Literature review concentrates the theoretical framework for what is tourism and what is meant by infrastructure development in tourism industry. In this way, this section analyzes possible infrastructure facilities that are causing for development in tourism industry
Tourism is "the temporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs" (Mathieson & Wall, 1982, p.1)
Tourism has not been defined universally because it is hard to define if tourism is
an industry and what factors make a person traveling a tourist. "All tourism involves
travel, yet not all travel is tourism" (Mill & Morrison, 2002, p. 1). What this is saying that
you need to go somewhere to be a tourist yet you can go somewhere and not be a tourist,
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simply be visiting family. Travel refers to the act of moving outside of ones usual
Tourism in Sri Lanka contributes significantly to the counties economy. Today more than 150,000 people directly or indirectly depend on this industry. Therefore, there should be clear understanding and policy to make tourism more sustainable and economical to the country whilst attracting many visitors. There are many activities that occurs when people travel (Mill & Morrison, 2002). This includes planning the trip, traveling to the destination, the activities the traveler undertakes as part of the trip, the interactions between the visitor and the host destination.
A destination is first and foremost the important thing for tourism. There should be a place for people to go before anything else can happen. A destination must have an attraction and all the needs of a tourist, such as hotels, activities, and transportation which leads to the demands of tourists. Not only must there be a place to travel but also a place that people will want to visit. (World Tourism Organization, 1975)
And this is where the infrastructure comes to consideration. What is infrastructure at a destination?
Definitions of Infrastructure
In 1983 report, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) defined "infrastructure" as facilities with "the common characteristics of capital intensiveness and high public investment at all levels of government. They are, moreover, directly critical to activity in the nation's economy"
The Council established by P.L. 98-501 provided yet another definition of
"infrastructure." The Council's report characterized "infrastructure" as facilities with
high fixed costs, long economic lives, strong links to economic development, and a
tradition of public sector involvement
Tourism infrastructure is a component of regional tourist product. Infrastructure is comprised of basic devices, buildings and service institutions, whose existence is crucial to the proper operating of economy and society. Infrastructure is divided into
â€¢ Technical, including basic devices used in transport, communication, gas, heat, power and road industry, etc.,
â€¢ Social, including devices and institutions connected with education, culture, science, health, physical culture and tourism, public administration [Gaworecki., 2003]
Nevertheless, it is a must for any destination to maintain proper infrastructure facilities to attract tourist to the area. Without the basic infrastructure facilities no touristic activity can take place. Therefore, in order to promote a destination first of all there should be proper infrastructure facilities.
Sri Lanka has a huge potential for tourism development with the prospect of peace looming. Opportunities will be presented to open up areas that were previously inaccessible to the industry. Like promote North & East province of Sri Lanka as a leading tourism destination and a Gateway to South Asia. This will include providing diverse tourism experiences and exploiting resources that have been underutilized by the sector so far. Which will generate foreign exchange and also it will enhance the livelihood of the people in the province. To fulfill this mission there must be proper infrastructure in the region. By facilitating those basic infrastructure will enable more visitor friendly environment and by which more tourists can attract to the area.
Below are some charts which shows accommodation capacity in all over Sri Lanka and tourist arrivals to the country from 1999 to 2009
Accommodation Capacity (Graded) 1999 to 2009
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Official Tourism Receipts (Rs.mn) 1999 to 2009
Tourist Arrivals 1999 to 2009
This chapter has provided the literature for this study. At the very beginning concept of tourism and infrastructure were defined. Afterwards effects of infrastructure were discussed thus poor infrastructure can lead to negative consequences. Subsequently measurement of infrastructure has been presented. After that it describe the survival of the tourism industry is based on the development of the infrastructure development. Furthermore infrastructure development will improve the quality of the life of the people in the said region.