The term sustainability is used in order to consider socioeconomic, environmental, and cultural impact of tourism on destination and in order to avoid negative effect of the tourism, the following factors must be consider and keep in balance in order to gain permanent sustainability.
A tourism destination will be said as sustainable if it contains the following characteristic.
There must be limited impact on environment is the key and essential element and therefore the use of resource must be in way that doesn't affect the natural ecological process and that tourism mustn't affect/ disturb the biodiversity or natural heritage of the destination.
A tourism will be said as sustainable if it doesn't affect/disturb the culture of the destination and do not make changes in the way of living, culture and native value of the destination and their inhabitants instead the sustaibilile tourism is one which promote the understand of each others culture (culture of host and guest) and therefore sustain able tourism lead increase understanding between guest and host communities and increase their level of tolerance to each other.
A sustainable tourism must generate economic return for the host destination and their communities and these return should be equally distributed to those who deserve it not to be taken by some one else and spend for other purpose but instead a true sustainable tourism improve the socioeconomic life of host destination without affecting their culture and values. The return from sustainable tourism may be distribute in local communities through increasing opportunities for employment and generate income directly to host destination and furthermore this revenue must be used in improving the quality of life of inhabitant in host destination.
Tourism in Maldives:
Maldives is country made up of some twelve hundred islands but some around two hundred island are inhabited while the remaining though some are build as tourist resort but are even untouched including them some are given to external organization for different projects for example few of them are used for fisheries. Including fisheries.
This trend of leasing island started when the tourism development and promotion of Maldives with name as Maldives Tourism Development Corporation (MTDC) which has presence through the country , the creation MTDC was a step towards Maldives government to develop its island with name Herathera in Addu Atoll , a wonderful resort for the tourist nad from this day a new chapter of Maldives history was initiated of allowing tourist to use its inhabited island and with the passage of time this concept modified and change into the trend of leasing part of land in island which has got airport for domestic travel to hotels.
The tourism best use of accommodation in Maldives is based on a concept one island one resort and it is estimate that some six hundred thousand people visited Maldives in a year before recession and tsunami affected the island, this number is almost double than the local population of Maldives which is estimate at around three hundred thousand people..
Importance and key development on Sustainable in Maldives:
Maldives is located at the south west of srilanka in the Indian Ocean. The special structure of Maldives make at most vulnerable place to be affected from global warming and the rise in the sea level.
The current sustainability strategy based on vision 2020 focused economic, social and environmental priorities and Maldives has gain substantially from the objectives of vision 2020 in every area of social, economic and environment impact.
How the destination has been planned and developed to achieve sustainability, including identification and actions to correct any areas of un-sustainability.
The growing industry of tourism has posed serious risk to sustainability of culture of host destination together with leaving negative impact of environment and this issue doesn't apply to any one area or country sustainability is the issue of every country in the world
Maldives' was an initial few nation who join agenda 21 Millennium development goals and Johannesburg plan for implementation. The vision 2020 launch in the year of 1999 provide the basic frame work towards the sustainable development in Maldives. This vision has covered many areas from socio economic and environmental goal and the plan to achieve these goals together with setting objectives to preservation of natural resource such as biodiversity and natural environment.
Dearden and Harron
(1994) the tourists undertaking this type of tourism are often interested in a quite specific
Attraction, be it a particular animal, mountain, cultural site, or people. The sustainability of
Tourism is hence directly tied to maintaining the integrity of that attraction and mediating the
Interaction between the tourists and the attraction over time, such that interest is maintained
The Maldives national sustainability development strategy is basically drawn on the foundation of national development plan, together with it incorporate the environmental assessment and vision 2020. The strategy is bases on the key significant challenges face by Maldives including social integration and economic growth together environmental conservation.
Based on these three objective the strategy develop have got to do address following key challenges.
Sustainable use of resources in order to protect environment together the national development of Maldives which ensure prosperous life in healthy environment for the current generation and for the future generations to come.
Due to its location and climate Maldives is one the most vulnerable island from climate change as some 8% of Total Island in Maldives are situated just over with in one meter from the sea level and therefore understandably making the future this beautiful island at risk due to climate and melting of ice leading to rise in sea level. In Maldives many of its island are not protected through any king coastal protection and therefore are prone to be affected from the flood and rising tidal wave and with the global warming causing melting of ice and rise in sea it is more difficult for people living in these flood prone dangerous island to save the lives as result increasing frequency of tidal waves and erosion.
But this rising sea level is not posing danger to human life but also it posses' great threat to coral reef ecosystem because increase in sea level lead to change in temperature and coral reef ecosystem is very critical for economic development together with fisheries and tourism.
The second part of sustainability development strategy launch in 2005 based on national development plan and vision 2020 is regarding the economic development whose main purpose is to division of the this economic gain among people through giving them proper education and reducing poverty and increase employment opportunities for Maldives' people. Maldives has gain very substantial growth during past 80s and 90s period but the devastating tsunami have considerable impact on economy of this island as before that country's average GDP growth was over 7.5 percent in past fifteen years. The economy suffers badly since then with negative growth of -5.5% in 2005.
