Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
Technology has certainly changed our everyday lives in ways that 25 years ago we would have never thought possible and has played a role in this tech evolution. When we think about how frequently we use our smartphones in a day and find it hard to function without it or drive a vehicle that has GPS and WiFi technology that tracks our every mile or when doing searches online the search is auto filled based on search algorithm suggestions from machine learning logic; this just proves how advanced and pervasive this technology has become. If you can nod your head yes to all of these scenario’s then surely there is recognition of the subtle suggestions and manifestations of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been in existence as long as computers have been. However; the idea of AI has existed even longer with some of Greece’s early philosophers. But what is AI? AI is machine learning computer systems that have taken over human intelligence and replaced with machine intelligence. This paper attempts to investigate, as well as explain the impact and implications of AI, the future of AI, as well as the history of this progressive, controversial and revolutionary technology. AI exists in our lives in all different aspects such as our cars, phones, internet, sales, manufacturing, homes, jobs and the overall economy. With so many different touchpoints, it is critical to examine the benefits of AI as well as the determents, and how or if it should be used moving forward. This technology will continuously be evolving which makes this a very interesting topic to explore. Just in the last 5 years science and technology has made huge leaps and bounds in the growing use of artificial intelligence. With this technology in its progressive lifecycle; people in the future will be able to accomplish difficult tasks with ease. This is a very controversial topic and we will explore the impact on our global culture as well as the ethical, environmental, political, legal and moral implications and effects on our society.
Background and Historical Timeline
Technology has changed our everyday lives in ways that 25 years ago and even further, we would have never imagined! Taking a deeper look into the historical origins of Artificial Intelligence, also known as AI, it’s easy to see how it has played a pivotal role in tech evolution. When we think about how frequently we use our smartphones in a day and find it hard to function without it, or drive a vehicle that has GPS and Wi-Fi technology that tracks our every mile, to doing searches online that are auto-filled based on search algorithm suggestions from machine learning logic; this proves how advanced and pervasive this technology has become. If you can nod your head yes to all these scenario’s, then you surely are aware of the suggestive nature and evidence of Artificial Intelligence.
Emergence of Artificial Intellect
AI has been in existence since the first CPU, the idea of artificial intellect and logic, however, has existed even longer; since some of Greek’s first philosophers!
“Logic is a language for reasoning. The term logic is a Greek term “logikos” meaning “word” but has a deeper meaning in intellect and controlled thought. Logic is formally defined as the science which addresses the validity of inference and demonstration, that initially appealed to philosophers, then computer science and ultimately the field of Artificial Intelligence” (Flanagan, 2017).
Prior to the year 1949 computers were deficient in meeting basic standards for being considered “intelligent”, as they could only gather instructions, not implement them. Essentially, computers could be given an order of what to do but could not recall what was being asked of them. “Around the early 1950’s leasing a computer cost roughly $200,000 a month, and only the prominent universities as well as major tech companies could embark on such tasks. The concept of a computer being intelligent was difficult to advocate for and needed some convincing that machine intelligence was worth pursuing” (Jaeger, Mariaa, Wong, Agatha, & Romexsoft, 2019).
What is Artificial Intelligence & Programming Language?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is intelligence determined by a machine, or software. In 1956 Artificial Intelligence was born in the form of a publication at Princeton University, and has grown exponentially since then. As a society, we interact with AI daily unbeknown to us.
According to Wolfgang, Bibel, author of Artificial Intelligence in a Historical Perspective, the actual language that we know today as AI goes back to 1941, and was created by Zonrad Zuse (Bibel, 2014).
Zuses’ Plankalkul was the designer of the first programming language, that mapped out the first chess program. Zuses’ efforts have gone without acknowledgement because the programming language wasn’t run on a real machine! Despite his substantial achievements in the world of AI, Zuze only peaked the thoughts and ideas of AI via a programming language. As such, another significant contributor and his team took it upon themselves to pick up where Zuze left off, in a sense, exploring Artificial Intellect/Intelligence even further!
History of Artificial Intelligence
The History of Artificial Intelligence is shown in the graph below however I have highlighted other contributor’s in my discourse subsequently!
