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In the previous, it is explained that a wedding trip or honeymoon was become easier along the way with the improvement on ways of going places that no longer hardship to stir from home to go to other places and it was a new concept of traveling for leisure purposes. The transportation kept improving and producing newer and better destinations until there was more place than the visitors. There was no record who was the first couple going for honeymoon, but no doubt they go honeymoon because everybody else did and it seems as a challenge for them to do the same as others. At the first time honeymoon was considered only for the rich, and as a cachet for distinction and further glory (Hoke, 1933). However, as time goes by, the travel get cheaper, transportation keep improving and more destination enhanced, number of couples take their honeymoon also increasing.
There are many various variables that today’s honeymooners may be looking for. They may be looking for the atmosphere, facility provided, romantic places, and so on. According to the Travel Industry Association of America, most couples are willing to spend more money on honeymoon rather than the regular trips. Moreover, some honeymooners also looking for the unique places for honeymoon. They want to feel a different experience once in a lifetime. For these travelers, it’s the time for a fantasy journey to destinations whose very names mean romance. They are choosing to go further away on their honeymoon to a different environment and that includes everything: a different language, culture, and food. However, for some couples who have a fulltime job and, as work schedules become more and more hectic, many couples are choosing to honeymoon close to home, enjoying a long weekend at local bed-and-breakfasts and country inns (Perementer and Bigley, 2000)
According to MacNair Travel Management survey, it is suggested that Hawaii is the top honeymoon destination. And it is supported by Hoke (1933), Niagara Falls and Washington were the first outstanding honeymoon resort. The honeymooners are most anticipating to beach and dining as a part of their honeymoon activity. Other than that spa also was the couples preferred activity on their honeymoon. With the evolution and innovation that spa could make health better, spa becomes ideal to enjoy and fashionable newlyweds often choose it for honeymoon.
2.2. Hotel Classification
Along with the desires of traveler that keep growing, Tourism Industry along with all the attributes in it also needs to be developed to meet their needs. The hotel industry is so vast that many hotels do not fit into single well defined category. Industry can be classified in various ways, based on location, size of property etc.
Based on location, for example is city hotel, is the hotel which is located in the heart of city within a short distance from business center, shopping complex. Airport hotels, these hotels are set up near by the airport. They have transit guest who stay over between flights. Resort hotel, is the hotel that cater consumer who wants to relax, enjoy themselves. They could be located in beach side, hill, and recreational area. Most resort work to full capacity during peak season
Based in size of property, this category is divided according to the number of rooms available in the hotel. Small hotel is a hotel with 100 rooms or less. Medium sized hotel, hotel which has 100 rooms to 300 rooms. Large hotel, is the hotel which has more than 300 rooms. Mega hotel is a hotel which has more than 1000 rooms available.
Based on the level of service there are three types of hotel which are upscale or luxury, midscale, and budget hotel. Budget hotel meets only provide the basic needs of the guest compared to the midscale and upscale hotel which provide a better service than the budget. Luxury hotel offers world class service providing restaurant and lounges, concierge service, meeting rooms, dining facilities. It is easy also to identify those types of hotel from the design of the hotel itself.
Based on theme, there are Heritage hotels, Ecohotels, Boutique hotels. Heritage hotel offers rooms that have their own history, serve traditional cuisine and are entertained by folk artist. Ecohotel, is an environment friendly hotels which usually use eco friendly items in the room. Boutique hotel is a hotel that provides exceptional accommodation, furniture in a themed and stylish, unique manner.
Based on target market, hotels are classified into commercial hotel, convention hotels, resort hotel, suite hotel and casino hotel. First, commercial hotel, they are situated in the heart of the city in busy commercial areas so as to get good and high business. They cater mostly businessmen. Second, convention hotel usually provide a large convention complex and cater guest who are attending conference, etc. Third, resort hotel, is a leisure hotel which are mainly for vacationers, leisure traveler, who want to relax and enjoy with their family. The atmosphere is more relaxed. Fourth, suite hotel offers rooms that may include compact kitchenette. They cater to people who are relocating act as executives who are away from home for a long business stay. Last but not least casino hotel, is a hotel with a gambling facility. This hotel usually attracts those leisure and vacation travelers.
