Analysis of Tanzania's Tourism for Human Development and Sustainability

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18th May 2020 Tourism Reference this

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Executive summary:

The report has been made on the theoretical and policy framework of Tanzania tourism like how it can be used for human development and sustainable, And also critically evaluated about the Tanzania tourism relationships between the ecotourism, sustainable development, natural environment and climate change which talks about the both positive and negative impacts of the tourism. The influences of power and politics through the organizational expertise, knowledge and leadership theoretical perspectives have been discussed. The report detailed about the Tanzania tourism and its contribution for the economic growth and development of the country, critically analyzed about the different sectors like tourism has an economic and revenue contribution, Poverty and tourism reduction, low carbon future. This report has the specific problems facing by the country given the examples from the tourism policy frameworks suggested by the UN environment program and UN world Tourism organization.

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INTRODUCTION:

Tanzania is an east African country. Tanzania is vastly famous for its wilderness areas; the population of Tanzania is 57.31 million, in which the 36% of the population lives below the poverty line and the population growth of the country is around 3.1% of annual change as per 2017, the highly populated cities are Dar es salaam, Zanzibar and Dodoma. The domestic Gross product is around 52.09 billion USD. Yet the Tanzania has unmistakable economic growth capabilities, Tanzania main income sources are Gold and Tourism. There is very high level of microenterprise activity in the country as every one of three individuals is self employed. Tanzania has a literacy rate of 77.9% over all, in which male literacy rate is 83.2% and female literacy is around 73.04% having the gap between males and females. In literacy Tanzania is ranked at 110 around the neighboring countries but in recent years the literacy rate has been dropped. Tanzania stands in 81 position in its GDP, Tanzania has its debts of around 18,144 million USD, which translates in to public debt per capita of 341$ per person. Tanzania stands at 154th place in terms of human development index with 0.583 points as per 2017. Tanzania is a country of natural wilderness, It has many places which includes Serengeti National park, A safari mecca, Tarangire National park, Ngorongoro Crater and many national parks which are populated with the “big five” (elephant, lion, leopard, buffalo and rhinos) Tanzania is also place for Kilimanzaro national park which is a home for highest mountains in Africa Tanzania is home to highest mountain in Africa Mount kilimanzaro. Mount kilimanzaro is also known as roof of Africa, and UNESCO named Mount Kilimanzaro as World heritage site. These mountains are place for dormant volcanic eruptions with the approximate height of 4877 meters from its base to 5900 meters from the sea level. These mountains are located in north of the country sharing with Kenya on the borders and can be reached through mount kilimanzaro airport. Around 20000 people trek the mountain over the period of a year (Mirondo, 2019).

ANALYSIS:

Tourism as a Revenue and Economic Contributor:

The large variety of nature is overwhelming in Tanzania, There are many tourists who visit Tanzania every year, around 38% of the Tanzania land is kept for natural reserve and is protected for conservation. In Tanzania there are around 16 national parks, 29 reserves and 40 conservation areas and marine parks. In 2016 there are around 1,284,279 foreign arrivals happened in the year. Tourism plays an important role in Tanzania’s economy contribution, as it shares 10% of GDP in 2018, there were many jobs provided through this sector around 446,000 jobs which is a total of 3.3% of the total jobs in Tanzania. It is expected to rise gradually in next 10 years. The Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources (MNRT) has released statistics which shows that frequency of visitors has been increased to 1.3 million to 1.5 million in 2018. The following has resulted in money generated of 2.4 billion USD, that is an increase of 7.2% from 2.3 billion USD earned in 2017. There was a survey conducted by MNRT, ZCT, Bank of Tanzania and National bureau of statistics on international visitors of ‘exit survey in order to get information from compilation of national accounts and balance of payments statistics’. The survey states that globally the international tourist’s visitors increased by 6.1% which has created a strong outbound demand from the major markets. Whereas the international tourists visiting Africa was grew by 8.1% (Tanzania Invest, 2019). “The development is largely explained by the ongoing extensive promotional efforts coupled with beautiful tourist attractions in the country”. There are many small scale business were established around the tourism sector in Tanzania. These small scale industries vary from food truck to vehicle renting and many tourism plan companies. Tourism helps locals in promoting the local made goods to the international markets. The tourists are very much eager to collect souvenirs from the destination they visited, which help local art craft people to create and sell their local goods, Food is also one the things many visitors try to enjoy as they are keen unravel the tastes of the destination. There were many food trucks established near by many famous visiting places which server authentic local food the people, these food stalls helps tourists taste new varieties and the locals to earn money from them helping the local people financially. Local guides are also benefited from tourism as they were well established and well known about the history of the place they share their knowledge about the places and guide the tourists in the destination. these guides charge the tourists for the guidance and thus tourism helps many other in many way economically (Jonathan Mitchell, 2009).

Its one of the fastest growing cities in east Africa, and also the agricultural center of the fertile land which is demonstrated by markets over there, on the slopes of the nearby mountains Kilimanjaro coffee, maze and bananas and vegitables are grown, because of its fertile volcanic soil the total mountain region has been used for agriculture since the middle of 19th century by both messiah tribe. The messiah tribe moved from the dried region of the rift valley to this area and used the agriculture techniques of the meru. In addition to agriculture they also have retained their large herds of their cattle. As with many Tanzanian cities Arushia is little rundown, Tourism is good for its economy and the general standards of the local economy,

Morning mist hangs above the jungle that is situated between the mountain peaks of mountain arrows and Kilimanjaro. The arusha national park is one of the most beautiful parks in Tanzania. The green forest is the perfect playground for many kinds of monkeys that live over there, around 20 million years ago this landscape was  created due to volcanic eruption activity, wonderful craters appeared and as well as the volcanic cones, Families of giraffe roam around peacefully across the area of sivana at the foot of the crater mountains and make it easy to forget that red hot lava once flowed through this land, The shallow momella lakes are extremely salty so the wild life won’t use them. However the wild life inhabit around the seven spoil lakes that are located here. The flamingos, pelican, herons in large group’s converge on the water during their travels. Due to poaching Park Rhinos almost became extinct and the elephants retreated in the hills. Marusha Airport features sightseeing flights to the most famous and highest mountains in Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro a giant with no less than 3 peaks. This famous mountain covered with snow and looks like its piercing a sea of cloud. At its base it has a girth of 60 KMs and its height measure over 6000 meters. Travelling towards the northwest takes us to the imbulu high plateau (Law, 2019) (SALAZAR, ).

Tourism and Poverty Reduction:

Tanzania has a population of 57.31 million people in which 27% of the population lives under below poverty line. Poverty is the main cause of hunger deaths in the country, as 42% of the children below five in Tanzania suffer from chronic malnutrition and underweight problems. Lack of nutrition effects children in many ways, causing abnormal hormonal problems and which leads to improper physical development, women suffer more from this when compared to men. “The rate of stunting in Tanzania ranks third in sub-Saharan Africa, after Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of Congo”. (Worley, 2017). The average child birth is five per women. There are many problems which affect the people under poverty line as there is no sufficient economy budget allocated to them. Tourism helps this situation as it brings a lot of investments from foreign countries, and the government also needs to provide the sufficient support the people as they are projecting their country to the outer worlds, as tourist are the mouth of spread. Tourism also helps people by creating lot of jobs, as an example a theme park is planned by an investor where they get to provide jobs for the local people. Tourism is also helps the government as they are charged with tourist taxes. The tourists are the main buyers of the local made art crafts as they were sold at higher place. Turing an area in to tourist attraction bring lot of attention to that place as it is observed by lot of people. The places where the tourism grows their economy thrives.

There were many studies have been taken place on Tourism and how it can helps the countries grow their economy, and what are the affects that tourism have on the country, How does tourism really helps in poverty reduction, Tourism helps hotels, banks, airports, destination guides, But really it’s not possible how a person below poverty is helped, as we can see the major income from the tourism has been divided between local rich people with, hotels, private banks, and shop owners, But there are many people who live such situations where it’s hard for them to eat food once a day, There should be focus on tourism where developing the tourism means “making better places for people to live in and for people to visit second”. Tourism is after all a social activity, the tourism that takes place in such way because of the way that tourist behaves, either it can be positive or it can be negative. Tourism is not a noble industry. The tourist is someone with leisure and wealth that go to visit, it creates and shows the difference between people, Tourism is not just an activity, it’s a responsibility. Tourism is the bridge between different cultures and Traditions (Jonathan Mitchell, 2009),

Here where two visitors planned their visit, the story begins here, they spend their money, They spend their money on a rented car, on their hotel, seeing the attractions, enjoying the outdoor activities, shopping, and dining out, they were happy, they came to perfect place as they wished, there are many other who are happy, the hotel they stay in, the bell men at the hotel, the stores they shop at and the banks they use, and then there is the restaurant where the couple had dinner, and the waitress who served them the wine, and wine company making the wine, and the people who made the wine from grapes, and the farmers who grew the grapes, that’s why tourism is important, Tourism creates jobs, its brings in spending, and they pay more taxes so that the locals pay less, but tourism is competitive, without the marketing engine that drives it, visitors go to other places, where it benefit some other local economies, Let’s make sure the local economy grows lets feed it nurture it and take care of it, so it become strong health and benefits the people.

The present tourism in Tanzania –Negatives

1)      Lack of infrastructure:

According to the ministry sources, rating system or grading system for the hotels in Tanzania does not exist. They don’t even the reach the standards of the rating (Matthews, 1992).  Most of the accommodation in the state is very low and and best of the some international hotels are in the country. Also looking into the transportation for the tourists for visiting the places over the Tanzania lacks. For example:  The road from Lake Manyara to  Arusha en-route and Serengeti National Parks is so worst , many people purchase an  flight ticket for going to the safari and also while coming back they return back on flight (Wade, 1998). This discomforts the tourists and plays a major drawback for the tourists.

Inter-country and international communication is extremely impossible and difficult at times, both water sources and power are frequently not functional.  So, they require more of the infrastructural works before for their potentiality and development of the country (Matthews, 1992).

2)      Lack of trained staff:

Present output of tourism from institutes and hotel management has met the low standards and can’t meet the demands of the industry. Therefore, there are many unregulated schools and private schools have came up with the low standards and also uneven time for training for the school students, In addition looking into the hotel management there is no proper training for the staff or proper educated staff exists there. And also there is no policy or the objectives from the human resources development in tourism (NOVIJVP, 1995).

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For example: Tanzania is not utilizing UTALI college in Kenya, which has the tourism and hotel management programs because of the low wage rate for the staffs, posses poor attitude over the motivation of their work, no proper transportation facilities .  If it could have used it properly that would be the responsible training platform for reaching the standards. And also it helps to fill the gaps for the tourists.

3)      Government and bureaucratic factors:

A lack of regulatory and legal framework towards tourism exists. Little coordination among the tourists must be seen among the private sector actor groups, relevant ministriesand non-governmental organizations.  International and regional tourisms links are weak, participation of them and community awareness are nonexistent (MNRT, 1997).

Marketing as been more neglected by the Tanzania government , that make  the tourists to think that Serengeti National Park  and Mt. Kilimanjaro are found in Kenya. But this not surprising that photo of Kenya contains the Mt. Kilimanjaro in the background with wildlife in Amboseli National Park.

Therefore, inTanzania currently most of the tourists have the only one destination that is Kenyan destination. And also the whole tourism revolve around with wild life industry. It simply failed to diversify the other strengths of the country like culture and the beach tourism.

Low carbon Future:

Low carbon society is the basic idea where the society needs is fulfilled by the techniques where the carbon emission is zero. The main goal is to make sure the only carbon di oxide generated is enough to be observed by the nature. Carbon emission products has been a part our life, the burning of fossil fuels releases the carbon to the nature, which is harmful the planet, as it is responsible for the global warming, the burning of fossil fuels are also responsible for other greenhouse gases which affects the global warming. It Tanzanian the relative carbon emission in total per capita is low, it is not going to remain same the increase in and population and utilization of the carbon based fuels, Tanzania is set to have a very much increase in its greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in next 20 to 30 years, The main reason between is the increase in population and the low GDP growth rates per year. The annual GDP growth rate is 8 to 10%, which is low when compared to population growth rate. The main reasons behind the high carbon emissions are, forest (70%) and agriculture (23%) (Opportunities for Low Carbon, 2010). In Forest due to deforestation and degradation of agriculture and from livestock of enteric fermentation, and due to agriculture soils as they are fertilized from N20 for the farming. In 2010 the emissions from the energy system were low as the 90% of the energy production was from bio mass, though bio mass is a carbon emitter, these were considered to be significantly less than other sources, but this has changed since then, as the years passed the grow of fossil fuel consumption has been increased and the extraction and improper utilization of the fuels and inefficient use of fossil energy caused to increase in the consumption. The increased transport utilization are also responsible for the GHG release, at present vehicles are also one of the strong sources of the GHG emissions. “The value for Total greenhouse gas emissions (kt of CO2 equivalent) in Tanzania was 235,353 as of 2012” (indexmundi, 2012). Increased transition to more modern home cooking fuels with the calculation of biomass-related carbon emissions, the sector will increase LUCF department. In addition, even in the power sector that currently has a high share of renewable energy (Hydropower), current coal and natural gas development plans will increase the intensity of carbon power generation. In 2014 the tCO2 per capita is 5.48. Where the world per capita is 6.73. The normal emission growth shows us the increase in MtCO2e to 138-153 in next 10-20 years. The Deforestation in Tanzania is directly related to wood fuel consumption and production increase in the country, the estimated deforestation form 2001 to 2010 is around

