An Exegetical Study of Ephesians 1:11-14

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8th Feb 2020 Theology Reference this

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Introduction & Survey

The New American Standard Bible translation of Ephesians 1:11-4 is an evangelical exaltation about God’s grace, reflected in our timeless redemption from the Father, through the Son and with the Spirit, that gives us strength and wisdom to praise Him with our lives.

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[In Him] 11also we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will, 12to the end that we who were the first to hope in Christ would be to the praise of His glory. 13In Him, you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation-having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise, 14who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God’s own possession, to the praise of His glory.[1]

This passage is part of a larger letter that symbolizes the “crown of Paulinism.”[2] God is the main actor in this story, as well as our story in Christ, uniting Jews and Gentiles in the body of Christ. The passage ends as the discourse begins, culminating with a call to fulfill God’s desire for us to praise God with our lives.[3] While the occasion, function, and purpose of this passage provide many insights, the repeated praise offers a relevant takeaway that withstands exegetical scrutiny, reflects the tone of the epistle, and fits with the broader story of the Bible.

Contextual Analysis (Historical Analysis)

The streets of modern-day Ephesus are adorned with columns and arches that remain as a standing monument to the third-largest city in the Roman Empire, centered on the Artemis Temple. Located at the mouth of the Cayster River, wealth poured in and out of what was a transportation hub for goods and people throughout Asia Minor.[4]

1

Antiquities historian Josephus refers to gatherings of the Jewish people, the apostle Paul among them, as well as Titus, Apollos, Priscilla, and Aquila. Jews and Gentiles co-existed as relative outsiders to a culture fixated on the imperial cult, idol worship, and a fascination with magic.[5] But contrary to the accusatory tone of Galatians, Colossians, and Corinthians, Paul takes a more reverent posture, indicating that Gnostic heresy had not corrupted the Ephesians.[6]

Though some Jewish communities were far more prolific than their Jewish Christian offshoots,[7] which included the Ebionites and the Nazoreans.[8] The Jewish houses of worship and Gentile churches Paul founded were also moving in separate theological and social directions,[9] which explains why the letter treats the tensions within the churches of Galatians and Romans as settled matters more in line with Paul’s letters to the Thessalonians and Corinthians.[10]

Arriving in Ephesus around 54 CE (Acts 21:31), Paul spent several years establishing the church’s leadership and [11] writing his first letter to the Corinthians, one of four that scholars generally certify as authentic. Sparking some controversy, he suffered some struggles and riots broke out over his teachings. Regarded as one of Paul’s four imprisonment epistles, scholars still debate the date of Ephesians. Though some start as early as his arrests in Ephesus and Caesarea Marittima, between 58 and 61 CE, the predominant view lines up with Paul’s time as a Roman prisoner around 64 CE, apparently around the time of Colossians since Tychicus delivers both letters to cities in relative proximity.[12] Still, others place the writing after the fall of the Jewish temple in 70 CE, prior to the earliest known reference to the work made by Ignatius in 90 CE.[13]

Later dating raises questions about the self-attested authorship by Paul, “a prisoner of Christ Jesus” (1:1, 13:1, 4:1, 6:20). Skeptics attribute the work to a scribe or successor, such as his associate Epaphras, seeking to advance Paul’s work after his death.[14] By the 20th century, a majority subscribed to the theory that Ephesians is a redaction of Colossians (1:5, 9, 13-14, 6) because of some remarkably similar language,[15] though some of the parallels with Romans suggest the letter could represent a broader collection of Pauline works.[16] Despite a quarter of the words being a literal match to Colossians,[17] scholars have yet to find a possible source for the discourse that includes the 11-14 passage.[18] Ephesians also goes far more in-depth theologically, adopting a tone, style, and language that is significantly distinguishable from the other letters.[19]

Since the doctrinal value of Ephesians is hardly in dispute, the authorship question is rendered largely academic. After all, it is “not who wrote it, but who inspired it that should be of greatest importance.”[20] Moreover, authority does not come from authorship, but from the Spirit. So, absent overwhelming doubt, we are left to take any author of the word at their word and let the Holy Spirit be our guide in interpreting their work. 