Honeymooners as consumer could choose the type of hotel for them to stay in their honeymoon. They can choose to stay whether in city hotel, resort, large hotel, small hotel, upscale, midscale, budget hotel, theme hotel, and many more. However, wherever they choose the hotel to stay, there must be the reason behind why they choose particular hotel. In choosing hotel for honeymoon, there must be a decision between couples. Therefore it is important to observe on how husband and wife decision making. ( http://hotel-industry.learnhub.com/lesson/8842-classification-of-hotels)
2.3. Decision Making
2.3.1. Consumer Decision Making Process
In our daily life we will always faced with various decision. When we want to purchase product or services is also a part of decision.
No one purchase or consume something unless they have a problem, a need, a want or a purposes.There are seven major stage that consumer typically go through in decision making but however in this study will only explain six stage such as need recognition, search information, pre-purchased evalutaion, purchase, consumption, post-consumption evaluation.
Need recognition, is the stage when the consumers will sense the things that they believe the product have the ability to solve a problem is worth more than the cost of buying it. Therefore the marketers could make a product that can fulfill the desire of the consumers but they also have to keep the cost in line with the market they are targeted. At this stage, the consumer are influenced with many variables such as, personality, social class, income, past experience, prior brand perception.
Source of Information, is the stage when the consumers are obtaining informations they need to make a product choices are suitable with them. The source of informations could be obtained from marketer dominated or non-marketer dominated. Advertising, sales person, website, travel agentcy are the source of information that refers to marketer dominated. Friends, family and the words of mouth refers to non-marketer source of information.
Pre-Purchase Evaluation, is the stage when the consumers are comparing the various choices of brands, products, and services that which will most likely result in their satisfaction with the consumption. In this stage the consumers will influenced with their motivation, knowledge, attitudes and personality, lifestyle. Other than that they also will consider on the price, and quality of the product.
Purchase and Consumption, is the stage when the consumers have decided the ideal product or services for them and after that they consume the product or services.
Post-Consumption Evaluation, the stage when the consumers have experience the product or services and they will sense whether they are satisfied or not satisfied. They will feel satisfied when the performance of the products or services are matched by the precieved performance, when the performance fall below the precieve performance there will be dissatisfaction.
Those the stages above are might be went through by the individual or couples decision making process in general. During the decision making process there will be a negotiation between the husband and wife. The stages before the purchasing stage, couples will affected by push and pull factors which is come from the internal and external. (Blackwell, Miniard and Mason, 2001)
2.3.2 The Choice-sets Model
Research on individual’s decision making process is explained by applying the choice-sets model. There are three stages in individual choice-sets model. The final decision made by the individual is the result of consecutive process of reducing some alternatives in the consideration from large number in the early consideration set to just a few in the late consideration set. The process from the early consideration set to the late consideration set is affected by the push and pull factors. After that the situational inhibitors also influence the individual from late consideration set to the final decision.
According to Jang, et al. (2006) couples and family are the substantial objects in analyzing decision making in the existing choice-sets model. In family decision making process, there are many individual’s different preferences involve for the final decision. The choice-sets selection process of an individual is different from couples choice-set process in several way. First, there are two people are involved in the decision making process. Each partner brings their own preferences regarding the possible choices. Second, it is possible for conflict to be occurred because of the differences of idea and perceptions regarding the alternatives. Therefore there will be a discussion among them to find out which is the best option match for them. Third, couples will formulate one’s own early consideration set, based on elements of their own preferences and their partner’s preferences that already mutually identified through discussion. Thus, the couple choice-sets model consist of four stages, while individual choice-sets model consist of three stages, from the early consideration set to the final choice.