130,000 to 500,000 ha per annum. The emissions from agriculture from 1990 to 2014 have been increased by 65% because of enteric fermentation (USAID, 2018).

 BBC has published a report about Tanzanian people and their awareness of the recent climate change. In recent times temperature in Tanzania has been increased, and rain fall has also decreased when compared to previous years, and there was gradual decrease in the rain fall and increase in the temperatures. Tanzanian people are also suffering from droughts and environmental degradation. The deforestation has been increased in Tanzania and the people over there are not really aware of the situation really and they were not able to understand the relationship between the deforestation and climate change. Lack of education is also the reason between locals having the understanding of the climate change and global warming, most of them believe climate change is the thing of seasons, and believes in myths. They blame humans for the climate change and by their experience they draw a theory that the deforestation, industrialization and local pollution is responsible for the drastic climate changes, they really don’t know that the extant of the climate changes beyond Tanzania, and they blame the individuals or take collective responsibility. Most of the Tanzanians think that deforestation is the main cause of the climate change, there are now enough resources with the Tanzanians to help the cause by forestation. Many people in the country are ready to change and believes that with the help of government they will be able to handle the situation easily. The small amount of the awareness is caused by the media (Ed Pauker, Mercy Kimaro, Jimmy Innes., 2010),

How can Tourism be useful in reducing the carbon emission? Tanzania doesn’t have enough GDP growth rate to reduce the carbon emissions and to implement alternative energy sources. Tourism boost will help Tanzania in many ways increase in GDP is being primary in them. Tourism also helps the government in promoting the cause to the locals and to the international market, deforestation is the main cause of the increase in increase of carbon emissionimprovement in ecotourism means improving forestation and sustained growth of the forests. Many other countries are ready to help Tanzania financially which is of real help to the country, Tanzania has one of the biggest volcanic mountains, which can has great effect because of the climate change, Tourism boost awareness in the locals and help them understand the importance of the global knowledge, as different cultures meet the best ways from different societies can be exchanged and help each other out, tourism plants the seeds for open ness of the countries, a lot of people in the country are really unaware of the measures to be taken for prevention of the climate change, Lack of education leads to the lack of knowledge in alternative techniques, the education sector can see the growth as it learns to adopt the best techniques from the world.  Tanzania government needs to work on developing natural energy sources and make them as a tourist places which is done by many countries the places not only serve as technical tourism place but also helps the country in its energy crisis. As naturally the temperatures are very high in the country, it will be helpful to work on the solar energy and help the locals with the cost saving methods, working on eco life and wild life will play a major role in conservation of the forest lands and agricultural lands Constructing dams and using oceans to create hydroelectric power will be may who helps in building tourism.

Low Carbon Tourism is technique where the tourist are made to follow few steps

which reduces the carbon footprint by the the food management part in the tourism, can make the low carbon tourism possible. By improving the low carbon tourism the government can reduce the taxation on carbon emission on the tourists, which reduces the expenses for the tourists encouraging them to choose it as their destination, and also help the local food sellers by local food policy. Encouraging the low carbon tourism means setting up new low carbon hotels for the tourists and creating Jobs for the locals, the low carbon emission buildings are not only ornamental but also reduce the energy of air conditioning routine low energy consumption. Low carbon Tourism results in overall reduction in utilization of the resources.

CONCLUSION:

The study on the Tourism management of the Tanzania helped about the understanding different theoretical points from different perspectives and views such as the economic and revenue contribution, Poverty and tourism reduction, low carbon future. This study has showed the different theoretical approaches which are quite effective for helping out the tourism management and development of the future output. Moreover, the different approaches given with the different examples lead to the change management outcomes and the strategic decisions of the country.  Tanzania is a perfect example of the challenges facing the poor, underdeveloped country leading to develop and international tourism industry. However,  the biggest challenged facing by the country at the present is bringing the accommodation, transportation and setting up the information sectors up to the standards expected by the international tourism destination.

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