Some questions about authorship can be reconciled with others about intended recipients.[21] Stemming from the fact that “in Ephesus” does not appear in early manuscripts, ancient writer Marcion claims it was for Laodicea[22] based on Paul requesting that the Colossians (4:15-16) and Laodiceans share their letters, but the latter letter was never recovered. The lack of warning against false teachings also suggests[23] the letter was a “circular epideictic” for many churches,[24] which is consistent with Paul’s greeting in Corinthians from churches in the province and to churches in Galatians. Recipients aside, the letter effectively encourages Jewish and Gentile unification, resistance to spiritual warfare, and holy living,[25] which explains why believers have preserved this magnum opus for the fullness of time.

Formal Analysis

Despite a quarter of the words being a literal match to Colossians, Ephesians goes far more in-depth theologically, adopting a tone, style, and language that is significantly distinguishable from the other letters.[26] Ephesians embraces ancient rhetorical forms of celebratory and hortatory discourse common to the Essenes, including the “mystery” of God’s redemption, and the rhetorical strategies presuppose an audience that recognizes what they hear as tradition, not new instruction.[27] The genre notwithstanding, Ephesians takes the form of a poetic master-class about the doctrine (Ch. 1-3) and duty (Ch. 4-6) of believers in Christ.[28]

I.   Praise to the Saints vv. 1:1-2

II.  Rights in Christ vv. 1:3-3:21

a. Inheritance from Salvation vv. 1:3-23

i.   By the Father, Son, and Spirit vv. 1:4-14

ii.  Empowered by God vv. 1:15-23

b. Inheritance in Salvation vv. 2:1-3:21

i.  Resurrection Power vv. 2:1-22

ii. Enlightened by God vv. 3:1-21, 2-13

III. Responsibilities in Christ vv. 4:1-6:20

a. Purposes Driven Life vv. 4:1-16

b. Purified Life vv. 4:17-5:21

i.   Death to the Flesh / Alive in the Spirit vv. 4:17-24

ii.  Love, Light and Wisdom vv. 5:1-21

c. Peaceful Life vv. 5:22-6:9

i.   Marriage vv. 5:22-33

ii.  Family vv. 6:1-4

iii. Service vv. 6:5-9

d. Life of Power and Prayer: vv. 6:10-20

IV. Commendation of Tychicus vv. 6:21-24[29]

Unlike other Pauline letters that begin with a greeting and praise for those addressed, Ephesians opens with a prolonged prologue about God’s blessings[30] before transitioning into a thanksgiving more akin to other Pauline works.[31] The literary form of the blessing found in the discourse resembles the type of barakah found in the Old Testament (Tobit 13:1-17, 1 Kings 8:15, 56), where the phrase “Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel” sets the tone; the New Testament also includes similar langue (2 Corinthians 1:3-4, 1 Pet 1:3-12, and Luke 1:68-76).[32]

Stringing together multiple participles, infinitives, and dependent clauses,[33] the discourse (1: 3-14) was originally written in Greek as a long 202-word sentence, the second longest of the New Testament, only behind Colossians 1:9-20 (218 words).[34] However, English translations break up the discourse into multiple sentences (six in the NRSV, eight in the NIV).[35]

Scholars use a variety of methods for segmenting the sentences, though the 1:11-14 passage typically stands on its own.[36] The blessing in verse 3 sets the tone for two movements of thought about why God is to be praised, transitioning from what happened in the distant past (11:4-6) to what exists at the time of the writing and beyond (11:7-14).[37] Each movement (4-10 and 11-14) also contains roughly two stanzas that describe our “Spiritual Blessings in Christ” in that we were chosen by his grace before the foundation of the world (1:4-6), we have been redeemed in Christ for the fulness of time (1:7-10), we have an inheritance for the praise of His glory (1:11-12), and we are sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit (1:13-14).[38]

One segmentation method identifies the repetition of three distinct themes in 1:4-10 (4-6a, 6b-7; 8-10) that are echoed in 1:11-14 (11-12, 13, 14).[39] A more complex method treats the entire discourse as a chiasm (1:3-4 and 1:5-9b mirroring 1:11b-13a and 1:13b-4) with the refrain of “praise of His glory” as a book end (1:3-6 and 1:13-14) to the parallels of “redemption” (1:7-9) and “inheritance” (1:11-12) with the central idea that “Christ” is the means by which God works “all things” (1:10-11a).[40] In other words, we should praise the Father for His Son.[41]

Detailed Analysis (Interpretation and Theological Analysis)

