Islamic Attributes Of Destination On Tourists Motivation Tourism Essay

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1st Jan 1970 Tourism Reference this

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INTRODUCTION

Tourism can be defined for travelling purposes for recreational, vacation or trade purposes. There are number of definitions for the term tourists, that’s tourists can defined as people who tour to and stay in places outside their usual location for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one alternate year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. This is stated according to The World Tourism Organization.

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Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. There were over 922 million international traveler arrivals, with an escalation of 1.9% in the year 2008 as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, parallel to an increase in real terms of 1.8% [1]. International travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer month during to as a result of the late-2000s recession. Due to outbreak of outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, t DuringdSDShis negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries. This gave a very big impact in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists’ arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts [2].

Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Spain, Malaysia and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the prospect for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.

Tourism Industry is always exaggerated by religion especially Islam religion for its special rules and law. National and international levels in this country are discussed with the presentation of Islam in official tourism marketing. On meeting the needs, the government is shown to place a high superiority of visitors while certain states give preference to the dictates of Islamic religion, and international strategies seek to endorse intra-Islamic travel. Therefore, the outcomes are offered into the management of Islam and tourism which may have a wider applicability beyond the special circumstances of this country.

The population for Islam religion may consist of 30% of the world population in the world by 2025[3]. In some of the Muslim countries, especially major Muslim countries, tourism is a major market, nevertheless less than 10% of global tourism returns goes to this market. Morocco, Egypt, Turkey and Malaysia are major four Muslim countries in world. In tourism, these countries attract 17.5 million guests in 2004[4]. The world tourism organization nominated ten Muslim countries such as Algeria, Iran, Malaysia, Turkey, Oman, Syria, UAE, Bahrain, Lebanon and Egypt among 38 countries as the world’s top emerging tourism destination [5]. This is for the year 2006, December. This shows the impending of Islam country that could be one of the most essential places in tourism market among other Muslim countries but it isn’t. In fact for example, Iran has a great prehistoric tradition but it is as yet little known in the West and there is much to be learnt both from it and the building techniques which are integral with it. Rituals, festivals, ceremonial events and religious buildings are fundamental tourist attractions for devout followers of the particular systems of beliefs as well as for those with a casual interest. Several authors recount how Islam religion in times gone by enjoined particular types of travel that have retained an important social and religious function, albeit constantly adapting to the changing world.

The pilgrimages incorporate an obligation to migrate. Hence the pilgrimage is one of Islam’s five pillars flanking belief in God and the prophet Muhamad, prayers, fasting and the giving of charitable trust. [6] Additionally lists ziyarat (visits to different shrines)’, these visits a form of voluntary pilgrimage which exemplifies the ‘spatially idiosyncratic traditions of Islamic populations’ [7]. Muslims should travel in order to fully appreciate the beauty of God’s world and also visit their friends and relatives. This is what mentioned in the According to the holy text of the Koran. They have a responsibility to provide warmth to visitors who, under Islamic law, enjoy the citizens’ rights.

Today, over a million Muslims travels annually to Saudi Arabia for the hajj [8] require a massive organizational endeavor by the authorities [9]. Its scale is depicted in accounts of Islamic religious circulation [10] but [11] argues that the large numbers who participate in religiously inspired travel to centers besides Mecca should not be neglected. Many Muslims also appear to share the common enthusiasm for leisure travel as outbound tourism rise with growing affluence. In tourism involvement, gender differences observed elsewhere [12] are very striking in some ultraorthodox and patriarchal Islamic cultures which impose severe restrictions on women. Male pre-eminence is a characteristic of many Muslim countries where women are denied in public place. [13] Claims that in the Middle East ‘women’s inferior status is legitimized’ by ‘misinterpretation’ of the religious texts, this gives an impact on barriers to involvement in tourism as well as other spheres of actions. Simultaneity, a large number of women believe that a proper textual interpretation actually protects their rights [14], veiling also seen as an assertion of not a symbol of female oppression and cultural identity.

Despite these gender-based inequalities of opportunity, Islam is not fundamentally opposed to tourism, yet international tourism is adversely exaggerated by poor relations between Western and Islamic nations. Islam has been associated with oppression, terrorism conservatism and anti-Western sentiment [15] while the West is criticized as an imperialist aggressor pursuing economic, political and social domination [16] whose people are infidels of lax morals. Attitudes of hosts and tourists are likely to be colored by such conceptions, and cultures in which religion plays a completely different role may clash at destinations. The arrival of non-Muslim inbound tourists is maybe violated by tourists knowingly or accidentally and more disrupting for local Muslim communities than the situation reversed due to the religious codes which inform and however, the satisfaction of the special needs of Muslim travelers overseas may be a source of anxiety to themselves and those with whom they interact [17].

There is evidence of a response by some in the Western tourism industry to overcome these issues with information provided about location of mosques and halal foods. This may encourage a Muslim tourist to travel more often to mentioned countries. Several hotel bedrooms also have pointed towards Mecca for the purposes of prayer, but still there is some question mark whether these measures are enough. More ever with combined political ideology, possible social problems have led several Middle Eastern countries to shun style international style tourism, deemed to be incompatible with Islam [18]. For example, Brunei is a strategy and act as a ‘reluctant tourist destination’ whose wealth has undermined any economic incentive to helped to protect citizens from its ‘worst excesses’ and encourage international tourism [19]. However, about what constitutes compatibility or true Islamic conduct, there is no consensus and this is reflected in the debate about the practice and meaning of Islam.

The habits and sayings of the Prophet set down by his family and companions are agreed to be normative, according to the Koran and Hadith. Yet for most Muslims, new findings to the study of the Shariah, the Islamic law means that ‘questions of interpretation, application and authenticity have become contentious issues’ [20]. Some Islamic countries may therefore find tourists more acceptable than others, partly depending on the degree of liberalism as well as losses and personal gains. For example, Iran is generally considered comparatively moderate and positive popular reactions have been recorded there [21]. However, survey respondents also raise concerns about moral decadence and [22], with a need for further research into Muslim views of tourism’s cultural impacts on their societies.

Theoretical background

Research indicates that tourist motivation and satisfaction are often determined, in part, by the desire for a learning experience. For examples, the eco tourists have a desire for environmental learning and that ecotourism operators who differentiate their product through the provision of high-quality environmental education programs establish a potential sustainable competitive advantage. However, it is asserted that this potential long-term competitive advantage will only be realized if sufficient tourists can be attracted to the offered ecotourism experience. So this might be useful when it comes to encouraging the Muslim tourists to Muslim countries and fully satisfy their need, hence makes them often visit to the same country as destination loyalty. Using the results obtained, it is argued that the relatively small emphasis on Muslim tourists’ demand for Islam attributes learning in advertising directed at potential clients is a substantial weakness in some countries’ strategic tourism.

Tourism motivation in developing countries and Islamic culture has received scant attention from researchers. The key to understanding tourism motivation is to see holiday travel as a satisfier of needs and wants. The Literature on tourism often conceptualizes tourists’ motivation and satisfaction in terms of push and pulls factors. The idea behind this concept is that people travel because they are pushed by their own internal forces and pulled by external forces of the destination attributes. In this study, internal forces will be motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty. Hence pull factor will be Islam attributes. One way to realize travel motivation is to examine the notion of push and pull demand inspiration. The objectives of this research were to understand both push and pull motivation for domestic tourism and the relationship between the two motivations for Islam tourists. The finding indicated three push factors (motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty) and one pull factors (The Islam attributes). The pull factor might be seen as one, but all the attributes are covered as safety, religions, cultural value, utilitarian, and knowledge, social. This study found that the most important push and pull factors as perceived by Islam tourists are “motivation value” and “religious.” The study also confirms the relationship between push and pull factors.

Perceptions and motivations are fundamental in tourist decisions and are crucial in the formation of the destination image. Despite the growing number of publications in this area, case studies are still scarce. This study investigates tourist perceptions and motivations in the destinations. A questionnaire was used to interview a random sample of tourists. Factor analysis and multivariate statistics were employed to find different exogenous variables at work for both perceptions and motivations, which varied according to the participant’s country of origin. Eight factors were found that help in understanding the perceived image and motivations tourists of different nationalities have about the destination. The Islam culture and loyalty also predominate as the leading motivation for tourists. The implications of these findings for explaining tourists behavior indicate future lines of research.

The variables involved in tourists’ behaviours are motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty. While motivation is only one of many variables in explaining tourist behaviour, it is nonetheless a very critical one, as it constitutes the driving force behind all behaviour [23]. Motivation sets the stage for forming people’s goals [24] in travelling and is reflected in both travel choice and behaviour; as such it influences people’s expectations, which in turn determine the perception of experiences. Motivation is therefore a factor in satisfaction formation [25].

According to some researches, basic motivation theory suggests a dynamic progression of internal psychological factors (needs, wants and goals), causing an uncomfortable level of tension within individuals’ minds and bodies, resulting in actions aimed at releasing that tension and satisfying these needs [23]. Intention, implying such an action, requires the awareness of needs, as well as objectives. To assure these conscious, steps needed in order to create wants and move people to travel [26] .Objectives or goals are presented in the form of services, it is therefore the role of marketing to create awareness of needs and suggest appropriate objectives, promising the satisfaction of these travellers [27]. Consequently this can make a tremendous change in a tourist perception on travelling to Muslim countries, which consists of Islam Attributes known to the world a most beautiful religion of all.

 

In the Western World free time and holidays are connected to the concept of self-actualisation or self-realisation. This was suggested [28] several authors. The latter defined by [29] as “a person’s dynamic relationship between the real and the ideal self, constituting a process of decreasing the distance between these two cognitive systems, themselves subject to continuous change.” It is the individual’s aim to achieve a state of stability, or homeostasis [26], which is disrupted when the person becomes aware of the gap between real and ideal self, or as [26] calls it a need scarcity. The resulting need to self-actualise represents the motive, which under the constraints of the situation sets the stage for the process of motivation [25].

 

But to what extent does tourism satisfy the intrinsic need for self-actualisation? [30] summarise 15 years of research into psychological needs, satisfied by leisure activities, and proposed leisure activities clusters such as novelty, sensual enjoyment, cognitive stimulation, self-expression, creativity, vicarious competition, relaxation, agency, belongingness and service. It is questioned however; whether these superficial needs are intrinsically motivated [26], suggesting that these motivations are merely culturally learned stereotypes or explanations for leisure behaviour to Muslim tourists as well. As [23] states, a widely accepted integrated theory for needs and goals behind motivation is lacking. This is what the researcher has studied in this case.

 

Research into motivation can be distinguished into two categories, the behaviourist and the cognivist approach [25]. The discussion has therefore traditionally revolved around either push or pulls factors influencing tourist behaviour [31]. Push factors represent enduring dispositions, as they are internally generated drives. The individual, energised by such drives, will then search objects for the promise of drive reduction and develop a motive [25]. For examples, with a good push factors, it may drive a tourist to the destination, therefore it makes them loyal to the destination. The behaviourist view thus emphasises the emotional parameter of decision-making, while the cognivist approach focuses on situational parameters in which motives are expressed, consequently encompassing a certain knowledge which the tourist holds about goal attributes as well as a rational weighing up of situational constraints [25]. This cognitive process results in motivations, which are more object specific than motives, as these only imply a class of objects and may result in a range of different behaviours, depending on the situation.

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This one-dimensional approach has been criticised however [32], as push and pull factors influence the consumer consecutively [33], integrated by the concept of involvement, an unobservable state of motivation, arousal, or interest [26], which is evoked by stimulus or situations. This is the case, since pull factors such as marketing stimuli as well as the destinations and service’s attributes respond to and reinforce push factors. Consequently research increasingly seeks to assimilate emotions and cognition in the individual’s decision-making process [34], [35], [36], [25], signifying a more holistic approach.

 

As a result it became evident that people’s intrinsic needs are influenced by external factors. In post modern society [37] asserts that in post-modern society the superstructure of advertising, television, fashion, lifestyle magazines and designer values increasingly take the role of forming knowledge and beliefs. People’s needs are neutral [38], as motives however, they require an object towards which the need is directed, and when linked to actual situations, cultural and social impacts are also applied [25]. In this study, the motivation and satisfaction oblige tourists to certain destination. Based on learned behaviour and perception on situations raise motives to the level of values, as such they are evaluations [39]. If a drive is reduced satisfactorily the individual is likely to remember the behaviour and employ the same behaviour again, thus acquiring habits [40]. Therefore tourism experiences may become learned manners and obtain the role of habit enforcers. Cognivists argue that knowledge and beliefs in future rewards, anticipatory in nature [41], are equally a product of formerly encountered situations [42] and external formation.

 

Motives purely represent learned behaviour, which are influenced by offered objects or tourism activities, and for the motivations, it represents knowledge and beliefs formed by society and culture or tourism peoples. Therefore the psychogenic need for self-actualisation, abstract in nature, is operational in a learned and practical manner and expressed in values, which are learned strategies to either adapt one’s environment to one’s needs or adapt one’s self to a given environment [43]. These values equally include effects of enculturation and socialisation [23]. Additionally the professed gap between real and ideal self, may signify both externally and internally controlled evaluations [25].

 

Some authors therefore asks what researchers can expect to know about individuals’ drives, by asking them about their motivations and needs as these may not be available to individuals as part of their awareness.  [44] Mentioned that “people do not walk around with numerous leisure needs in their minds and do not rationalise specific causes of participation if their contribution is intrinsically motivated” (cited in [26]).  Consequently it may be understood that needs are suggested by immediate social peers, and the wider context of particular social realities as well as the influence of the tourism [45].  Yet as mentioned by [46] stress, intrinsic leisure motivation, which is a global disposition and describes an affinity to seek intrinsic rewards, is characterised by self-determination, an awareness of internal needs and a strong desire to make free choices on destination based on these needs by the tourists.

 

The current society exercises a great deal of influence on the formation of the ideal self and thus perceived needs. Which is for all individuals, self-actualisation may be accepted as a need intrinsic for them. However the notion of authentic or true self, determined by way of experience, offers a solution to the predicament. Individualism symbolises four psychological qualities. One if it is an intelligence of individual identity, based on the knowledge of which one is and what one’s goals and values are, as such it is related to the philosophical concept of true self. Which indicates what an individual reckons personally significant and what it is to be actualised? This is according to [47]. The other is Maslow’s self-actualisation, which is the driving to be one’s true self. The third is list is quality which is [48] internal locus of control, which reflects a compliance to accept personal conscientiousness for one’s life. And the last and fourth is principled (post conventional), moral reasoning [49], which involves regularity with general conceptual principles (cited in [50]).

Subsequently, only if a tourist becomes more autonomous and therefore aware of intrinsic needs and motives are they able to self-actualise. Order is becoming less essential in Western society and a desire for disorder in the tourism experience is becoming more important as [51] explained. Some authors voice out that “opportunities for unplanned action and freedom from institutionalised regulations are distinctive of Western tourists”.  This explains that certain tourists exhibit a assured desire to liberate their identities. According to [52], in order for tourists to cease being just users of holidays, they must come to know themselves, their motives and other cultures.  So it is understandable that self-actualisation is an intrinsic need, characteristic of any tourist, but must be understood in terms of true self as opposed to ideal self. Such is this independent of societal pressures and involves the transcendence of habitual behaviours and mind states. This proposition requires further elaboration and must be viewed in the context of modernity, which hinders this process but at the same time brought about its awareness. Therefore, the Islamic attributes of destination in which catering to the religious needs of Muslim tourists may play an important role between the travel motivations (push and pull) and overall tourist satisfaction, which may impact on destination loyalty. Religious attributes of destinations should be recognized more in the context of the existing competitive tourism context [53].

Background of the study

There are different aspects can be looked in a tourism industry. But the major issue is the culture and religion of a certain country. As known in most of the research, tourism Industry is always affected by religion especially Islam religion for its special rules and regulation. Thus it reflects Islam as the biggest and widest religion in the world .This study is more on the Islamic religion and international tourism, using the example of Iran as a case study to show the opportunities and problems which arise when this two item come into contact. Some survey observations are made about the conflicts, difficulties of the relationship, between tourist demands such as motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty and not to miss out the religious practices. For example, the authorities in Iran, where Islam is central to everyday life, have responded in a different method to solve this problem. Other than the main aspect of relation between Islam attributes with a tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty, the presentation of Islam in official tourism marketing, national and international levels in this country are discussed as a minor part. The government is publicized to place a high superiority on meeting the desires of tourists while certain states give superiority to the dictates of Islamic religion, and international strategies seek to promote intra-Islamic travel. Thus, results are offered into the management of Islam and tourism which may have a wider applicability beyond the special circumstances of this country.

A number of authors conduct studies on how Islam religion historically enjoined particular types of journey that have retained an important social and religious function, although constantly adapting to the changing world. Five pillars in the pilgrimage is belief in God and the prophet Muhammad, prayers, fasting and the giving of charity, and at the same time pilgrimages also incorporates an compulsion to migration issue. [6] Additionally lists ziyarat (visits to different shrines)’, these visits a form of voluntary pilgrimage which exemplifies the ‘spatially distinctive traditions of Islamic populations’ [7]. Simultaneity, a large number of women believe that a proper textual interpretation actually protects their rights [7], veiling also seen as an assertion of not a symbol of female oppression and cultural identity.

There are different aspects to be studied in Islam tourism industry such as food, accommodation and mostly Islam culture places. As in food aspect, halal tourism is new merchandise in the tourism industry which provides holiday destinations for Muslim families who abide by Sharia rules. When it comes to halal concept, the hotels in such Islam destinations do not serve alcohol and have split swimming pools and spa facilities for men and women. Countries like Malaysia, Turkey and many more Islam countries are trying to create a center of attention for Muslim tourists from all over the world offering facilities in agreement with the religious beliefs of Muslim tourists. Not only halal term studied in food aspect, but foods served in flight service also follow the guidelines of halal. This is verified when halal tourism industry also provides flights where no alcohol or pork products are served, prayer timings are announced, and religious programs are broadcast as part of entertainment offered on board. This is studied and even there is report mentions a market for a halal startup airline, which could supply halal food, prayer calls, Qur’an in seat pockets and provide separate sections for male and female travelers according to the basic commandment of Islam religion.

Hotel plays a vital role in tourism industry as it accommodates the tourists. In harmony with the teachings of Islamic Sharia, many international hotels do serve halal food. Halal food is slaughtered in and is free of any substances forbidden by Islam such as pork and alcohol. Some hotels have employed people of Arab or people who could understand the Islam to provide translation services and other help that may be needed by tourists from Muslim countries. For a example, Crescent Tours’ is a UK-based travel company, pioneering Halal Beach & Sun Holidays on the Mediterranean and Islamic Heritage Tours in Turkey. Other examples are, in all Malaysian hotels, the management even provides the direction of kiblat for praying purposes.

Regional instability has had a detrimental effect on tourism growth in certain instances, one example being terrorist attacks by Muslim groups in Egypt [8]. This is just mild example. Even though it is not a main issue, other commentators have clarified the consequences of this and the implication of Islam more generally in tourism research with a wider frame of reference [54].

One of the solutions might be when state decisions could inhibit Western-style tourism, while national authorities extend a wholehearted welcome to tourists irrespective of their origin and religion. It is not a matter whether the tourists from western or Muslim countries. Those at work in the tourism industry within Islam countries and its principal markets need to be aware of the changing conditions and have an appreciation of religious sensitivities, helping to educate tourists about appropriate behavior. This is can be done with a research on scope for consultation with religious features, regarding the formulation of codes of presentation and conduct of sites such as shrines and mosques as tourist attractions. The difficulties of establishing a consensus cannot be neglected; however, the struggle to enforce Shariah law is another source of unease, although PAS has stated that only Muslims would be subject to its rules and regulations. Further studies are necessary to fully estimate the effects and outcomes of media reporting as well as attitudes amongst official decision residents and makers.

Problem statement

Even there is ample of issues on tourism and the activities related, yet religious issues have always influenced majorly the touristic activities. In Islamic countries where most of the communities are Muslims, some religious commandments have overwhelmed the quantity and quality of tourism. Considering the statement of communities’ plays a vital role, reciprocity between religion and the tourism industry this studies deal with the role of religion (Islam) in tourism industry in the Islamic countries. In this aspect, this study are keen in researching the interconnection relationship between Islam and tourism, manners of Muslims as hosts and guests, and finally the international collaboration in Islamic tourism industry.

Facts show that Muslims constitute a global market of approximately two billion potential customers. Assuming that religion plays an important part in their decision making process with regard to travel destinations [55], Islamic religious attributes are bound to be very important considerations when a Muslim decides to travel abroad [56]. The Muslim tourists may decide not to travel to a particular destination due to the absence of these attributes [56]. In addition, the absence of Islamic attributes in the destination may be a source of worry to themselves and those with whom they interact [17]. Besides the push and pull motivations that can be a means of influencing tourist behavior, it is important to understand the Islamic attributes that may lead to tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty for Muslims. This study attempts to address this problem by empirically testing the relationship between Islamic attributes of destination, travel motivations, overall tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty.

The significance of the study

Islamic destinations should put an effort in meeting the necessities of international Muslim tourists. By implementing this method, any risk upsetting Muslim tenets obviously is not so debatable when tourists are fellow Muslims from within or outside national precincts. Although Muslim identities are not the same [57], conflicts over dress, food, conduct and religious and social observances are less likely. While intra- Islamic travel has been narrowed to date, apart from pilgrimages to Saudi Arabia, there is still growing interest in this province. It is the subject of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), an official organization of 56 Islamic nations dedicated to the well-being of Muslims worldwide; these total almost 1.4 billion or 20% of the world’s inhabitants, forecasted to rise to over 30% by 2025 [58] . Since the Muslim population is a significant market, the exploitation of which is a partial solution to the predicament of accommodation to tourists from a more alien figures and culture reveals that how important domestic activity can be in contributing highest profit in tourism industry.

Non- Muslim visitors are acceptable and there is recognition of the value of working with the international tourism agencies such as World Tourism Organization and others, but much of the emphasis is on tourism as a vehicle for reinforcing the solidarity of the Islamic societies. Within the Islamic world, the greater travel by Muslims could lead to better understanding, stimulate serve and collaboration the common good. At a most international recent meeting, a delegate advised creating more Islamic tour packages dedicated to a Muslim heritage which has been largely ignored [59]. The Islamic Development Bank, mention that the purpose to it, is to inspire social progress and economical growth amongst its 53 Muslim member countries. Yet it can be adopted in other Muslims elsewhere in accordance with the Shariah, also emphasized support for tourism. Meanwhile the efficiency of both the OIC and Islamic Development Bank have been questioned [60], their acknowledge

INTRODUCTION

Tourism can be defined for travelling purposes for recreational, vacation or trade purposes. There are number of definitions for the term tourists, that’s tourists can defined as people who tour to and stay in places outside their usual location for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one alternate year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. This is stated according to The World Tourism Organization.

Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. There were over 922 million international traveler arrivals, with an escalation of 1.9% in the year 2008 as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, parallel to an increase in real terms of 1.8% [1]. International travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer month during to as a result of the late-2000s recession. Due to outbreak of outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, t DuringdSDShis negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries. This gave a very big impact in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists’ arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts [2].

Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Spain, Malaysia and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the prospect for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.

Tourism Industry is always exaggerated by religion especially Islam religion for its special rules and law. National and international levels in this country are discussed with the presentation of Islam in official tourism marketing. On meeting the needs, the government is shown to place a high superiority of visitors while certain states give preference to the dictates of Islamic religion, and international strategies seek to endorse intra-Islamic travel. Therefore, the outcomes are offered into the management of Islam and tourism which may have a wider applicability beyond the special circumstances of this country.

The population for Islam religion may consist of 30% of the world population in the world by 2025[3]. In some of the Muslim countries, especially major Muslim countries, tourism is a major market, nevertheless less than 10% of global tourism returns goes to this market. Morocco, Egypt, Turkey and Malaysia are major four Muslim countries in world. In tourism, these countries attract 17.5 million guests in 2004[4]. The world tourism organization nominated ten Muslim countries such as Algeria, Iran, Malaysia, Turkey, Oman, Syria, UAE, Bahrain, Lebanon and Egypt among 38 countries as the world’s top emerging tourism destination [5]. This is for the year 2006, December. This shows the impending of Islam country that could be one of the most essential places in tourism market among other Muslim countries but it isn’t. In fact for example, Iran has a great prehistoric tradition but it is as yet little known in the West and there is much to be learnt both from it and the building techniques which are integral with it. Rituals, festivals, ceremonial events and religious buildings are fundamental tourist attractions for devout followers of the particular systems of beliefs as well as for those with a casual interest. Several authors recount how Islam religion in times gone by enjoined particular types of travel that have retained an important social and religious function, albeit constantly adapting to the changing world.

The pilgrimages incorporate an obligation to migrate. Hence the pilgrimage is one of Islam’s five pillars flanking belief in God and the prophet Muhamad, prayers, fasting and the giving of charitable trust. [6] Additionally lists ziyarat (visits to different shrines)’, these visits a form of voluntary pilgrimage which exemplifies the ‘spatially idiosyncratic traditions of Islamic populations’ [7]. Muslims should travel in order to fully appreciate the beauty of God’s world and also visit their friends and relatives. This is what mentioned in the According to the holy text of the Koran. They have a responsibility to provide warmth to visitors who, under Islamic law, enjoy the citizens’ rights.

Today, over a million Muslims travels annually to Saudi Arabia for the hajj [8] require a massive organizational endeavor by the authorities [9]. Its scale is depicted in accounts of Islamic religious circulation [10] but [11] argues that the large numbers who participate in religiously inspired travel to centers besides Mecca should not be neglected. Many Muslims also appear to share the common enthusiasm for leisure travel as outbound tourism rise with growing affluence. In tourism involvement, gender differences observed elsewhere [12] are very striking in some ultraorthodox and patriarchal Islamic cultures which impose severe restrictions on women. Male pre-eminence is a characteristic of many Muslim countries where women are denied in public place. [13] Claims that in the Middle East ‘women’s inferior status is legitimized’ by ‘misinterpretation’ of the religious texts, this gives an impact on barriers to involvement in tourism as well as other spheres of actions. Simultaneity, a large number of women believe that a proper textual interpretation actually protects their rights [14], veiling also seen as an assertion of not a symbol of female oppression and cultural identity.

Despite these gender-based inequalities of opportunity, Islam is not fundamentally opposed to tourism, yet international tourism is adversely exaggerated by poor relations between Western and Islamic nations. Islam has been associated with oppression, terrorism conservatism and anti-Western sentiment [15] while the West is criticized as an imperialist aggressor pursuing economic, political and social domination [16] whose people are infidels of lax morals. Attitudes of hosts and tourists are likely to be colored by such conceptions, and cultures in which religion plays a completely different role may clash at destinations. The arrival of non-Muslim inbound tourists is maybe violated by tourists knowingly or accidentally and more disrupting for local Muslim communities than the situation reversed due to the religious codes which inform and however, the satisfaction of the special needs of Muslim travelers overseas may be a source of anxiety to themselves and those with whom they interact [17].

There is evidence of a response by some in the Western tourism industry to overcome these issues with information provided about location of mosques and halal foods. This may encourage a Muslim tourist to travel more often to mentioned countries. Several hotel bedrooms also have pointed towards Mecca for the purposes of prayer, but still there is some question mark whether these measures are enough. More ever with combined political ideology, possible social problems have led several Middle Eastern countries to shun style international style tourism, deemed to be incompatible with Islam [18]. For example, Brunei is a strategy and act as a ‘reluctant tourist destination’ whose wealth has undermined any economic incentive to helped to protect citizens from its ‘worst excesses’ and encourage international tourism [19]. However, about what constitutes compatibility or true Islamic conduct, there is no consensus and this is reflected in the debate about the practice and meaning of Islam.

The habits and sayings of the Prophet set down by his family and companions are agreed to be normative, according to the Koran and Hadith. Yet for most Muslims, new findings to the study of the Shariah, the Islamic law means that ‘questions of interpretation, application and authenticity have become contentious issues’ [20]. Some Islamic countries may therefore find tourists more acceptable than others, partly depending on the degree of liberalism as well as losses and personal gains. For example, Iran is generally considered comparatively moderate and positive popular reactions have been recorded there [21]. However, survey respondents also raise concerns about moral decadence and [22], with a need for further research into Muslim views of tourism’s cultural impacts on their societies.

Theoretical background

Research indicates that tourist motivation and satisfaction are often determined, in part, by the desire for a learning experience. For examples, the eco tourists have a desire for environmental learning and that ecotourism operators who differentiate their product through the provision of high-quality environmental education programs establish a potential sustainable competitive advantage. However, it is asserted that this potential long-term competitive advantage will only be realized if sufficient tourists can be attracted to the offered ecotourism experience. So this might be useful when it comes to encouraging the Muslim tourists to Muslim countries and fully satisfy their need, hence makes them often visit to the same country as destination loyalty. Using the results obtained, it is argued that the relatively small emphasis on Muslim tourists’ demand for Islam attributes learning in advertising directed at potential clients is a substantial weakness in some countries’ strategic tourism.

Tourism motivation in developing countries and Islamic culture has received scant attention from researchers. The key to understanding tourism motivation is to see holiday travel as a satisfier of needs and wants. The Literature on tourism often conceptualizes tourists’ motivation and satisfaction in terms of push and pulls factors. The idea behind this concept is that people travel because they are pushed by their own internal forces and pulled by external forces of the destination attributes. In this study, internal forces will be motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty. Hence pull factor will be Islam attributes. One way to realize travel motivation is to examine the notion of push and pull demand inspiration. The objectives of this research were to understand both push and pull motivation for domestic tourism and the relationship between the two motivations for Islam tourists. The finding indicated three push factors (motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty) and one pull factors (The Islam attributes). The pull factor might be seen as one, but all the attributes are covered as safety, religions, cultural value, utilitarian, and knowledge, social. This study found that the most important push and pull factors as perceived by Islam tourists are “motivation value” and “religious.” The study also confirms the relationship between push and pull factors.

Perceptions and motivations are fundamental in tourist decisions and are crucial in the formation of the destination image. Despite the growing number of publications in this area, case studies are still scarce. This study investigates tourist perceptions and motivations in the destinations. A questionnaire was used to interview a random sample of tourists. Factor analysis and multivariate statistics were employed to find different exogenous variables at work for both perceptions and motivations, which varied according to the participant’s country of origin. Eight factors were found that help in understanding the perceived image and motivations tourists of different nationalities have about the destination. The Islam culture and loyalty also predominate as the leading motivation for tourists. The implications of these findings for explaining tourists behavior indicate future lines of research.

The variables involved in tourists’ behaviours are motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty. While motivation is only one of many variables in explaining tourist behaviour, it is nonetheless a very critical one, as it constitutes the driving force behind all behaviour [23]. Motivation sets the stage for forming people’s goals [24] in travelling and is reflected in both travel choice and behaviour; as such it influences people’s expectations, which in turn determine the perception of experiences. Motivation is therefore a factor in satisfaction formation [25].

According to some researches, basic motivation theory suggests a dynamic progression of internal psychological factors (needs, wants and goals), causing an uncomfortable level of tension within individuals’ minds and bodies, resulting in actions aimed at releasing that tension and satisfying these needs [23]. Intention, implying such an action, requires the awareness of needs, as well as objectives. To assure these conscious, steps needed in order to create wants and move people to travel [26] .Objectives or goals are presented in the form of services, it is therefore the role of marketing to create awareness of needs and suggest appropriate objectives, promising the satisfaction of these travellers [27]. Consequently this can make a tremendous change in a tourist perception on travelling to Muslim countries, which consists of Islam Attributes known to the world a most beautiful religion of all.

 

In the Western World free time and holidays are connected to the concept of self-actualisation or self-realisation. This was suggested [28] several authors. The latter defined by [29] as “a person’s dynamic relationship between the real and the ideal self, constituting a process of decreasing the distance between these two cognitive systems, themselves subject to continuous change.” It is the individual’s aim to achieve a state of stability, or homeostasis [26], which is disrupted when the person becomes aware of the gap between real and ideal self, or as [26] calls it a need scarcity. The resulting need to self-actualise represents the motive, which under the constraints of the situation sets the stage for the process of motivation [25].

 

But to what extent does tourism satisfy the intrinsic need for self-actualisation? [30] summarise 15 years of research into psychological needs, satisfied by leisure activities, and proposed leisure activities clusters such as novelty, sensual enjoyment, cognitive stimulation, self-expression, creativity, vicarious competition, relaxation, agency, belongingness and service. It is questioned however; whether these superficial needs are intrinsically motivated [26], suggesting that these motivations are merely culturally learned stereotypes or explanations for leisure behaviour to Muslim tourists as well. As [23] states, a widely accepted integrated theory for needs and goals behind motivation is lacking. This is what the researcher has studied in this case.

 

Research into motivation can be distinguished into two categories, the behaviourist and the cognivist approach [25]. The discussion has therefore traditionally revolved around either push or pulls factors influencing tourist behaviour [31]. Push factors represent enduring dispositions, as they are internally generated drives. The individual, energised by such drives, will then search objects for the promise of drive reduction and develop a motive [25]. For examples, with a good push factors, it may drive a tourist to the destination, therefore it makes them loyal to the destination. The behaviourist view thus emphasises the emotional parameter of decision-making, while the cognivist approach focuses on situational parameters in which motives are expressed, consequently encompassing a certain knowledge which the tourist holds about goal attributes as well as a rational weighing up of situational constraints [25]. This cognitive process results in motivations, which are more object specific than motives, as these only imply a class of objects and may result in a range of different behaviours, depending on the situation.

This one-dimensional approach has been criticised however [32], as push and pull factors influence the consumer consecutively [33], integrated by the concept of involvement, an unobservable state of motivation, arousal, or interest [26], which is evoked by stimulus or situations. This is the case, since pull factors such as marketing stimuli as well as the destinations and service’s attributes respond to and reinforce push factors. Consequently research increasingly seeks to assimilate emotions and cognition in the individual’s decision-making process [34], [35], [36], [25], signifying a more holistic approach.

 

As a result it became evident that people’s intrinsic needs are influenced by external factors. In post modern society [37] asserts that in post-modern society the superstructure of advertising, television, fashion, lifestyle magazines and designer values increasingly take the role of forming knowledge and beliefs. People’s needs are neutral [38], as motives however, they require an object towards which the need is directed, and when linked to actual situations, cultural and social impacts are also applied [25]. In this study, the motivation and satisfaction oblige tourists to certain destination. Based on learned behaviour and perception on situations raise motives to the level of values, as such they are evaluations [39]. If a drive is reduced satisfactorily the individual is likely to remember the behaviour and employ the same behaviour again, thus acquiring habits [40]. Therefore tourism experiences may become learned manners and obtain the role of habit enforcers. Cognivists argue that knowledge and beliefs in future rewards, anticipatory in nature [41], are equally a product of formerly encountered situations [42] and external formation.

 

Motives purely represent learned behaviour, which are influenced by offered objects or tourism activities, and for the motivations, it represents knowledge and beliefs formed by society and culture or tourism peoples. Therefore the psychogenic need for self-actualisation, abstract in nature, is operational in a learned and practical manner and expressed in values, which are learned strategies to either adapt one’s environment to one’s needs or adapt one’s self to a given environment [43]. These values equally include effects of enculturation and socialisation [23]. Additionally the professed gap between real and ideal self, may signify both externally and internally controlled evaluations [25].

 

Some authors therefore asks what researchers can expect to know about individuals’ drives, by asking them about their motivations and needs as these may not be available to individuals as part of their awareness.  [44] Mentioned that “people do not walk around with numerous leisure needs in their minds and do not rationalise specific causes of participation if their contribution is intrinsically motivated” (cited in [26]).  Consequently it may be understood that needs are suggested by immediate social peers, and the wider context of particular social realities as well as the influence of the tourism [45].  Yet as mentioned by [46] stress, intrinsic leisure motivation, which is a global disposition and describes an affinity to seek intrinsic rewards, is characterised by self-determination, an awareness of internal needs and a strong desire to make free choices on destination based on these needs by the tourists.

 

The current society exercises a great deal of influence on the formation of the ideal self and thus perceived needs. Which is for all individuals, self-actualisation may be accepted as a need intrinsic for them. However the notion of authentic or true self, determined by way of experience, offers a solution to the predicament. Individualism symbolises four psychological qualities. One if it is an intelligence of individual identity, based on the knowledge of which one is and what one’s goals and values are, as such it is related to the philosophical concept of true self. Which indicates what an individual reckons personally significant and what it is to be actualised? This is according to [47]. The other is Maslow’s self-actualisation, which is the driving to be one’s true self. The third is list is quality which is [48] internal locus of control, which reflects a compliance to accept personal conscientiousness for one’s life. And the last and fourth is principled (post conventional), moral reasoning [49], which involves regularity with general conceptual principles (cited in [50]).

Subsequently, only if a tourist becomes more autonomous and therefore aware of intrinsic needs and motives are they able to self-actualise. Order is becoming less essential in Western society and a desire for disorder in the tourism experience is becoming more important as [51] explained. Some authors voice out that “opportunities for unplanned action and freedom from institutionalised regulations are distinctive of Western tourists”.  This explains that certain tourists exhibit a assured desire to liberate their identities. According to [52], in order for tourists to cease being just users of holidays, they must come to know themselves, their motives and other cultures.  So it is understandable that self-actualisation is an intrinsic need, characteristic of any tourist, but must be understood in terms of true self as opposed to ideal self. Such is this independent of societal pressures and involves the transcendence of habitual behaviours and mind states. This proposition requires further elaboration and must be viewed in the context of modernity, which hinders this process but at the same time brought about its awareness. Therefore, the Islamic attributes of destination in which catering to the religious needs of Muslim tourists may play an important role between the travel motivations (push and pull) and overall tourist satisfaction, which may impact on destination loyalty. Religious attributes of destinations should be recognized more in the context of the existing competitive tourism context [53].

Background of the study

There are different aspects can be looked in a tourism industry. But the major issue is the culture and religion of a certain country. As known in most of the research, tourism Industry is always affected by religion especially Islam religion for its special rules and regulation. Thus it reflects Islam as the biggest and widest religion in the world .This study is more on the Islamic religion and international tourism, using the example of Iran as a case study to show the opportunities and problems which arise when this two item come into contact. Some survey observations are made about the conflicts, difficulties of the relationship, between tourist demands such as motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty and not to miss out the religious practices. For example, the authorities in Iran, where Islam is central to everyday life, have responded in a different method to solve this problem. Other than the main aspect of relation between Islam attributes with a tourists’ motivation, satisfaction and destination loyalty, the presentation of Islam in official tourism marketing, national and international levels in this country are discussed as a minor part. The government is publicized to place a high superiority on meeting the desires of tourists while certain states give superiority to the dictates of Islamic religion, and international strategies seek to promote intra-Islamic travel. Thus, results are offered into the management of Islam and tourism which may have a wider applicability beyond the special circumstances of this country.

A number of authors conduct studies on how Islam religion historically enjoined particular types of journey that have retained an important social and religious function, although constantly adapting to the changing world. Five pillars in the pilgrimage is belief in God and the prophet Muhammad, prayers, fasting and the giving of charity, and at the same time pilgrimages also incorporates an compulsion to migration issue. [6] Additionally lists ziyarat (visits to different shrines)’, these visits a form of voluntary pilgrimage which exemplifies the ‘spatially distinctive traditions of Islamic populations’ [7]. Simultaneity, a large number of women believe that a proper textual interpretation actually protects their rights [7], veiling also seen as an assertion of not a symbol of female oppression and cultural identity.

There are different aspects to be studied in Islam tourism industry such as food, accommodation and mostly Islam culture places. As in food aspect, halal tourism is new merchandise in the tourism industry which provides holiday destinations for Muslim families who abide by Sharia rules. When it comes to halal concept, the hotels in such Islam destinations do not serve alcohol and have split swimming pools and spa facilities for men and women. Countries like Malaysia, Turkey and many more Islam countries are trying to create a center of attention for Muslim tourists from all over the world offering facilities in agreement with the religious beliefs of Muslim tourists. Not only halal term studied in food aspect, but foods served in flight service also follow the guidelines of halal. This is verified when halal tourism industry also provides flights where no alcohol or pork products are served, prayer timings are announced, and religious programs are broadcast as part of entertainment offered on board. This is studied and even there is report mentions a market for a halal startup airline, which could supply halal food, prayer calls, Qur’an in seat pockets and provide separate sections for male and female travelers according to the basic commandment of Islam religion.

Hotel plays a vital role in tourism industry as it accommodates the tourists. In harmony with the teachings of Islamic Sharia, many international hotels do serve halal food. Halal food is slaughtered in and is free of any substances forbidden by Islam such as pork and alcohol. Some hotels have employed people of Arab or people who could understand the Islam to provide translation services and other help that may be needed by tourists from Muslim countries. For a example, Crescent Tours’ is a UK-based travel company, pioneering Halal Beach & Sun Holidays on the Mediterranean and Islamic Heritage Tours in Turkey. Other examples are, in all Malaysian hotels, the management even provides the direction of kiblat for praying purposes.

Regional instability has had a detrimental effect on tourism growth in certain instances, one example being terrorist attacks by Muslim groups in Egypt [8]. This is just mild example. Even though it is not a main issue, other commentators have clarified the consequences of this and the implication of Islam more generally in tourism research with a wider frame of reference [54].

One of the solutions might be when state decisions could inhibit Western-style tourism, while national authorities extend a wholehearted welcome to tourists irrespective of their origin and religion. It is not a matter whether the tourists from western or Muslim countries. Those at work in the tourism industry within Islam countries and its principal markets need to be aware of the changing conditions and have an appreciation of religious sensitivities, helping to educate tourists about appropriate behavior. This is can be done with a research on scope for consultation with religious features, regarding the formulation of codes of presentation and conduct of sites such as shrines and mosques as tourist attractions. The difficulties of establishing a consensus cannot be neglected; however, the struggle to enforce Shariah law is another source of unease, although PAS has stated that only Muslims would be subject to its rules and regulations. Further studies are necessary to fully estimate the effects and outcomes of media reporting as well as attitudes amongst official decision residents and makers.

Problem statement

Even there is ample of issues on tourism and the activities related, yet religious issues have always influenced majorly the touristic activities. In Islamic countries where most of the communities are Muslims, some religious commandments have overwhelmed the quantity and quality of tourism. Considering the statement of communities’ plays a vital role, reciprocity between religion and the tourism industry this studies deal with the role of religion (Islam) in tourism industry in the Islamic countries. In this aspect, this study are keen in researching the interconnection relationship between Islam and tourism, manners of Muslims as hosts and guests, and finally the international collaboration in Islamic tourism industry.

Facts show that Muslims constitute a global market of approximately two billion potential customers. Assuming that religion plays an important part in their decision making process with regard to travel destinations [55], Islamic religious attributes are bound to be very important considerations when a Muslim decides to travel abroad [56]. The Muslim tourists may decide not to travel to a particular destination due to the absence of these attributes [56]. In addition, the absence of Islamic attributes in the destination may be a source of worry to themselves and those with whom they interact [17]. Besides the push and pull motivations that can be a means of influencing tourist behavior, it is important to understand the Islamic attributes that may lead to tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty for Muslims. This study attempts to address this problem by empirically testing the relationship between Islamic attributes of destination, travel motivations, overall tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty.

The significance of the study

Islamic destinations should put an effort in meeting the necessities of international Muslim tourists. By implementing this method, any risk upsetting Muslim tenets obviously is not so debatable when tourists are fellow Muslims from within or outside national precincts. Although Muslim identities are not the same [57], conflicts over dress, food, conduct and religious and social observances are less likely. While intra- Islamic travel has been narrowed to date, apart from pilgrimages to Saudi Arabia, there is still growing interest in this province. It is the subject of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), an official organization of 56 Islamic nations dedicated to the well-being of Muslims worldwide; these total almost 1.4 billion or 20% of the world’s inhabitants, forecasted to rise to over 30% by 2025 [58] . Since the Muslim population is a significant market, the exploitation of which is a partial solution to the predicament of accommodation to tourists from a more alien figures and culture reveals that how important domestic activity can be in contributing highest profit in tourism industry.

Non- Muslim visitors are acceptable and there is recognition of the value of working with the international tourism agencies such as World Tourism Organization and others, but much of the emphasis is on tourism as a vehicle for reinforcing the solidarity of the Islamic societies. Within the Islamic world, the greater travel by Muslims could lead to better understanding, stimulate serve and collaboration the common good. At a most international recent meeting, a delegate advised creating more Islamic tour packages dedicated to a Muslim heritage which has been largely ignored [59]. The Islamic Development Bank, mention that the purpose to it, is to inspire social progress and economical growth amongst its 53 Muslim member countries. Yet it can be adopted in other Muslims elsewhere in accordance with the Shariah, also emphasized support for tourism. Meanwhile the efficiency of both the OIC and Islamic Development Bank have been questioned [60], their acknowledge

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