have the aspiration in the future. By enhancing their life experience on the major sporting events could leads them to another level on participate event in the future as well to explore their potential to become the main resources of certain event.
1.3 Aim and objectives
Aim: To critically investigate the drivers and barriers for young adults (18-25 years old) to attend the London Olympic Games in 2012 as spectators.
Identify and analyse the factors that encourage or discourage potential spectators from attending major sporting events.
To critically analyse the 2012 London Olympics and its appeal or lack of appeal, to spectators.
To identify and analyse the drivers, motivations and barriers constraints that either encourage or discourage young adults aged 18-25 to attend the London Olympic Games in 2012 as spectators.
2. Literature Review
In order to achieve the aim and objectives delineated in the introduction. Previous similar studies are useful to be the literature. Research conducted by Dodd et al (2006) stated there are wide range of motives that bring people to attend an event. The factors that influenced based on affiliation, escape, dream fulfilment, identity fulfilment, personal growth, and family togetherness. The researcher also identified that other motives could include the opportunities for trying news food and beverage, participating in events, and shopping. Demographic data along with psychographics and lifestyle characteristics usually used to explore motivations. Researcher thought that market segmentation can be based on differentiating motivations, demographic, and event behaviour characteristics (Formica and Uysal, 1996 cited in Dodd et al, 2006).
There are other researchers also reviewed at the similar area. The dimensions of event motivations and selected event and demographic variables according to visitor type, revealing the differences among first time and repeat event attendees examined by Backman (1993) cited in Dodd et al (2006). The researcher has shown that different event attendees types as well as their motivations for attending and level of satisfaction with events. Formica and Uysal (1996) cited in Dodd et al (2006) identified five dimensions of event and festival motivations: excitement and thrills, socialization, entertainment, event novelty, and family togetherness and compared these motivations between residents and non-residents. The results turned out showed those attendees from event region were more toward on the importance of socialization. In the contrary, those attendees from out of region were more motivated by entertainment. The study also revealed that more males and younger attendees were from out of the region.
2.2 Motivation Understanding
To be motivated means to be moved to do something (Ryan and Deci, 2000). A person that stimulus to act or move is considered motivated. According to Kondo (1989) states there are no established and standardized methodology of motivation, which exist for statistical analysis. This is because the human beings whom trying to get motivated are too diverse. Nevertheless, the author also said that many keys to motivation can be discover if not concentrate on differences in people characteristics but on the common human traits that underlie these differences, for example: human nature. Cassidy (2005) notes that theories of motivation applied to understanding sport, leisure, and tourism behaviour are complex due to its intangible nature, issues of multiple motivation theories and questions of measurement and interpretations.
2.3 Host Organisation Appeal
The 2012 Olympic Games will be host majority in Greater London as well as other cities in the country. According to research conducted by Ritchie (1984) states an event with a competitive advantage possesses such significance, in terms of tradition, attractiveness, quality or publicity, that the event provides the host venue, community, or destination. Other than that, the 2012 Olympic Games will be offer as much as British food produce as possible. The food vision (2009) published that a total 14 million meals will be served during the games across 40 locations and all the produce must be British. Dimmock and Tiyce (2001) demonstrates that unique celebrations of the community can shows the traditional culture which is a strong motivator due to the uniqueness of events, visitors appeal who want to encounter an authentic cultural experience, to escape from everyday life, be entertained and socialise can be increase.
The London2012 (official website for London Olympic Games) launched “Sign Up” programmed in March for those spectators who are interested in attending the event. Over one million people have registered their interest in London 2012 Olympic. According to chairman of the London organising committee of the Olympic Games, Coe (2010) states 96% of registrations have come from United Kingdom residents, with 32% of registrations from Greater London; 27% from the south east and 41% from the rest of the United Kingdom. With £2 billion budget for staging the Olympic games, Coe (2010) states it should come as no surprise that the British public is so enthused by the prospect of world class sport coming to these shores. Olympic tickets go on sale in spring 2011 via an application process. Attendees who have registered would be the first to find out about the process opens in 2011 (London2012, 2010).