Ephesians 1:7-14 describes God’s blessing with the technique of substitution, moving linearly from “redemption” and “inheritance” to the “seal of the Holy Spirit” (1:7, 11, 13). Verses 7-10 emphasize how Christians are ordained to find contentment, referring to the “mystery” of God’s plan to sum up all things[42] found in other Pauline works (Romans 1:25, 1 Corinthians 2:6, 15.51). Verses 11-14 help unlock this mystery by portraying the Son and Spirit as a conduit for being in God’s good graces, emphasizing how Christians are ordained to find hope.[43] In this way, contentment and hope are essential to realizing a God glorifying life.[44]

Scholars have described the tone and style of the passage as liturgical[45] and as a eulogy[46] reflecting traditional Jewish blessings found in Qumran literature.[47] While “also” is used three times to connect complimentary elements, the language does not contain any contradictory conjunctions and does not stray from the overall tone of praise. Multiple prepositions serve as more of an inseverable elaboration than any kind of qualified disclaimers, but because of all the subordinate clauses, there are multiple ways of diagraming the language.[48]

v.11 “In Him, also we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will,” “In Him” is used interchangeably with “in Christ” dozens of times in the discourse[49] as the instrumentality by which God predestined redemption (NRSV is more explicit).[50] Striking a similar chord to Colossians 1:12 about being transformed to share an inheritance,[51] Ephesians 1:11 marks a shift from the privilege of being God’s children to the honor of being God’s inheritance.[52] Some see it as a play on words that allows for the duality of God choosing us to receive an inheritance (ESV and NRSV) and receiving us as an inheritance (NIV), both being theologically valid the same way as the blessings at the beginning of the discourse being conferred upon God and by God.[53]

Building on verses 1:4-6, 7, and foreshadowing 13, 11 introduces the inheritance we have obtained as another blessing for which to praise God. Interpretations range from “appoint… by lot” to “we were claimed by God.”[54] A more literal translation of “have an allotment” in the Old Testament relates to believers being allotted a portion with holy ones while paying homage to the apostles casting their lots to elevate a disciple (Acts 1:26). Ephesians extends God’s covenant to those chosen in Christ,[55] which is associated with his return by other Pauline works.[56]

The “inheritance” metaphor also lies at the heart of a second inclusio (the first revolving around “redemption” in 1:7), within the mirror of “the praise of His glory” (1:6 and 1:12), that aligns the “mystery of His will, according to the kind intention which he purposed” (1:8-10) with “according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will” (1:11). Drawing on a developmental parallel (1:5) to a preceding theme of predestination, this verse reveals God’s divine design for redemption[57] in Christ’s crucifixion, resurrection, and return.[58]

“According to the purpose and counsel of His will” describes how predestination takes place, which the New Testament mentions 12 times, including other Pauline works.[59] The pre-Messianic Dead Sea Scrolls also hint at predestination for the “wicked,” underscoring the notion that “righteousness is not in a hand of flesh… and that it is not in mortals to direct their steps.”[60] Despite the foreknowledge of redemption, however, there is little evidence of a precreation knowledge about how living beings would act during their lives.[61] So, even though redemption cannot be revoked, there is no theological pass for falling short of God’s glory.

v.12 “to the end that we, who were the first to hope in Christ would be to the praise of His glory.” (NASB notes that Christ refers to the Messiah) The future tense conjunction of “to the end that” communicates the purpose of the “allotment” in the preceding text, picking up on a refrain appearing earlier in verse 6 and later in verse 14,[62] “eis epainon doxes autou,” which can be translated as “for” or “to” the praise of His glory, or paraphrased as “praise God.”[63]

In the Mediterranean antiquity, “praise” was a proper response to a gracious giver, be they human or divine.[64] Given our redemption in Christ, our inheritance in the world to come, and the seal of the Holy Spirit, some praise to God is proper to say the least. While the term “his” in verses 12 and 14 could theoretically refer to God the Father or the Son, the “father of glory” referenced in the subsequent passage (1:17) seems indicative.[65] The repetition of “live for the praise of His glory”, as the NRSV puts it, gives purpose and meaning to the writing and the very inheritance in the world to come of those who hoped beforehand in Christ.[66]

v.13 “In Him, you also, after listening to the message of truth, the gospel of your salvation – having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise;” Beginning the second stanza of the passage, this verse introduces Holy Spirit as both a confirmation and a deposit on the salvation of believers. More specifically, it describes a method for receiving the seal of the promised Holy Spirit – listening to… [and] also believing the message of truth. At the time, Ephesians and others lived in an area where many movements were making claims about knowing the truth, though the gospel is the one that matters most.[67]

“Also” connects being “sealed” with our “redemption” and our “inheritance” in Christ (1:7, 11, 13). Similar to other Pauline works (2 Corinthians 4:2 and Galatians 2:5, 14), the substitution figure of speech is used to associate the “message of truth” with the “good news of your salvation.”[68] However, a notable shift occurs in the form of the object from “we,” referring to the first to put their hope in Christ (1:12), to “you” in reference to those sealed in Him (13).[69]

Supported by the logic that Paul assumes the “we,”[70] Jewish Christians are most commonly denoted with Gentile Christians as the “you.”[71] Some scholars attribute the “we” and “you” more broadly designating Christians and Jews, so as to differentiate monotheistic believers and polytheistic Gentiles;[72] even if “you” refers to new Christian converts, they were largely Gentile anyway.[73] By invoking Old Testament language, Ephesians hints at the communal identity Christians have with Jewish origins.[74] Alternatively, the pronouns could also distinguish the broader Christian community from the specific church or churches likely to read the letter.[75] Whatever the difference, the point is that it makes no difference in the eyes of God.

This verse also refers to Christ as the instrumentality through which believers are sealed by the Spirit.[76] Akin to how slaves and cattle were branded,[77] the seal in antiquity indicated ownership and protection. Paul’s authenticated letters also associate the sealing with baptism (e.g. baptized in the Spirit) and deals with the fruits of the Spirit mentioned in Galatians (5:22-23); according to the letter (4:21), the seal lasts until the day of redemption,[78] cross-referencing with the 144,000 who were sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel (Rev. 7:4).[79]

The “promised Holy Spirit” – also described as the “seal,” “pledge,” and “down payment”[80] – is referenced in Joel 2:28-29 (as interpreted in Acts 2:17-21) and by Jesus (Luke 24:49; John 14:16-17, 15:26).[81] Some scholars believe the text is more appropriately translated to “word of truth,” which provides contentment and hope. In this way, the Holy Spirit represents the promise that by believing the message of truth, we are saved for eternity.[82]

v.14 “who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God’s own possession, to the praise of His glory.” The “pledge” is linked to the Spirit in the preceding verse, which provides contentment and hope.[83]  Different translations use “pledge,” “first installment,” “deposit,” and “down payment” rather synonymously,[84] meant less as an initial payment and more as a deposit on God’s possession by likening believers fulfilled by the second coming of Christ with the people of Israel as the completion of God’s plan for redemption.[85]

The Holy Spirit is associated with “who is given as a pledge of our inheritance,” acting as a deposit on a future return[86] or, more literally, translated to “transcendent salvation.” In this passage, “with a view to” speaks less of a purpose and more of a direction toward an upcoming time, according to some scholars, based on later references to “until the day of redemption” (4:30).[87] Our redemption in Christ is mentioned throughout the scripture, including Ephesians, in which it is used synonymously with “forgiveness of trespasses.”[88] The idea that we are God’s possession is also similar to how the Old Testament describes the Jewish people.[89]

Many scholars fall in line with the conclusion that the first Christians and those who responded to the gospels are bound together by the purpose of God’s inheritance: to live for the praise of His glory.”[90] However stylistic or substantive, the refrain is foreshadowed by a slight language shift between “first to hope in Christ” and “the redemption of God’s own possession,” further revealing the mystery of our salvation. Accordingly, this refrain acts as a call for unity[91] among those chosen by God[92]to come together in Christ as head of His church.[93]

Synthesis

Unlike the focus on individual faith in Colossians, Ephesians challenges the tendency toward individualism by focusing on the church as the body[94] for which Christ is the head.[95] Within a discourse pointing to knowledge that inspires us to praise God,[96] the 11-14 passage offers a glimpse into “the summit of God’s plan involving his people’s destiny [and] obtaining a Spirit-guaranteed inheritance, that they may live for God’s glory.”[97]

Ephesians also stands out from other Pauline works highlighting redemption from the crucifixion of Christ by highlighting the sinful threats posed by spiritual warfare[98] associated with the Artemis cult.[99] The appeals of the writing insinuate that the readers are perceived as powerless, unstable, and lack a sufficient sense of identity.[100] In this context, Paul puts the trinity of God into proper perspective by presenting Him as an all powerful, yet all merciful Father who sacrifices His only Son for our destiny – all He asks in return is to be praised.

Whether intended, expected, or effected, Paul is not preaching to the choir; his message is for the masses. Knowing that his letters were typically read and shared with other churches, it would have been hard for Paul not to anticipate this passage to reach well beyond a single congregation of Christian Gentiles in Ephesus to a broader audience of Jewish Christians, non-Christian Jews, and even non-Christian Gentiles. In this context, the pass serves to credential Paul’s theological authority, inoculate against skepticism by proclaiming the predestination of God’s mercy, and elevate Christ above all the Greco-Roman figures of worship.

The passage also aligns the doctrine of Jewish and Gentile believers with an ever so subtle shift in object form, from “we” to “you,” which serves an equalizing function as it relates to the Jewish and Gentile Christians.[101] Then, harkening back to an earlier refrain (1:3), Paul’s repetition of living “to the praise of His glory” unifies the two stanzas of the passage, the discourse as a whole, and the shared purpose of “our” inheritance.

With this passage, Paul is not just telling believers to do as he says but showing them how to do what he does. In so doing, he is preparing believers for the church’s mission ahead, having learned for himself that the more we turn to God, the more the mystery of His blessings are revealed.[102]  In so much as there is any underlying moral order to the message order of the letter, from theological doctrine to theological duty, perhaps one of the many mysteries revealed by this passage is the supernatural flow from right belief to right action from which we can glean wisdom about the prudence of acknowledging God’s way before pursuing His will for our lives.

Reflection (Contemporary Application)

In her commentary, attempting to reconcile the concepts of election, predestination, and free will, Lynn Cohick asserts that any claims of human free will and God’s sovereignty should make space for the real-time necessity of holy living.[103] Considering the context of the discourse, the subsequent verses of the letter (2:10, 3:21, 4:1-6:24), and the broader scripture, we can see that the passage implies more than a mere passive aspiration; instead of living for the praise of people, or even putting the glory of our church above God’s glory,[104] living in a way that praises God comes down to all of us who were chosen making a conscious choice to praise God in word and in deed.[105]

All too often as Christians, we can find ourselves limiting our faith only to a few areas of our lives, engaging in activities mostly on behalf of our places of worship, or espousing denominational doctrines that divide our church before God. Part of the reason for this is part of the reason Paul writes Ephesians, reminding believers that we all share in an inheritance just as we ought to share in a church and that, by living in unity, we invite the helping hand of the Holy Spirit in glorifying God with our lives. In other words, Christ moves when we operate as one body.

Our talents, opportunities, and successes are Spiritual blessings that seal the word of truth that, through Christ, all things are possible. We require no further justification for praising God than our own salvation, but God’s desire is that our lives would have such an overwhelming impact on others that they too would feel compelled to praise His glory.

Bibliography

Periodicals

 


[1] Eph. 1:1-14 (NASB).

[2] Vanhoozer, Kevin J. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of The Bible. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, n.d.

[3] Roberts, Mark D. Ephesians. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2016: 22, 32, 34.

[4] Cohick, Lynn H. “Ephesians: A New Covenant Commentary.” New Covenant Commentary Series. Lutterworth Press, 2013: 36.

[5] Ibid, 18, 34.

[6] Grizzle, Trevor. “Ephesians.” Pentecostal Commentary Series. Blandford Forum, England: Deo Publishing, 2013: 2, 14.

[7] Perkins, Pheme. “The Letter to the Ephesians.” The New Interpreter’s Bible. 11th ed. Reprint, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2000: 365.

[8] Slater, Thomas B. “Ephesians.” Smyth & Helwys Bible Commentary. Macon, Georgia: Smyth & Helwys Publishing Company, 2016: 17.

[9] Grizzle, “Ephesians,” 14.

[10] Cohick, “Ephesians,” 18.

[11] Ibid., 21.

[12] Cohick, “Ephesians,” 20, 32-34.

[13] Grizzle, “Ephesians,” 19.

[14] Slater, “Ephesians,” 8-9.

[15] Hering, James P. “Colossian and Ephesian.” Haustafeln in Theological Context: An Analysis of Their Origins, Relationship, and Message. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated, 2012: 107.

[16] Perkins, “The Letter,” 354.