John McCarthy’s Influence on AI
John McCarthy is seen as a major contributor, and influencer in the world of Artificial Intelligence. McCarthy and his team were the first to officially coin the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’ unlike Zuze. McCarthy’s goal was to establish a way for computers to use a language to communicate. In order to do so, he created a language known as LISP that computes with symbolic expressions. McCarthy felt computer programs should have common sense reasoning, and the ability to communicate with each other intelligently! In previous times, the understanding of how to get computers to comprehend logic was unknown and relied on the principles of monotonicity. In other words, people dismissed the notion that a logic-based system could work, although McCarthy did not.
In his research, McCarthy was able to formulate a method called circumscription, which is a non-monotonic logic. McCarthy was the first Instructor at Stanford University in 1962. Like McCarthy, Stanford University was one of the first to have an AI laboratory. According to (Rajaraman, 2014) “A world famous school in AI started at Stanford with activities in robotics, speech processing, and knowledge representation”. These milestones, research and developments were the onset of the endless possibilities and origin within the field of Artificial Intelligence. This monumental location in Silicon Valley, has certainly paved the way for well-known companies we know today like Google, IBM, Yahoo, and Apple!
Current and proposed applications of Artificial Intelligence
One major milestone of AI that many of us can recall is IBM’s Watson, the question answering system. This technology spoke about in the Journal of Information Science & Engineering in 2014 depicts how the techniques associated with AI are able to handle as well as compute complex natural spoken language through the use of cognitive computing. In addition to these systems being able to understand spoken language, it was also able to beat two individuals on a nationally acclaimed television show by the name of Jeopardy in 2011. This is a key indicator in how much Artificial Intelligence has grown in leaps and bounds since McCarthy’s time up to now.
Today in society however, this technology is more progressive than in the times of its pioneers could have ever envisioned. Artificial intelligence has not only dominated our society but pervades it also. From Siri, created for iPhone by Apple Inc. Alongside Apple, Google has jumped on this bandwagon too! A competitor of Siri called the Google Genius found on Android devices (cellphones) is also a form of AI. Google has evolved from a search engine now to a personal assistant just like Siri. It seems as if new ways of promoting a natural personality aspect to these Artificial forms is overpopulating us as well as persuading us to accept their full integration!
Recommendations and Conclusions for Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence has evolved technology immensely! Therefore, the idea that we love yet despise how we have benefited from the historical antecedents of artificial intellect, and intelligence. However, it is clear that it cannot be denied by even the most avid antagonist! Artificial Intelligence has been used as a vehicle to reintegrate information, conceptualize data, and improve our ability to make decisions based on the results being populated. In contrast, there are also detrimental aspects such how it compromises our connections with each other, or values, and privacy just to name a few!
In conclusion, we cannot stop evolution, nor the fact that AI is transforming the world before our very eyes! As such these are my recommendations moving forward in this technological age of Artificial Intelligence:
- Advocate for improved data access without compromising the privacy of the users of that data.
- Further invest in research via the Government, as well as declassify that information for society, in order to continue educating them of the research enclosed (Since technology is evolving into the 21st century and will beyond that, we should as citizens too! Appointing someone in charge of a committee of some sort that can make policies as well as recommendations for the future of AI and the country would not only benefit AI but the economy and its citizens)! This should be done on a federal, state, and local level.
- When data breaches occur via AI glitches which is highly probable, these instances should be taken into account, handled expeditiously, and weeded out in a fair and dutiful way.
- Lastly, keeping a direct eye on Artificial Intelligence in a sense gives us a better sense of control, giving the power back to the people not the bot!
References are attached via this doc with my peers! 🙂 (Chereese)
Thinking about how a machine can really predict what our next thought is while we are in the process of thinking it is somewhat concerning. With AI clearly defined, there are concerns across many spectrums as to whether or not the technology is intrusive, obstructive, safe or overall not an issue for some. AI plays a significant role in society and the way we function and while not allows termed as AI – that is just what it is.
According to Bostrom and Yudkowsky, AI raises concerns of how the technology could be used as a racially determining factor. The example used is that of AI algorithms being written in ways to reject one ethnic background for bank loans versus another. This same racially determining factor can transcend into the workplace as well as other areas. AI, while built by humans is not human and lacks the ability developed by a human in order to effectively communicate.
Another area of ethical concern is the fact that AI could affect the behavior and interactions humans have with each other. Think about this, when we call a particular company’s customer service line we are met with, that’s correct an AI algorithm. The machine on the other end tries to solve our issues without a live person. This machine is able to search a database that already contains our information and is able to tell us our balances etc. Many times, people scream at these machines in order to get a live person. Companies have gone away from having a live person answer the phone who can assist with the reason for calling; to using AI machines to assist customers by asking for identifying information and using these methods to limit the person-to-person direct communication.
Mistakes are another ethical concern that can arise for AI. The wrong information can be added to an algorithm and when the technology is used, it gives out the same wrong information that it was given. How many times have we ask Siri a question as clear as possible and either the answer is not known or a wrong answer is given, it happens quite often. With this information
Dealing with the security aspect of AI and how if beached how much damage can be done is important. Enter cybersecurity. Technology is not a physical fight, but a security fight and it important that all data be protected. Cybersecurity threats come from all areas and this is a valid ethical concern.
With automation, AI- machines and robots having been increasing in recent time have been the cause of a number of jobs being eliminated. AI has prompted worry over the possibility of unemployment, as these automated systems can pose a threat to many industries. As it stands computers already have the ability to make decisions about people. AI can collect and assess data in a way that it can be allowed to make hiring recommendations to mangers using computer software without the manager reviewing the resume pool. From a human resources standpoint, one may think this is a good option at it eliminates people who are not qualified etc., but it actually raises questionable ethical concerns as AI systems can highlight what they have learned from real-world data entered into them, which could then in turn increase the risk bias that could include race, gender or other types of bias. In a New York Times article by Cade Metz under the title: Is Ethical A.I. Even Possible? The author notes that AI technology can be biased and has to be built in a manner that does not promote any obvious bias “As companies and governments deploy these A.I. technologies, researchers are also realizing that some systems are woefully biased. Facial recognition services, for instance, can be significantly less accurate when trying to identify women or someone with darker skin.”
The European Commission (EC) recently decided on seven requirements that AI systems should meet in order for them to be considered trustworthy. These requirements came about due to the fact this commission realized that while AI is important in the way it has changed the way people live, there needed to be some type of review to it. The requirements outlined are regarding AI systems are:
- human agency and oversight – they need to allow humans beings, in making “informed decisions and fostering their fundamental rights.”
- technical robustness and safety – they need to be safe, “ensuring a fall back plan in case something goes wrong, as well as being accurate, reliable and reproducible.”
- privacy and data governance – they need to ensure “privacy and data protection, adequate data governance mechanisms.”
- Transparency – they should be transparent. “Humans need to be aware that they are interacting with an AI system, and must be informed of the system’s capabilities and limitations.”
- diversity, non-discrimination and fairness – they should be fair and allow the fostering of diversity, so they are “accessible to all, regardless of any disability, and involve relevant stakeholders throughout their entire life circle”
- societal and environmental well-being – they “should benefit all human beings, including future generations.” As well as “take into account the environment, including other living beings, and their social and societal impact. “
- accountability – “Mechanisms should be put in place to ensure responsibility and accountability for AI systems and their outcomes.”
According to the EC the intent of these guidelines is that in order for AI to be considered as trustworthy, it should be:
- “lawful - respecting all applicable laws and regulations
- ethical – respecting ethical principles and values
- robust – both from a technical perspective while taking into account its social environment”
Social / Cultural
Is Artificial Intelligence causing people to be lazy?
The idea of being able to sit down and relax while a machine or artificial intelligence simply cook, clean or tend to the house seems like an ideal dream for the future. Changing and challenging technology stimulates our brain and creates questions on how we can improve said technology. Having everything done for us by machines would make our life much simpler, but would it make us less intelligent too? In a way, AI would make us quite lazy as it would end up doing everything for us and eventually replacing us for the simplest jobs as factory work. This began to happen in the industrial revolution when machines were implemented into factories, which made work much easier since the heavier work was done by machines that humans operated. This was an early glimpse of our possible future, machines, and artificial intelligence becoming embedded into our everyday life and eventually leading up to controlling us. (Barber Nigel, 2015)
Is Artificial Intelligence causing issues with real human interaction?
AI has essentially replaced human intelligence and therefore have affected human interaction all together. If you think about the past and how people had to communicate and fast forward to today, it’s just amazing what these machine learning systems are doing. They are taking over people’s jobs in many areas and will continue to evolve in the future. Many people believe that AI is causing issues already with human interaction. Take for example the technology of robots that are mechanically replacing humans in a variety of tasks. There is also a concern that AI will offer simulations of feelings, care and empathy, but of course that’s not the real thing. Robots already exist that use facial recognition to identify a person’s emotions. Whether someone is happy, sad, angry and the machine responds with a sigh showing the appearance of empathy. If we depend on machines to say take care of our elderly, we are denying ourselves the opportunity to really spend time with elderly and learn from their experiences and stories. This in turn would affect our moral growth and commitment in many aspects of our lives. There is some friction when it comes to how machines are taking over human interaction, and this will be explored further as we dive into our research. (Helinski.fi, 2015)
Is Artificial Intelligence creating a sense of inequality among humans?
When these machines generate sizable profits to compensate lost profits due to human error, will this newfound wealth be distributed in a fair manner? Many companies rely on hourly wage compensation to assess our economic growth. With artificial intelligence implemented, these companies can drastically cut human workforce expenses. However, this means less money will be going to workers. Instead, most of the revenue will be compensated by those select few who power the machines. Today, many start-up company owners retain a large amount of the revenue their company generates for themselves. This extraordinary wealth gap was present in 2014 where, “roughly the same revenues were generated by the three biggest companies in Detroit and the three biggest companies in Silicon Valley” (Bossmann, 2016). The companies in Silicon Valley were operating with ten times fewer employees than the Detroit companies. As a future post-labor society, we must structure equal rights to mitigate any unfairness that arises.
How does AI benefit or harm our society?
Many people in our society are concerned with the effects of AI and whether it is going to beneficial to businesses. But the statistics today show that this technology will strengthen our society and economy; allow for new businesses and organizations to enter new markets, allow for new products and services to be created (which will add jobs), and allow people to be more creative rather than spending time on manual mundane boring tasks. This would increase productivity overall. The idea of AI in business is to give the workers the opportunity to work smarter, not harder. With this evolving technology these things will be possible. However; on the other side of that humans are fearful of losing their jobs to these machines. How will humans and machines work together? (Forbes, 2018) Companies and business leaders need to start understanding the true benefits because the better understanding of this technology, the better we can evaluate its successes or failures, and implement these machines into our business processes. (Informationweek.com, 2018)
Why is AI significant to our culture?
With technologies such as App, Google home and Alexa: AI is integrated into our everyday lives. The question was asked along time ago of whether “Machines can think?”. Some of the early discussions and research around this by Alan Turing and Joseph Weinbaum prove that machines could act as empathetic, sincere as sentient human beings. Of course, machines don’t have emotions and they don’t experience life like humans do; but if they can carry on a conversation and learn real human interactions this could be a concern that they could also learn to be manipulative. Since so much of our day to day depends on computers; what would happen if these machines were to cause harm rather than provide good? This is a huge concern for the future. (huffpost.com, 2019)
What cultural products are a result of this technology?
AI has been progressing very rapidly the last few years, probably more so than any other technology out there. So many cultural products are a result of this technology. It wasn’t long ago that all analytics and merchandising online was a very manual task. The idea of automating so many tasks for so many different types of businesses, was just a fantasy. One of the earliest forms of AI which I can think of would be Predictive Intelligence. Adapted by Salesforce.com, Artificial intelligence with predictive sort, search, keyword phrases, category and type ahead recommendations powers customer data based on machine learning to serve up the most relevant, 1:1 personalized experience. This decreases the time it takes for a customer to find what they are looking for, optimizes revenue gains and increases conversion rate. With so many businesses implementing AI revenues and global affects are being seen across the globe. Apple, Google and Microsoft are companies that are bringing AI to all parts of our life.
Micro-Soft is a company that has continued making footprints in this digital age with large investments and research in harnessing the power of AI, and computer advanced algorithms. Micro-soft AI allows people and machines to naturally interact in a collaborative manner that extends people’s ability to understand, learn and sense. The advanced technology infuses these machine learning capabilities with human like skill and agility. Micro-Soft is making huge advancements in this field which will enable computers to understand what they see and be able to communicate solving complex programs. This state-of-the-art technology using chatbots, interactive tools, machine learning, advanced algorithms, intelligent agents, language technologies are already changing businesses around the world and will continue to do so as the technologies evolve. (Microsoft.com, 2016)
What are the social implications of AI?
One of the most successful entrepreneurs for decades is Tom Siebel and he believes that the benefits to AI are substantial, but if policies and regulations aren’t put in place to balance the impact then the potential cost would be significant in this rapidly evolving world. Tom has been at the forefront of some of today’s most successful technologies such as big data, cloud, IoT, AI, machine learning and now currently CEO of C3. Given that this technology touches every aspect of our life, it is urgent that these societal domains work together to try to mitigate any adverse consequences. If AI can be used for good, then it can also be used for bad. What would happen is rivals, terrorist, criminals were to use AI at scale to launch a highly efficient attack? Now that is a scary thought. The determents that could happen with AI if put in the wrong hands could have catastrophic consequences. (Siebel, 2018)
The impact of artificial intelligence on the world economy
The Wall Street Journal posted a blog in 2018 that predicts the global GDP will increase by 14% between now and 2030. But what does this mean for our workers, companies and countries? Simulation predictions show that AI technology will have a large impact on the economy but if its not handled carefully and effectively; conflict within our society could raise and cause inequality. (wall street journal, 2018)
Why Companies will need to create an AI Culture?
Since AI’s inception the fear of this evasive technology taking over humans’ job is a very real factor. According to Matt Jones from Forbes technology, businesses need to adapt to this modern technology giant, or they will fall behind the times. We will most certainly see a cultural shift with AI because it will change the way humans and AI business tools will interact; which will revolutionize everything in the future. There are many companies that are investing in this technology and the companies that accept this is the way of the future and understand its true benefits and impact will foster and prosper in this new economy from the technology. These businesses that have already begun accepting and adapting to AI are the ones creating and shifting processes around to make for a more productive workforce. (Forbes, 2018)
How to Build Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust
Today’s AI approach is a data-correlation technology with conjecture in this current day and age. According to the New York Times there are three basic concepts that a machine must understand; which are, time, space and causality, the idea of a “Rosie” from the Jetsons is just a fantasy. Gary and Ernest from the NYT explain some of the failures of current AI and how they are programmed to be bias, and how they can’t correlate or understand basic concepts of how the world works. If these AI machines of the future are going to be used for sophisticated computer intelligence; we must get better at programming and teaching them rich conceptualizations. With this type of programming there will be a better chance of this technology advancing to the next level without the fear of AI doing harm in our society and future. This could have a huge impact on the human vs. non-human economic framework. (nytimes.com, 2019)
The below charts show the true impact to AI today and in the future. Many companies are already adapting to and adopting business practices around AI. We are already seeing large revenue gains and industries that are investing in this technology.
Business reasons for adopting AI
These are the projected revenue gains from AI across the globe in 6 years.
Revenues from AI
This chart shows the predictions of what occupations will most likely be impacted from AI by 2025.
Economic Impact of Occupations of AI
This chart shows what industries and categories have already invested in machine learning for AI across the globe.
Machine learning top AI dollars
Part 3 –
How would AI impact the environment?
With the help of this technology; AI can identify tropical tornados, cyclones, hurricanes, atmospheric rivers, weather fronts that can cause very heavy precipitation, earthquakes, all of which are a difficult task for humans to identify. Because of the technology the accuracy is 89 to 99% accurate which helps meteorologist and researchers. Storm chasers benefit greatly from this technology as they are the ones that are in the heart of these storms tracking different atmospheric aspects of the density, intensity, size, width, movement tracks etc., With these types of programs, we are able to improve weather forecasts, alert people of dangerous storms and weather conditions which could be the difference between life or death. This technology is used to warn and hopefully keep people safer by having minute to minute updates about weather impacting a person’s area. (Cho, R 2018)
Climate change can also be tackled with the assistance of artificial intelligence because today AI is used in tracking weather and storm activity. In fact, the improvement of the current technology not only can help pave the way for predicting more extreme weather such as hurricanes and tornadoes and warning people in designated impacted areas; but automation is another great benefit. (Snow J, 2019)
With AI technology, images can be captured from a drone that uses sensors for indicating harsh environments such as infrastructure inspection and agriculture applications. The dual sensors can capture different color spectrums and match them up to each-other. So rather than only having one camera sensor, there are two for comparison of what is considered normalized vs. non-normalized. These cameras help identify issues with great precision. This is considered gimbal technology because there are many features and advantages to using such devices. These sensors would control roll, pitch, data, and maneuvering through challenging conditions, like near buildings and narrow structures or power lines and trees. Wind speed as well as direction and incident angels can be calculated by recording airflow data. The inertial data is used with GPS and pressure sensors to provide robust positioning and accuracy with altitude. These are also becoming increasingly popular in the military. These drones are also used for electrical, agricultural, architectural building and roof thermal imaging and to detect radiated heat as the imaging increases by intensity. Infrared Red is not visible to the human eye because it is out of our electro-magnetic spectrum which is why the use of drones to capture what’s not visible is critical to search and rescue, evaluating crop health and failure, detecting leaks in power plants, oil tanks etc., building structures and efficiency. So many automations are possible with this AI technology.
What positive effects can AI bring to the environment?
Based on research there are many people on the fence of letting such technology have control over important aspects and functions of our life. Artificial Technology also plays a part in solving energy problems by gathering enough data for researchers to come up with methods that will address an energy crisis. Using years of historical data (like temperature, power and pump speeds) collected from data center sensors; DeepMind’s self-learning AI system reduced the amount of energy the servers consumed by controlling the center’s cooling systems (better than a human). (Mienecke S 2018)
Artificial Technology can contribute to improve health in resource-poor settings. There are two types of AI that are used today and how they can help solve the problem of poor resource around the world. The ability of a machine to represent the human mind and perform any intellectual task that a human can perform is termed artificial general intelligence. (Wahl, B 2018)
Gordon’s references are attached below.
Part 3 –
In conclusion; with so many different aspects affected by this technology in our everyday lives, no one can say for sure what the true benefits or determents will be in the fore seeable future. But AI has already taken the world by storm and will continue to do so as technology evolves, and products are developed. This advancements in AI could allow for great opportunities, but organizations, businesses, government and people need to be taught and understand how to best use this amazingly progressive technology. Rules and regulations need to be put in place to protect our society and economy. This technology is very scary because if it were put in the hands of evil, all the wonderful aspects of this technology could ruin humankind. AI is real and tangible factor in our world and every day there are new break throughs in this superintelligence technology, and will be, for generations to come.
Shari’s references are attached below.
- Barber, N. (2015, July 25). Can Artificial Intelligence Make Us Stupid?
- Retrieved 9-12-19 from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-human-beast/201507/can-artificial-intelligence-make-us-stupid.
- Bibel, W. (2014). Artificial Intelligence in a historical perspective.
- AI Communications,27 (1), 87-102. doi:10.3233/AIC-130576
- Bicks, M. (3 November 2010). Artificial Intelligence Pioneer.
- Nova. Retrieved from pbs.org
- Bossmann, J. (2016). Top 9 ethical issues in artificial intelligence.
- Retrieved 9-15-19 from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/10/top-10-ethical-issues-in-artificial-intelligence/.
- Bostrum, N. (12 March 2008). How Long Before Superintelligence?
- International Journal of Future Studies. Retrieved from nickbostrom.com
- Columbus, L. (12 January 2018). 10 Charts that will change your perspective on artificial intelligences growth: Forbes
- Retrieved 9-26-19 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2018/01/12/10-charts-that-will-change-your-perspective-on-artificial-intelligences-growth/#7ab439ed4758.
- Donath, J (2017, December 05), The cultural significance of artificial intelligence: Quora Contributor
- Retrieved 9-20-19 from https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-cultural-significance_b_13631574?guccounter=1.
- Flanagan, C. (2017, May 17). On the historical development of logic. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@charlesjflanagan/on-the-historical-development-of-logic-dfa68084dea7.
- Harvey, C. (2018, July 31), 10 Top Barriers to AI Success: Information Week
- Retrieved 9-18-19 from https://www.informationweek.com/big-data/10-top-barriers-to-ai-success/d/d-id/1332421.
- IBM. (2015). What is Watson. Retrieved from IBM:
- Jones, M., of Forbes Technology Counsel (2018, August 3), Why Companies Will Need to Create an AI Culture to Achieve Success: Forbes
- Retrieved 9-20-19 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/08/03/why-companies-will-need-to-create-an-ai-culture-to-achieve-success/.
- Marcus, G, and Davis E. (2019, September 6), How to Build Artificial Intelligence We Can Trust: New York Times
- Retrieved 9-18-19 from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/09/06/opinion/ai-explainability.html.
- Meyer, S. (2019, May 28). Artificial Intelligence and the Privacy Challenge.
- Retrieved 9-12-19 from https://www.cpomagazine.com/data-privacy/artificial-intelligence-and-the-privacy-challenge/ (Links to an external site.).
- Rajaraman, V. (2014). John McCarthy – Father of artificial intelligence. Resonance:
- Journal of Science Education, 19(3), 198-207. doi:10.1007/s12045-014-0027-9
- Rautio, P (2015, February 08) As artificial intelligence advances human behaving like machines will be a bigger problem than machines being human,
- Retrieved 9-14-19 from https://www.helsinki.fi/en/news/data-science-news/as-artificial-intelligence-advances-humans-behaving-like-machines-will-be-a-bigger-problem-than-machines-being-human.
- Scott, J., Jaeger, E., E., A., Mariia, Wong, M., Agatha, & Romexsoft. (2019, April 21). The History of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2017/history-artificial intelligence/.
- Siebel, T. (2018, November 8), Social Implications of AI: Commonwealth Club
- Retrieved 9-25-19 from https://www.commonwealthclub.org/events/2018-11-01/tom-siebel-social-implications-ai.
- What’s The Big Data (May 2019)?
- retrieved 9-23-19 from https://whatsthebigdata.com/2019/06/11/ai-by-the-numbers-may-2019/.
- Wladawky-Berger, I. (2018, November 16), The impact of artificial intelligence on the world economy: The Wall Street Journal
- Retrieved 9-19-19 from https://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2018/11/16/the-impact-of-artificial-intelligence-on-the-world-economy/.
- Forbes Technology Council (2018, March 1), 14 Ways AI Will Benefit or Harm Society: Forbes
- Retrieved 9-22-19 from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/03/01/14-ways-ai-will-benefit-or-harm-society/#3ebd96714ef0.
- Microsoft (2016), Artificial Intelligence: Pursuing computing advances to create intelligent machines that complement human reasoning to augment and enrich our experience and competencies.
- Retrieved 9-26-19 from https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/research-area/artificial-intelligence/
- Trevor’s references (not complete)
- Bostrom, N. & Yudkowsky, E. The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence New York: Cambridge University Press
- Cho, R. (2018, June 5). Artificial Intelligence-A Game Changer for Climate Change and the Environment. Retrieved from https://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2018/06/05/artificial-intelligence-climate-environment/
- Frank, M. R., Autor, D., Bessen, J. E., Brynjolfsson, E., Cebrian, M., Deming, D. J., … Rahwan, I. (2019, April 2). Toward understanding the impact of artificial intelligence on labor. Retrieved from https://www.pnas.org/content/116/14/6531
- Snow, J. (2019, July 7). How artificial intelligence can tackle climate change. Retrieved from: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/07/artificial-intelligence-climate-change/
- Meinecke, S. (2018, July 16). AI could help us protect the environment — or destroy it. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/ai-could-help-us-protect-the-environment-or-destroy-it/a-44694471
- Wahl, B., Cossy-Gantner, A., Germann, S., & Schwalbe, N. R. (2018, August 1). Artificial intelligence (AI) and global health: how can AI contribute to health in resource-poor settings? Retrieved from https://gh.bmj.com/content/3/4/e000798
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