2.4 Drivers Encourage
The London 2012 (2009) received planning permission to carry out temporary work at West Ham Station to get it ready for the London 2012 Olympic Games. West Ham is one of the gateway stations to the Olympic Park, along with Stratford Regional and Stratford International Station. Spectators can safely use West Ham Station and avoiding unnecessary congestion. It is an important step toward keeping people moving at this key station in 2012. According to Derrett (2004) states that more leisure pursuits becoming more accessible, there is a greater opportunity to be involved in activities and events either as a participant or a spectator. The author also said that event take place in unique locations with spectacular scenery can be identified by spectator of the event by its location.
3.2 Deductive Approach
The deductive approach has been chosen to apply in this research. According to Veal (2006) states the deductive approach works from the more general to the more specific and it seen as a scientific way of collecting data. This approach begins with the general and ends with the specific which ideally suited for this research method approach. Deductive approach is concerned with testing theory and takes the existing body of theoretical and empirical knowledge as its primary starting point (Brotherton, 2008).
3.3 Research Instrument
Questionnaires have been chosen to use in this research. The reason of using this research instrument is due to low cost, standardisation of questions and the questions tend to be straightforward (Gillham, 2000). The questionnaires will be separate into three sections. The first section of questionnaires will be asking the general information of participants, for example age, gender, and region; the second section will be more specific on participant’s motivation of attending the London 2012 Olympic Games, for example entertainment, opportunity, escaping from day and etc; the last section will be gather the information of factor that constraints participants to attend the London 2012 Olympic Games as spectator for example lack of time, financial issues, transportation issues and etc.. All the questions will be quantitative only because the data is more statistical and concentrate on numbers of participants (Veal, 2006).
3.4 Sampling and Data Collection
Sampling is a smaller version of the whole it is obtained from that reflects the same characteristics those of the whole. It is simple and straightforward in terms of its basic rationale and principles (Brotherton, 2008). The questionnaires will be distributed randomly to wide range of people so that everyone can have the equal chance to be the participant (Veal, 2006). The questionnaires will be distributed at urban area in West Midland and Greater London. A street survey approach will be use in this research. According to Veal (2006) state this approach brings convenience for the participants, the flexibility timing is controllable which is essential and it can ensure that all questionnaires were not filled out in rush or hurry. The questionnaires distribution will be targeting on young adults from aged eighteen to twenty five. The chosen age group will be target by observation of potential participant’s appearances. Mistake age group participant will be treated as error and eliminate from this research.
3.5 Data Analysis
The data collected from quantitative questionnaires will be analysing by SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) Version 16.0 analysing software. All participants will be labelled in numbering order for the conveniences of analysing the data and correlations can be found easily. All answers obtained from questionnaires will be number coded for the purpose of SPSS software to input the numerical data and evaluate its significance (Veal 2006). Results of this research will be present in graphs and tables format for better discussion and comparison view.
Limitations might occur while carrying out this research. The answer feedback from respondents only based on the questions stated in questionnaires. Missing question could be leads to lack of information. Questionnaires only rely on answers provided by respondents not the entire population, the results only refer to their answer so it might makes the results a little questionable for researcher (Veal, 2006). Another limitation would be this research only gaining quantitative data. Greater information generate by qualitative research could have been useful for this research.
The research proposal has identified the aim and objectives set. Relevant studies available as the literature for this research including motivational theory, host organisation appeal and encouragement work done by the government. Method and methodology uses have been introduced in this research proposal. Limitation consideration of the research has been specific stated down. Further literature would be explore and insert in the actual research dissertation. Primary research will be conducting sometime during summer holidays. Data analysis will be starting after the research is conducted. Any limitation arise during research will need to be overcome for smoother work and possible better result. A complete dissertation research probably will be ready to submit by the end of the year.
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: