Annotated Bibliography on the Impact of Tourism

2541 words (10 pages) Essay

8th Feb 2020 Tourism Reference this

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Farr, L. J. M., 2018. Positive & Negative Effects of Tourism. [Online]
Available at: https://traveltips.usatoday.com/positive-negative-effects-tourism-63336.html
[Accessed 01 05 2019].

This news source has discussed the positive as well as negative impacts of tourism on any tourism place. For example, the economic impact of the tourism is the major positive impact on the economy of tourist attracting country. A lot of jobs are being created in the economy due to tourism. Tourism is increasing at exponential rate and every 1 out of 10 jobs come from the tourism industry. However, tourism comes with some negative impacts as well. For example, unforeseeable and unexpected events happening at the tourist attracting spots is the major negative impact. For example, natural disasters, political upheaval, and terrorism are some of the unexpected events which can damage the tourism industry of the particular place instantly. Such impacts last for very long time and it can have lasting impact on the economy and livelihood of the people. Tourism can also attract the major events like cricket world cup or soccer world cups. These are the mega events which can boost any economy for a very long period of time.

Hunter Valley is a popular tourist spot in Australia; however, it is not the largest and most popular tourist destination in Australia. Lack of proper planning is one of the key issues on behalf of the tourism managers at this location. For example, the management at the Hunter Valley should prepare the stadiums which can host the major sporting events. These major events can have positive impact on the economy of this region. The tourism industry in the Hunter Valley can generate a lot of jobs in the economy through this way. Similarly, the local people can generate their livelihoods from these events. Another issue is the requirement of appropriate attention from the officials because such events can attract a lot of pollution. The management should understand the carbon footprint generated during these events. The environmental impact is the most important concern for such tourist spots.

Malik, A., 2018. Commentary: Tourism’s impact on the environment is larger than we think. [Online]
Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/commentary/tourism-carbon-footprint-bigger-than-we-thought-10215964
[Accessed 01 05 2019].

The key point raised in this news source is that the largest impact of tourism is on the environment and it is larger than anyone would think. Tourism is becoming cheaper by the time but its carbon footprint is also enhancing. Four major universities of the world conducted a research on different items of supply chain of tourism. These items included clothing, cosmetics, souvenirs, beverages, food, accommodation, and transportation. The study indicated that the carbon footprints from these items, when used by the tourists, contributes by about 8% to the total greenhouse gases in the world. Tourism has become trillion-dollar industry but its negative impact on the environment has also increased. The negative impact of tourism on the environment of the world increased by 160 percent during the period of 2009 and 2013. The studies also indicated that business related tourism also negatively influences the environment of the world.

The local government of New South Vales has taken several initiatives to avoid the negative impact of tourism and other industries in the Hunter Valley. The entire region is divided into several sub-regions and each has different environment protection communities. These communities are operating in the private as well as public regions. The Hunter Valley is also known for the production of wine. The area which produces the wine at largest scale is known as Riverina. It is among the tourist spots which are most visited by the tourists. The tourists are attracted to the associated areas and these areas face some issues faced by some other major tourist spots of the world. For example, the cities like Sydney become overcrowded because of the tourists who visit this area. The tourists also cause the pollution in the environment which is the major impact of tourism in the Hunter Valley and the associated areas.

Nunkoo, R., 2015. Tourism development and trust in local government. Tourism Management, 46, pp.623-634.

The researcher studied the relationship between development of tourism in a particular region and the citizen’s trust in government in this regard. The researcher used a number of variables in the research to develop a model. The researcher took political trust as the dependent variable. Two kinds of political trust used in this research included trust in specific context and general trust. The result of this study indicated that the communities should have a trust on the government and it is important for tourism development at a particular tourist site. The result also suggested that the tourist site development is better when the local people trust in the government that the development of tourist site will make their lives better. It means that the development of any tourist site is good for the government as well as the people in general.

Hunter Valley has several industries and coal mining is one of the largest industries in this region. Other important industries in this region include beef cattle farming, dairy farming, electricity production, horse breeding, tourism, wine making, viticulture, agriculture, manufacturing, and the related industries. These industries play a very important role in enhancing the productivity of this tourist site. The key issue which needs highlighting in this situation is that the people living in the Hunter Valley must have full trust in the government that steps taken by the government will benefit them. The Hunter Valley industries are providing the local workers with opportunity to find jobs. The tourism development will enhance the opportunities to find more and better jobs in the area. The second point to be highlighted is that the economy is benefitting from the production in this region because the local government can earn revenue from selling the local products in the local and international market. It is good for the people as well as the government.

Siegal, N., 2018. Europe Searches for Tourism Breathing Space. [Online]
Available at: https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2018-06-19/europe-confronts-the-impact-tourists-leave-on-most-popular-destinations
[Accessed 01 05 2019].