The third objective of sustainability development strategy of Maldives is regarding social factors such provision of education, health and care with housing to Maldives people and Maldives have gain substantially on this factors as social factors of Maldives are very promising as country has witness fall in infant mortality rate, rising literacy rate. But still there are number of areas where Maldives have to work in order to be sustainable island on this planet such unemployment rate in Maldives is more than average and there strategy though brought benefits to people on Maldives on social but still there is much to do.
When a park, marine or land is owned by the government or state of country it is proven fact there is less chances of unsustainibilities issues because state try and make sure to invest sufficient resource in infrastructural maintenance . In Maldives government use model of management as that applied in Europe or USA which create more sustainability issues (Adam and McShane,) 1992 but the problem with sustainability was still there and therefore the result of allowing companies to use island and designate them as protected area cause serious sustainability problems especially arising due to lack of care and high entrance charges and underinvestment in infrastructure together lack of preservation of bio diversity and in appropriate integration with the economy of Maldives, country as a whole.
The use of deregulation in Maldives affect sustainability and to achieve suitability strong regulation is required but there may be case where deregulation and private ownership goes hand in hand with sustainability of destination to get this some bold steps are required such as private origination charge fees just enough to cover its operating cost and local goods and service usage should be encourage and that makes tourist destination integrated with economy
How the destination has been and is being managed to achieve sustainability.
Maldives is a small island for this island to survive, sustainability is very important and unavoidable the goal of sustainability development must be set and strategies to achieve on this goal must take into account the sustainable requirement community involvement.
Maldives is going through very difficult, economic and environmental challenges and in order sustain its tourism and promote sustain bile tourism Maldives should take into account and take measure in order to attract more and more sustainable tourist.
The problem is not only related with sustainable tourism but also could impact the whole basis of Maldives economy and therefore for the islands like Maldives which consist of very small island spread into different geographical locations Maldives have to plan sustainable tourism through an active intra sect orally active planning and Maldives have proved that they are following a sustainable plan strategy which is develop in consistency with goal and vision set for the future of nation and each and every sector of Maldives whether it is governmental or private plays an important part in the development of sustainable Maldives.
The reason why foreigner businesses operate and prefer operation in Maldives are numerous but mainly due to liberal fiscal policies adapted by Maldives government and as there no capital gain tax and other many incentive offered by malice's government but problem with foreign business operating in Maldives' are not very concern about sustainability of Maldives such as cultural sustainability although foreign business contribute significantly in the revenue which is ultimately use for the sustainable development of islands.
Recently Maldives president announce a plan for its country to be able to become carbon in decade time is one of the evidence of government commitment towards long term sustainability of the country as rising sea level present on many of Maldives islands which are just above the sea level is a great threat for the country and its future.
The plan to make Maldives a carbon neutral country will make Maldives first country to take such a lead and it's in its own interest to do so. It is estimate by the 2020 Maldives will get rid of energy from fossil fuels on its archipelago.
The dangerous location of Maldives as most of its island are situated just 1 meter form the sea level and therefore a rise in sea level will completely finish this country and its inhibit at including 385,000 people.
Maldives is a poor country but much active on sustainable development and now its ambition plan of being carbon neutral till 2020 will make it first to take such lead towards sustainable future and it's a message Maldives to the rich countries to follow Maldives because they have all the resource but on the hand Maldives is poor country but still fighting for sustainable future.
In order to analyse the impact of tourism on sustainability and therefore to make a tourist destination as sustainable, we need to understand that the carrying capacity and open access are the two important concept which must be looked thoroughly. Maldives have sufferer the sustainability issues in the past especially regarding environmental degradation due to rapid expansion of tourism and inadequate and dispersal response from the government of Maldives. It is very difficult to identify and define the carrying capacity of destination but it can be known while on the other hand the social and cultural unsustainbility due to tourism can not be measured.
If we discuss open access resource that such resource such as beautiful scenic view etc lead to generate less revenue and even taking more tourist than carrying capacity lead to the degradation of environment together with affecting culture and society of destination.
Countries often run in race of getting more and more tourist and therefore generate more revenue while ignoring the sustainability factors from tourism and it's a high time for countries like Maldives to take the lead and make them a sustainable tourist destination not only to protect its environment but to sustain their culture and value and Maldives has always and till now is most active country in taking sustainable measures and has learn from the past.
In order to promote itself as sustainable tourist destination the government of Maldives have taken some concrete and timely steps like one recently to make country carbon neutral country, being a poor country taking such lead highly commendable and shows the sincerity of Maldives towards sustainability but sustainability is the need of the hour for Maldives and therefore there must be informed participation from every stakeholder like local community, government, tourism organization operation in Maldives and government of Maldives need to provide leadership in order to make Maldives free from fossil fuels and make it most sustainable country in the world. Maldives is leading the sustainability initiative around the world but being a poor it has limited resource and therefore the government in sustain its economy and live of its habitats promote consensus in world towards a more sustainable world.
It must be understand here that sustainbilibity is not one time issue but its continues process and therefore sustainable tourist in order remain sustainable must make efforts with changing times.
Maldives being a sustainable tourist destination is very popular and visitor find good exciting holidays in the country together with high level of satisfaction and making their journey to part of the world a meaningful experience of their lives while sustainability is in itself a very effective marketing tool for host destination.