[17] Slater, “Ephesians,” 6.

[18] Talbert, Charles H. Ephesians and Colossians. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007: 41.

[19] Slater, “Ephesians,” 20.

[20] Ibid., 9.

[21] Ibid., 10, 19.

[22] Cohick, “Ephesians,” 9.

[23] Perkins, “The Letter,” 353.

[24] Slater, “Ephesians,” 6, 8.

[25] Cohick, “Ephesians,” 4.

[26] Slater, “Ephesians,” 6. 20.

[27] Perkins, “The Letter,” 352, 354, 356.

[28] Grizzle, “Ephesians,” 20.

[29] “Study Resources: Executable Outlines.” Blue Letter Bible. 2018.

[30] Roberts, Ephesians, 21.

[31] Merkle, Benjamin L. Ephesians. Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament. Nashville, TN: B & H Publishing Group, 2016: 17.

[32] Fowl, Stephen E. Ephesians (2012). Westminster John Knox Press, 2011: 35.

[33] Perkins, “The Letter,” 355.

[34] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 17.

[35] Talbert, Ephesians, 41.

[36] Ibid., 42.

[37] Barth, Karl. The Epistle to the Ephesians. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2017: 87.

[38] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 17.

[39] Barth, The Epistle, 87.

[40] Grizzle, “Ephesians,” 21, 24.

[41] Kuruvilla, Abraham. Ephesians: A Theological Commentary for Preachers. Eugene: Wipf and Stock: 2015, 24.

[42] Roberts, Ephesians, 28.

[43] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 22.

[44] Barth, The Epistle, 76, 84.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Grizzle, “Ephesians,” 20.

[47] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 9.

[48] Fowl, Ephesians, 52, 36.

[49] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 23.

[50] Talbert, Ephesians, 45.

[51] Slater, “Ephesians,” 46.

[52] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 33-34.

[53] Roberts, Ephesians, 33.

[54] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 31.

[55] Fowl, Ephesians, 49.

[56] Barth, “The Epistle,” 84-87.

[57] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 34.

[58] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 36.

[59] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 32.

[60] Talbert, Ephesians, 46.

[61] Barth, “The Epistle,” 85.

[62] Slater, “Ephesians,” 46.

[63] Fowl, Ephesians, 36.

[64] Talbert, Ephesians, 44.

[65] Roberts, Ephesians, 3.

[66] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 35.

[67] Fowl, Ephesians, 50. (Italic emphasis added)

[68] Slater, “Ephesians,” 46.

[69] Roberts, Ephesians, 32.

[70] Talbert, Ephesians, 43, 46.

[71] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 31.

[72] Cohick, “Ephesians,” 55.

[73] Slater, “Ephesians,” 46.

[74] Perkins, “The Letter,” 365. 

[75] Barth, “The Epistle,” 86.

[76] Ibid., 88.

[77] Roberts, Ephesians, 33.

[78] Talbert, Ephesians, 48-49.

[79] Slater, “Ephesians,” 47.

[80] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 35.

[81] Fowl, Ephesians, 50.

[82] Barth, “The Epistle,” 87, 89.

[83]Ibid., 84-87.

[84] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 35.

[85] Fowl, Ephesians, 50. 

[86] Talbert, Ephesians, 49.

[87] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 36.

[88] Talbert, Ephesians, 46.

[89] Merkle, “Ephesians,” 36.

[90] Roberts, Ephesians, 33; Barth, The Epistle, 89.

[91] “God’s gift and call to unity–and our commitment.” The Ecumenical Review 65, no. 4 (2013): 453.

[92] Lo-Ann, Z., and David Trembley. Focus: Ephesians 1:3-14: (Holy Beginnings). Clergy Journal 84, no. 7 (May 2008): 129–31.

[93] Talbert, Ephesians, 47.

[94] Perkins, “The Letter,” 357.

[95] Vanhoozer, Dictionary, 189-190.

[96] Roberts, Ephesians, 22.

[97] Kuruvilla, Ephesians, 33.

[98] Perkins, “The Letter,” 355.

[99] Vanhoozer, Dictionary, 190.

[100] Perkins, “The Letter,” 352.

[101] Talbert, Ephesians, 49.

[102] Barth, The Epistle, 89.

[103] Cohick, “Ephesians,” 53.

[104] Barth, The Epistle, 86.

[105] Roberts, Ephesians, 34.

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