This source was taken from the U.S. News which is an online newspaper. The key point raised in this article is related to the impact of tourism on European tourism points. Europe hosts more than half of the tourists from around the world every year. Tourism has a lot of impact on these European countries. For example, the economic impact of tourism is the important impact for these countries. Tourism has created more than 26 million jobs in these countries. It accounts for 10% GDP for the European countries. Tourism is the most important industry for some of the countries like Croatia and Rome. However, these tourist attracting countries are facing some negative impacts of tourism as well. For example, recent surveys indicated that some major tourist attracting cities become overcrowded because of a large number of tourists visiting these cities. Some cities like Dubrovnik, Amsterdam, Venice, Mallorca, Ibiza, and Barcelona. These tourists are also causing some other problems as well. For example, crime ratio has increased in some of these countries. Negative impacts can also be seen on environment.

Overcrowding is not an issue for Hunter Valley. Hunter Valley is the sixth largest tourist spot in Australia; however, it is not as crowded as some of the crowded tourist spot in the Europe. Hunter Valley is facing negative impact on environment because of some other sources. For example, the electricity generation plants in the Hunter Valley use coal as fuel. Coal based electricity plants produce a lot of greenhouse gases which pollute the environment. Another issue for the tourists at the Hunter Valley is the lack of development of infrastructure for staying at the Valley. Hunter Valley requires more hotels and restaurants because some of the tourist spots lack appropriate hotels and restaurants. This is possible through proper coordination between the government and the local community.

Simpson, M.C., 2007. An integrated approach to assess the impacts of tourism on community development and sustainable livelihoods. Community development journal, 44(2), pp.186-208.

The researchers have used an integrated approach in this research to find the relationship between tourism development and the development of the communities around and within the tourist site. The researchers argued that the tourist sites should be economically viable for the government and economically beneficial for the community as a whole. According to the researchers, it is very difficult to achieve such viable sites because of lack of effective monitoring and assessment sites. The lack of appropriate assessing methodology makes it very difficult for the researchers to study the impact of tourism development. This research has offered an integrated approach through which they can assess the appropriate impact of tourism on the development of the livelihood in case of locals. Different variables included in this approach included sustainable livelihood, governance, infrastructure, levels of employment and ownership structure.

Hunter Valley is also facing the same issues as highlighted by this study. The Hunter Valley has several industries but the key issue is that it does not have developed an appropriate assessment methodology. It is not possible to study the impact of tourist site on the livelihood of the locals. The policy-makers have worked hard to make notable development in this region and they have developed a number of industries. Most of the industries are very successful but it is not possible to assess the success of these industries. Similarly it is not possible to assess the impact of this development on the livelihoods of the local people. The research highlights that it is very important for a tourist site to be economically viable for the government as well as the local people. The tourist managers are not able to assess the economic viability of this tourist development site. Similarly, they have not been able to assess the impact of tourism at Hunter Valley on the economic welfare of the people.

Stevenson, N., Airey, D. and Miller, G., 2008. Tourism policy making:: The policymakers’ perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), pp.732-750.

The researchers have utilized the grounded theory methodology to analyze the perspective of policy-makers in developing the policy regarding tourist sites. The researchers highlighted particular themes around policy-making and these themes include complexity & congruence, lack of consensus, uncertainty, lack of clarity, and low status. The findings suggested that the process of policy-making is not limited to the policy-makers only. The researchers argued that the process of policy-making is a social process and requires negotiations and communication between the policy-makers and other social players acquiring the place. The researchers recommended conducting further research to explore such communications and negotiations rather than emphasizing the tangible outputs in terms of policies. It means that the researchers should focus on more research rather than suggesting the policy development in long-term because the social communication and negotiations must be explored deeply.

Hunter Valley is the largest wine destination in New South Vales, Australia. The secondary research suggests that the Hunter Valley is one of the major sites for electricity generation and a large proportion of power plants are using coal as fuel. Electricity generated from coal is very dangerous for the environment and it becomes the major concern for the community residing in the Hunter Valley. The second concern is related to the tourism management in the region. Hunter Valley is the sixth largest tourist site in Australia and more than 2.5 million people visit this site every year. The policy-makers need to emphasize the appropriate management of the tourist site. The policy-makers need to develop places for their stay and make plans for managing the daily requirements of the tourists. As this paper suggests, the policy-makers should communicate and negotiate with the community so that they can develop more effective policies in this regard.

REFRENCES

  • Malik, A., 2018. Commentary: Tourism’s impact on the environment is larger than we think. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/commentary/tourism-carbon-footprint-bigger-than-we-thought-10215964
    [Accessed 01 05 2019].
  • Farr, L. J. M., 2018. Positive & Negative Effects of Tourism. [Online]
    Available at: https://traveltips.usatoday.com/positive-negative-effects-tourism-63336.html
    [Accessed 01 05 2019
  • Nunkoo, R., 2015. Tourism development and trust in local government. Tourism Management46, pp.623-634.
  • Siegal, N., 2018. Europe Searches for Tourism Breathing Space. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2018-06-19/europe-confronts-the-impact-tourists-leave-on-most-popular-destinations
    [Accessed 01 05 2019].
  • Simpson, M.C., 2007. An integrated approach to assess the impacts of tourism on community development and sustainable livelihoods. Community development journal44(2), pp.186-208.
  • Stevenson, N., Airey, D. and Miller, G., 2008. Tourism policy making:: The policymakers’ perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research35(3), pp.732-750.

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