In addition, as explained by the individual choice-sets model, the relevant process is also competent in the couple’s choice-sets model in choosing honeymoon hotel. The number of hotel alternatives under each individual’s consideration will be lessening at each stage, before the final decision is made.
The choice-sets model below is adopted from Jang, et al. (2006) study and will be used as a reference on the following literature review.
Comparing the individual destination choice-sets model to a destination choice-sets model for couples
2.3.3. Couples Decision Making within the Household
The way of couple decision making is also found in a household. It is interesting to observe a relationship between household decisions making with its consuming behavior. A research on entire consumption and saving behavior can be as an example to be combined with the findings on household decision making (Ferber, 1973). Beside that the other simple example to be observed in household decision making is about economic. Every household must have put economy as their main primary concern.
In traditional families, the role of householder is hold by the husband. Therefore logically all the decision within the household is decided by the husband respectively. Based on the data collection from Davis (1976), it has been proved that the decision making in the household are mostly done by the husband. He has a significant influence in the household consumption for frequently purchased on goods and services and for durable. Most of the time the husband gives his suggestion and his preferences for something and the wife is the one who purchase and spent the money for purchases of goods such as beer, liquor, shaving cream, and others. Same goes to the decision making for contraceptive usage. The husband has the important role and greater influence to the final decision (Davis, 1976; Bankole and Singh, 1998).
In families today, there is more negotiation between husbands and wives occur in consumer decision making. The increasing number of career woman create the increasing number of dual-income family that leads to the influence of women have on consumer decision making (Razzouk, et al., 2007). The presence of women in the workforce today makes the women no longer seen as just homemakers and men as just breadwinner. As mentioned by Qualls (1987, pp.269) “husband and wife established their own position and preferences as individual, through discussion, individual preferences evolve into joint decisions”. Therefore there are some household decision making which is done by joint decision making which means that there is a corporation between the husband and wife in making decision. The simple example can be found in making decision on purchasing durable goods which is jointly consumed such as buying cars, home, villa, and many more (Davis, 1976).
It is not an easy thing to make a decision by two people. Sometimes there are some different desires or preferences on each of them. Even though they make decision together, actually they still have a different tendency for each aspect to decide. For example like husband will be more on deciding the price differences, whether the price worth it or not for some items to buy and wife will be more on how many items to buy, how the design, etc. (Bernhardt, 1974 in Davis, 1976). In other words, husband tends to have a control in all decision which is taking a consideration of functional attributes, and wife would be considering on aesthetic aspect or beauty.
Overall, the decision making within the household depends on the decision made by the spouse and also depends on what thing to decide. Sometimes husband has a significant influence in making a decision, and sometimes wife the one who taking a control in decision making, or sometimes both husband and wife put their idea and making a decision together, joint decision making. And how about couples decision in choosing honeymoon hotel? Is that would be the same situation with the decision making on regular consuming behavior within the household or not.
Based on the notion explained, the following hypothesis is proposed:
Hypothesis A1. There is a joint decision making between husband and wife in choosing honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis A2. There is a different area on making decision between husband and wife in choosing honeymoon hotel.
2.3.4. Gender Differences towards Travel Behavior
There had been several studies conducted in the area of tourism and gender. It covers the role of women in tourism decision within the family. The various result gained depends on the difference roles among the family members, etc. (Fraj-Andres, 2010). Gender roles vary across cultures. There are behavioral differences between men and women that reflect the culturally determined differing roles of men and women. In some cultures, the traditional values point out the need for women to stay at home and take care of children. Women depend on men as breadwinners and women’s responsibility is to take care of a family and home (Jackson & Henderson, 1995).
Nichols and Snepenger (1988) compared men and women’s travel patterns and found that women preferred shorter trips, having fewer sports activities on their journeys and spending less money. Other than that women prefer on cultural and educational experiences when travelling, and men looked for action and adventure (McArthur ,1999). The other previous research result found that, in the choice of a hotel, expectations varied according to gender. Additionally, some demographic variables such as educational level, income level, have been useful for explaining the tourist behavior (Kastenholz et al., 2005)
Based on the notion explained, the following hypothesis is proposed:
Hypothesis A3. Each husband and wife has different preferences towards honeymoon hotel in the early consideration set.
2.3.4. Influence in Family Decision Making
In family decision making process is often dynamic and complicated. Suggested by Jang, et al. (2006) in family decision making, individuals’ different preferences plays an important role deciding the final decision. These different preferences can result from the differences objective and differences perception towards the relevant topic discussed. There are might be some disagreements created in the decision making process. However, those disagreements may indicate an attempt to accommodate and resolve the problem, so that the joint decision could be made (Spiro, 1983).
As mentioned by Strodtbeck (1951) in Spiro (1983), he tried to measure the power or influence of the husband and wife in the decision making. He observe the interaction between husband and wife in resolving the differences in the decision making process. There many influence strategy that might be used to make joint decision making. Spiro (1983) emphasize on six influence strategy that can be used to determine the type of influence strategy which is commonly use by couples to have a joint decision making. The result of his study was explained that there are many types of influencer strategies used by husbands and wives in attempting to resolve the differences of opinion or preferences. And some of the strategies that focus on this research are:
Expert influence refers to the influence that a spouse has specific information concerning the various alternatives. She or he can try to convince the other that she or he is more knowledgeable concerning the product by giving the detailed information under the consideration.
Legitimate influence reflects from one spouse’s attempt to shared the values concerning their role upon other’s feelings. The spouse is influenced by the shared belief that she or he should make the decision. For example husband is the man of the house, therefore he should make some particular decision.
Individuals may use many different combination of influence strategy simultaneously during their attempt to persuade one another in discussion to reach the modification consideration set. Thus, the following hypothesis is proposed:
Hypothesis A4. Husband has greater influence in making decision for modification consideration set
Hypothesis A5. Wife has greater influence in the in making decision for modification consideration set
2.3.5. Conflict in Couples Decision Making Process
Not only couples but also all the consumer will have a consideration and negotiation when they want to make a decision. The simple practice is how consumer selecting a product such as normal product, house, or travel destination. An individual will likely to interact with others during the decision making process and it will affect the final decision. In a couple, the husband and wife will discuss on the matters that they want to decide and undeniable that each of them should change their preference to the other alternative to reach the final decision and they will share their opinions on the desirable alternatives since they individually have different preferences (Spiro, 1983 in Jang, et al., 2007).
There is a possibility that conflict might happened within the couple decision making process. Conflicts may be happened because the impact of gender role orientation reflects the atitude of the spouses toward roles played by husbands and wives (Qualls, 1987) or primarily due to the difference of perception on objectives (Frikha, 2010). However, couples will have a discussion, negotiation, to seek an agreement to the final decision.
Hypothesis A5. Conflicts occur during the discussion due to the different preferences.
2.4. Push-Pull Factors Affected the Decision Making Process
In decision making process, there are many variables that could affect the consumers to reach the final decision. As mention in the concept of couples choice-sets model, the final decision is made by passing through several stages which are early consideration set, modified early consideration set or discussion, late consideration set to the final decision. As suggested by Crompton and Kim (1999) in Jang, et al. (2006) those continuous processes are affected by push factors and pull factors.
2.4.1. Push Factors
In making decision, consumers generally have some internal factor that will affect them in the process to find the ideal final decision. The internal factor which is the push factor, the needs and wants of traveler, are the reason of why traveler wants to get out from their home or regular place. Moreover, push factors also concern to the desire to travel (Dann, 1977 in Decrop 2006) and predispose consumer to travel. Asserted by Decrop (2006) push factors develop travelers internally causing them looking for something, situation, and events. To make it easier, push factor is a foundation of motivations (Kent,1990 in Decrop, 2006).
While there are many study on attitudes, images, perceptions and learning committed on the understanding on traveler’s behavior, motivation seems to be liable for describing much of the consumer’s tourism consumption behavior (Sirakaya, et al., 2003). Another suggestion said that motivation is a driving behind the consumer’s consumptions behavior, therefore motivated consumers try to fulfill their needs by acting on physiology and psychology. In previous research on tourism, the researcher was emphasized on the motivation-based because it could gives idea and comprehension for the marketers in developing and promoting the tourist attraction. Without an understanding on the consumer’s motivation, the marketers will not be able to generate efficient tourism marketing (Fodness, 1994) and will allow researchers to have a better explain on future travel pattern and behavior (Uysal and Hagan, 1993). Iso-Ahola (1982) also pointed out that motivation is one of the crucial elements of leisure traveler.
Exploring the leisure travelers’ motive that affected the choice of destinations or alternatives, Crompton (1979) mentioned that variability of consumer’s social, cultural and psychological needs could be the main motivation for travel. He also analytically mentioned seven motives as push factors for travel which are “escape from the day to day environment, exploration and evaluation of self, relaxing, prestige, regression, enhancement of kinship relationship, and facilitation of social interaction.”
Escape from the day to day environment, refers to the situation where the physically and socially different from the normal lives environment. Exploration and evaluation of self, motivations which travelers will get from the changes into new surroundings by physically and socially that could not be achieved by staying in their own environment. Relaxing, referred to a mental relaxation rather than physical relaxation. Prestige, it is a motive when travelers have a frequent travel, for them it is perceived to be less prestige. Regression, motive when consumers respond that leisure vacation provides a chance to do things extraordinary, different from their usual life. Enhancement of kinship relationship refers to a perceived value of leisure travel as a medium to enrich the relationship. Facilitation of social interaction, when the travelers bring motive to meet new people, therefore the travel will be people oriented rather than place oriented.
According to the description above, those motives also applicable on couples in choosing honeymoon hotel. Therefore, based on this concept, the following hypothesis is proposed:
Hypothesis B1. There is a motive of escape from the day to day environment when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis B2. There is a motive of exploration and evaluation of self when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis B3. There is a motive of relaxing when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis B4. There is a motive of prestige when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis B5. There is a motive of regression when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis B6. There is a motive of enhancement of kinship when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis B7. There is a motive of facilitation of social interaction when couples choose honeymoon hotel.
2.4.2. Pull Factors
Not only push factors that affecting consumer in making decision but also the pull factors. Pull factor is an external factor which created by the information of the goal objective, tourist holds and product’s attraction power (Gnoth, 1997 in Decrop, 2006). Different from the push factor which concern to the desire of travel, Dann (1977) explained that pull factor concern on the destination choice and attributes, that attracts traveler to a given hotel or destination and whose value is visible to stay on the object of travel. Furthermore, pull factors are those that appears as a result of attractiveness of a travel attributes. There are a lot of pull factors which affect traveler on the hotel selection process for travel which are novelty (Crompton, 1979), heritage/culture, entertainment, nature, rural (Uysal and Jurowski, 1994), facilities, easy accessibility (Kim et al., 2003), safety (Bogari et al., 2003) and so on.
220.127.116.11. Hotel Attributes as Pull Factors
Nowadays there are many tourist destination spread out over countries. Tourism industry has become increasingly growing and a highly competitive market. In the hotel environment, where competition dominates, hoteliers must study the strengths and weaknesses of the product or service they provide and accurately define their importance and performance. Many choices of product and services attract tourist differently in each destination. However, each tourist has their freedom to choose amongst a set of destination according to their motivation, preference and attitude to determine a destination to be selected.
According to Kozak (1999), tourist mentally categorize destination into three categories. First is ‘consideration’, where all destination that consumer is aware and likely to visit. Second is ‘inert’, where all destination that consumer is aware but no decision is made to visit in a specific period. Third is ‘inept’, refer to destination that consumer is aware of but has no intention to visit in a specific time.
Various type of consumer profile such as level of age, income, occupation and personality significantly affect the choice to vacation and select the destination. In choosing destination for vacation, there several factors attract consumer externally. Regarding the hotel industry, Chu and Choi (2000) mentioned that room rates have been considered as the main factor that increases the cost for a trip. Other than that, price also affects consumer’s motivation to travel. The price for a destination becomes one of main attributes for motivation to travel. And usually price directly affected by the exchange rates (Kozak, 1999). Some tourists are preferred to travel to a destination that has a lower value than their own currency (Witt and Martin, 1987 in Kozak, 1999). The positive or negative variance of exchange rate of a country or destination may lead to the increase or decrease in the level of tourist product or services prices. Following by facility and services are the major thing that consumer meet during the vacation. An adequate and qualified of both facility and services in a particular destination will affect consumer to revisit the destination itself (Kozak, 1999). The services and facilities offered by a hotel or are those features of products or services that lead consumers to choose one product over others (Lewis, 1983 in Chu and Choi, 2000). The previous study have shown that tourists satisfaction with hotel properties, including services, facilities and price, seems to be one of the factors that could bring the hotel successful and create many patronages or loyal customers (Stevens, 1992 in Chu and Choi, 2000). Safety and security also becomes an important thing to be considered in choosing destination for vacation. Making tourist feel secure will become the plus point for the destination itself to be selected (Kozak,1999). Consumer will prefer to go to a place that has a lower rate of crime and high in safety and security matters. Hotel image also one of the factors that influence the consumers choice. LeBlanc and Nguyen (1996) mentioned the five hotel factors that may determine a hotel’s image to travelers. These five factors are physical environment, corporate identity, service personnel, quality of services and accessibility. Moreover, it is found that that cleanliness of the accommodation, followed by safety and security, accommodation value for money, courtesy and helpfulness of staff were identified as top attributes for travelers in hotel choice selection (Atkinson, 1988 in Chu and Choi, 2000). The previous study shows that
There are a lot of studies have attempted to analyze customer satisfaction in terms of both expectations that relate to certain important attributes and value of the attribute performance (Chu and Choi, 2000). According to Barsky (1992) the terms importance is accepted by customers as satisfaction. When a customer perceives an attribute as important, the customer will believe that the attribute will play an important role in influencing his or her choice (MacKenzie, 1986 in Chu and Choi, 2000). Those attributes will influence consumers’ purchase intention and as a comparison from competitors’ providing.
A comprehensive review of the literature for the hospitality industry suggests that attributes such as cleanliness, location, room rate, security, service quality, and the reputation of the hotel have been considered by most tourists in hotel choice decision. Those factors above are some of the pull factors that may be taken as consideration by consumer in choosing destination for vacation. However, there are many factors to be considered which may be affected couples in honeymoon hotel and no doubt those factors above are possible as well become the factors that affected their decision making.
Based on the description above the following hypothesis is proposed:
Hypothesis C1. Hotel attributes which falls under facilities and services are influencing couples late consideration set in choosing honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis C2. Hotel attributes which is room rates are influencing couples late consideration set in choosing honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis C3. Hotel attributes which is falls under safety and security are influencing couples late consideration set in choosing honeymoon hotel.
Hypothesis C4. Hotel attributes which is falls under hotel image are influencing couples late consideration set in choosing honeymoon hotel.
In today’s globalization, marketing aspect has become an aspect which is keeps growing follow the world trends. Business to consumer e-commerce is fast replacing the traditional way of marketing. The electronic commerce is slowly changing the way businesses operating. The spread of web facility and the acceptance of the internet have requested businesses to establish internet website to maintain the relationship with customers, suppliers, employees and shareholders.
The development of the internet has been a major event in the hospitality industry and it will gradually revolutioniz
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